The power supply has to be the most important and essentialcomponent of the computer, because it provides the othercomponents with electricity. They power the computer byconverting AC current into DC current. The power comesfrom an outlet and then the voltages are converted.
The Motherboard is the main circuit board and is the home ofmany major components such as the CPU, RAM, NIC andmany more. They also connect each component together.The size, shape and layout of the Motherboard is called a‘form factor’. They also contain electrical buses. Themotherboard is different depending on whetherit is a computer or laptop.
The Central Processing Unit, or CPU, is usually referred toas the ‘brain’ of the computer, as most of the calculations andprocessing occurs here. It can carry out very basicinstructions such as going to other parts of the programme orapplication, and various numerical operations such ascomparing numbers and adding and subtracting the, by usingan instruction list.
RAM is the abbreviated term for Random Access Memory. Itstores data for a short period of time. It is also volatile, whichmeans that if the computer is turned off, the data is lost. DRAMand SRAM are two types of RAM. DRAM stands for DynamicRandom Access Memory, is more common and much cheaper toproduce. SRAM is much faster as it does not need to berefreshed, however, it is not as common, due to the fact that it ismore expensive to produce.
ROM is the abbreviated term for Read Only Memory. This means that ifdata is stored on the ROM, it stays on it, however, it is a read only copy.Unlike the RAM, the ROM is non-volatile, which basically means thatwhen the computer is turned off, the data is still saved onto it. Thebooting programme of a computer is usually saved onto the ROM. Thereis another type of ROM, called PROM, which stands for ProgrammableRead Only Memory. You have to put to data onto it by using a PROMprogrammer.
The Network Interface Card, or NIC, provides the user andcomputer with network access. It is a card that can beinserted into the Motherboard of a computer or laptop. Itconnects the computer to Local Area Network, or LAN.Through the use of a NIC, a MAC address is assigned to thecomputer. The card can also be wireless.
Just like the ROM and RAM, the Hard Disk Drive (HDD) isused for storage, however, it is more permanent. It has ametal disk, or sometimes, multiple metal disks, which iscovered in a magnetic material. Just like ROM, it is non-volatile. The work or data does not delete or is removedwhen there is no power to the computer. It is usually viewedas C-Drive.
The monitor displays the content on the computer and makes itavailable for the viewer. In more modern computers that areproduced, the screen is usually liquid crystal display, which arealso known as LCD monitors. They are a lot bigger, wider andpresent a much clearer image to the viewer. The screens in oldercomputers are made from cathode ray tube. As technologykeeps on developing, touch screen computers are coming moreinto fashion. Turned into…
Peripherals are extra devices that can be connected to the computer. Theycan be either be input (keyboard, mouse, microphone) or output devices(monitor, speakers, printer). They can be connected by ports and cables, suchas USB, parallel and serial ports.Keyboards and mice are examples of input devices, and they can beconnected using USB ports in the back of the computer tower.Speakers and printers are examples of output devices. Older speakers can beconnected using an audio cable plugged into the pink socket, located at theback of the computer tower. Newer speakers can be plugged in using USBports. Printers can be connected by serial, parallel, FireWire or USBports, although parallel cables aren’t used as much.