GER-3706D                   GE Power SystemsSteam Turbinesfor IndustrialApplicationsJ.E. EstabrookR.H. LegerGE Power Syste...
Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsContentsIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsTurbine Factory Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsIntroduction                                                                    ...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications                                       0    5 MW 10 MW 15 MW   25 MW   35 MW   5...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications                Geared Turbine Generator Sets            •   Complete Packages C...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications      •   MDTs, 2,500 HP to 80,000 HP      •   BFPTs, 3-35 MW      •   Single or...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications         Technology Overview         Direct Coupled                             ...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications  s 12-chrome steel steam path and high-             maximize reliability and pe...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications                                                     Custom                 Cust...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationsfoundry cycles and reduced thermal stresses in          plex valving. However, t...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationsously proven on utility units, where the eco-nomic implications of performance a...
Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsBearings                                               FrequencyThe reliability ...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationsexhausts (Figure 15) have been designed with        clutch will engage only if t...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications                                                      dual or triple redundant, ...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationsfor control systems that span a wide range of                                   ...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications        Steam Turbine                                                           ...
Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsThe VF package includes a hydraulically sepa-                and cooling systemr...
Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsOperational Reliability                         s Lightweight hydraulically effi...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications  s High-performance, high-capacity                 performed in the factory to ...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationsthe base during field installation and the upper-   Figure 21 shows a typical 80...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications                      Figure 21. Unpackaged down exhaust unit in pedestal instal...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications                       Figure 23. Packaged axial exhaust unit in a low-profile i...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications           Savings From Low Profile Base Mounted           Axial Exhaust Steam T...
Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationspath components. Major subassemblies, such as         These well-known and prove...
Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsList of Figures1.    The industrial steam turbine (IST) business2.    Global res...
Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00)                  s         s                 ...
For further information, contact your GE Field Sales    Representative or write to GE Power Systems Marketing             ...
Ge Steam Turbinesfor Industrial
Ge Steam Turbinesfor Industrial
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Transcript of "Ge Steam Turbinesfor Industrial"

  1. 1. GER-3706D GE Power SystemsSteam Turbinesfor IndustrialApplicationsJ.E. EstabrookR.H. LegerGE Power SystemsMarlborough, MA
  2. 2. Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsContentsIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1IST Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1IST Business Product Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Geared Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Mechanical Drive Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Directly Connected ISTs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Feed Pump Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Geothermal Steam Turbine Generator Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Modular Product Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Inlet Sections and Casings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Valve Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6New Inlet Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Steam Utilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Non-Condensing Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8District Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Improvements in Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Axial Exhausts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Turning Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11SPEEDTRONIC™ Mark VI Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Mark VI TMR Control Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Operator Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12HMI System Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13VF Series Fluid System Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Full-Feature Designs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Simple, Cost-Effective Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Operational Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Performance and Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Simple, Cost-Effective Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Environmental Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Ability to Meet Site Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Application Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17GE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s i
  3. 3. Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsTurbine Factory Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Features of the Packaged Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Axial Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Improved Turbine Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Reduced Building Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Reduced Installation Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Reduced Installation Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Cost Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Design Standardization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Increased Design Standardization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Increased Design Automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Sourcing Partnerships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Manufacturing Initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Increased Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Project Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23GE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s ii
  4. 4. Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsIntroduction Marlborough, Schenectady, Bangor, Florence, Massachusetts, New York, Maine,GE has been producing industrial steam tur- U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. Italybine (IST) drive systems since the early 1900s Business Centersand has placed more than 5,000 units into serv- Sales & Applicationice around the world. Throughout this time, Supportthe performance, reliability and cost-effective- Detailedness of these turbine systems have improved Engineeringcontinuously through product and packaging Manufacturing & Assembly Centerinnovations. ServiceThis effort continues today with the formation Support World-Wide Locationsof the IST unit within GE Power Systems to pro-vide a broader product line and service capabil- Figure 2. Global resourcesity to our industrial and small steam turbineusers worldwide (Figure 1). Schenectady, and Florence. Detailed engineer- ing is performed in Schenectady and Florence. Manufacturing and assembly centers are in Industrial Steam Turbines Schenectady, Bangor, Maine, and Florence. January 4, 1999 Service support is achieved from worldwide locations. IST Business Product Line GE The IST business product line consists of steam Nuovo Pignone Schenectady Steam Turbines Small Steam turbine systems, ranging from 3 to 130 MW, that Turbines follow either an impulse or a reaction design or a combination of the two for the most efficient, cost-effective solution to plant productivity Figure 1. The industrial steam turbine (IST) business (Figure 3). Configurations of the steam turbines consist ofThe IST unit integrates the IST portion of GE the following (Figure 4):Power Systems in Schenectady with that of ourGE Nuovo Pignone unit in Florence, Italy. s Condensing or non-condensing setsThis paper presents an overview of the IST s Up, down, side and axial exhaustsunit’s design approach, current product line s Single or multiple internal extractionsand recent innovations. and/or admissions s Uncontrolled extractionsIST Business s Directly connected and gear-drivenThe IST business is based at two main business steam turbinescenters in Marlborough, Massachusetts, andFlorence, Italy (Figure 2). Sales and application Geared Unitssupport is performed from Marlborough, The geared steam turbine-generator packageGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 1
  5. 5. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications 0 5 MW 10 MW 15 MW 25 MW 35 MW 50 MW 75 MW 100 MW 150 Direct Drive ST-G 20-130 MW Geared ST-G 3-35 MW Mechanical Drive Units 2-60 MW Up to 16,000 RPM Feed Pump Drives 3-35 MW Figure 3. Product line Steam Turbine Generators • 3,000 to 130,000 KW, 50/60 Hz • Applications – Cogeneration – Small Power Production – Combined Cycle – Waste to Energy – Geothermal Power Generation • Configurations – Condensing/Non-Condensing – Down, up and Axial Exhaust Configurations – Single/Multiple Internal Extractions – Uncontrolled Steam Extractions – Direct Drive/Gear Driven • Designs – Impulse – Reaction Figure 4. Product line configurationsranges from 3 to 35 MW and may be the eco- high-speed steam turbine driving a gearboxnomical solution customers are looking for connected to a four-pole, 50- or 60-Hz genera-(Figure 5). The package consists of an efficient, tor. This compact package lends itself to quickGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 2
  6. 6. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications Geared Turbine Generator Sets • Complete Packages Can Include Turbine, Gear, Oil System and Generator for Quick Installation • Turbine Speeds Selected To Optimize Life-cycle Costs • 1500/1800 RPM, 4-Pole Generators For 50/60 Hz Applications • Applications to ~35 MW Geared Units; Offering a Cost-Effective Solution Figure 5. Geared steam turbine generator setsinstallation. The turbine exhaust is adaptable to s Full-train mechanical string testsup or down orientations, and internal extrac- s Rotor dynamic capability, includingtion/admission valves can be added to the response testssteam turbine to suit a customer’s process steamneeds. Single-shaft steam turbine designs are Directly Connected ISTsavailable. ISTs directly coupled to generators (Figure 7) range from 20 to 130 MW. The steam turbinesMechanical Drive Steam Turbines can be packaged with most of the auxiliaries toMechanical-drive steam turbines (Figure 6) ease plant design and installation problems.range from 3 to 60 MW (80,000 BHP), with Axial exhausts can be used that allow a less cost-speeds of up to 16,000 rpm, and are either con- ly building design.densing or non-condensing types. Complete This line of turbines has many applications forsteam turbine compressor packages as well as the use of extraction and admission processseparate mechanical drive steam turbines, steam, employing several combinations of inter-which meet API requirements, are available. nal and external control valves. Using theseDesigns for a wide range of plant types and sizes valves provides GE’s customers with processare available. The IST team has extensive expe- flexibility and excellent partial-load efficiencyrience in support for major compressor suppli- when the turbine is used to supply processers, engineering companies and other users. steam.GE’s test capabilities include: Directly coupled steam turbines in combined- s Mechanical running tests cycle applications must provide the perform- ance and flexibility required for integrationGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 3
  7. 7. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications • MDTs, 2,500 HP to 80,000 HP • BFPTs, 3-35 MW • Single or double end drive • Inlet steam up to 1800 psig / 1000°F • (12 kg/cm2g/538°C) • Applications – Utility Boiler / Reactor Feed Pumps – LNG – Ethylene / Methanol – Urea / Ammonia – Refineries – Synfuel – Process air Figure 6. Mechanical driveswith gas turbines and heat-recovery boilers. of operation, from black-start toPackaged arrangements, when feasible, offer efficient main turbine extractionshorter delivery and installation time. operationThe directly connected ISTs can operate with s Flexible exhaust configurations (upfixed-inlet pressure or sliding-inlet pressure and down)control. They can be integrated with gas tur- s Base-mounted packaged designs forbine and plant controls and they have auto- and ease of installation and startupremote-start capability.Single-shaft steam turbine and gas (STAG) Geothermal Steam Turbinedesigns are available. Generator Sets GE offers highly reliable geothermal steamFeed Pump Turbines turbine generator sets (Figure 8). These steam turbines operate typically with saturatedFeed pump turbine drive packages are available steam, which is provided from a geothermalfrom 3 to 35 MW. Complete steam turbine boil- source. Their unique features and materials ofer feed pump packages are available, in addi- construction lead to long-term, reliable oper-tion to stand-alone steam turbine packages. ation in geothermal service. The followingThe boiler feed pump turbine package uses: features have been incorporated into the geot- s A microprocessor-based hermal design: electrohydraulic control system s Inlet casings similar to those used on s Modern instrumentation for remote STAG applications, which do not have operation internal inlet control valves s Dual-inlet capability for a wide rangeGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 4
  8. 8. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications Technology Overview Direct Coupled • Quick delivery and installation • Sliding or Fixed Pressure Inlet Design • Modernized Combined Stop & Control Valves • Reheat Option Available • Extractions / Admissions • Advanced Steam Path Designs • Proven Exhaust Sections for 50 & 60 Hz • Single-shaft Combine Cycle Designs Available • Condenser Systems and Other Turbine Island Scope Available Figure 7. Direct coupled steam turbines Technology Overview Geothermal Steam Turbine-Features • Proven Low-Stress Rotor Designs & GE Geothermal Rotor Forging Material (NiCrMoV) • 12-Cr Steam Path and HP Casing • Carbon Steel Exhaust Casing with Inconel Inlay at Critical Surfaces • 304L Stainless Steel Steam and Drain Piping • Low cost Microprocessor - Based Electro - Hydraulic Control Systems - RS232 DCS link • Modern Hermetically Sealed Local Instrumentation / Wiring For Reliable Long- Term Operation in a H2S Geothermal Environment. • Up, Down, Side, and Axial Exhaust Configurations Available • Packaged, Base-Mounted Designs Reliable Equipment Backed by ST Engineering/Service Figure 8. Geothermal turbine s Special butterfly valves used for s Proven low-stress rotor designs and a startup, control and emergency special geothermal forging material shutdown formulaGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 5
  9. 9. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications s 12-chrome steel steam path and high- maximize reliability and performance while pressure casing minimizing product costs and delivery cycles s Carbon steel exhaust casing with by using this flexible modular structure. inconel inlay at critical surfaces to Development efforts associated with this prod- prevent erosion uct line center on new, improved component modules to replace or augment existing ones. s Stainless steel material for all steam and drain piping s Modern hermetically sealed local Designing Steam Turbines by using Building Block Modules instrumentation and wiring for A common thread A Common Thread reliable long-term operation in a H2S geothermal environment • Packaging s Up, down, side and axial exhaust • Reliability configurations available at 50 and 60 Hz • Performance s Packaged base-mounted designs • Flexibility s GE has extensive experience in the • Service technology required for reliable operation in geothermal steam Figure 9. Modular design philosophy applications. Inlet Sections and CasingsModular Product Structure Inlet section construction is a function of inlet pressure and temperature. A number of designsGE adopted a modular component structure are available, as shown in Figure 11. For low-for its line of ISTs to achieve the cost and reli- steam conditions, an economical, solid con-ability benefits of standardization withoutcompromising turbine performance. This struction is employed where inlet ports are castapproach enables the design engineer to opti- as an integral part of the casing. For higher-mize a turbine configuration for a customer’s steam conditions, either a free-expanding chestspecific operating conditions by selecting and design employing an integral heat chamber orintegrating pre-engineered and field-proven a nozzle box design with an inner casing iscomponents from an array of alternatives and employed. Both designs provide a high degreethen designing a custom steam path that satis- of thermal flexibility for long casing life underfies an application’s unique requirements. cyclical conditions.Component modules that make up the build-ing blocks of the product line include bearing Valve Gearstandards (supports), inlet sections, inlet and The type of valve gear used with the inlet sec-extraction valve gear and exhaust sections. tions is also a function of the inlet flow for a par-These modules are shown for a typical indus- ticular application. For low-flow applications, atrial turbine in Figure 9 and Figure 10. Note bar lift arrangement is used that reduces costthat the barrel section of the turbine is custom and improves performance through reduceddesigned for each unit based on the user’s valve-stem leakoff flow. For higher-flow applica-specific operating conditions. GE is able to tions, a cam lift arrangement is used in whichGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 6
  10. 10. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications Custom Custom Barrel Barrel Section Section Inlet Head & Valve Gear Controlled Front Standard Module Extraction Module Module Exhaust Hood Module Turbine Designed from Standard Modules with Customized Steampath Figure 10. Industrial turbine building block structure Moderate inlet temperatures High inlet temperatures High inlet temperatures (solid construction) (heat chamber construction) (nozzle box with inner shell) Figure 11. Alternative inlet conceptseach valve is individually supported and lifted Downstream of the inlet section, the casing’sfor high valve stability and long disc and seat conical configuration allows a smooth and evenlife. On applications with very high inlet flows, increase in steam path area as the steameither a jumper valve is used to feed nozzles in expands toward the exhaust. The improvedthe turbine lower half, or an entire additional conical casing designs, which utilize simple pat-set of valves is mounted in the lower half to pro- tern pieces for each application, eliminate thevide inlet flow control over a wide range of use of multiple cylindrical and transitional pat-operations. tern sections and result in lower costs, reducedGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 7
  11. 11. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationsfoundry cycles and reduced thermal stresses in plex valving. However, this is secondary to thethe casing. capability of efficient operation in a wide range of inlet and extraction/admission flows.New Inlet SectionA new inlet section module (building block) Non-Condensing Turbineshas been added to the IST structure. It can pass Non-Condensing turbines are used in manya flow of 1,200,000 PPH at a bowl pressure of paper mills and desalination plants (Figure 12).1800 psig and an inlet temperature of 1050°F. These turbines act as pressure reducing stations and at the same time provide reliable power forSteam Utilization these plants. Again, a matrix of components is available for a wide range of exhaust flows inToday, steam utilization is often as critical as a both up and down configurations.turbine-generator’s output. One of the featuresincorporated into our turbine designs is the use Other applications of industrial and cogenera-of internal extraction/admission (induction) tion turbines include geothermal and districtvalves. The use of internal valving allows opera- heating installations.tion over a wide range of load and extractionflow conditions, where the turbine control sys- District Heatingtem meters the through-flow to meet the District heating turbines are designed for verydemands of the process headers. large extraction flows at low pressures (for win-GE has extensive experience in the supply of ter operation). Modern designs have beensingle and double automatic extraction tur- developed for this application with internal valv-bines into industrial processes. Flexibility of ing using a grid valve to position the movableoperation is further enhanced through the use valve disc.of GE controls, which are described later. Theuse of internal control valves also simplifies Improvements in Performanceplant design and construction by eliminating Improvements in IST performance have beenthe need for multiple casing openings and com- achieved by combining design features previ- High Flow Non-Condensing Straight Non-Condensing Figure 12. Turbine configurationsGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 8
  12. 12. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationsously proven on utility units, where the eco-nomic implications of performance are tremen-dous, with other line-specific enhancements.These enhancements largely have been madepossible by the latest computer-aided designtools, which enable the turbine designer toimprove turbine performance without compro-mising reliability. Through the use of thesetools, the aerodynamic performance, stress dis-tributions and rotor dynamics associated with aparticular turbine configuration can be estimat-ed more accurately and optimized. As a result,more compact steam path configurations withreduced leakage, profile and secondary flow Figure 13. 20-inch (508 mm) last-stage bucketlosses become a reality.Further improvements in performance have velocity region for improvedbeen achieved by the increased application of performance and increased structuralefficiency-enhancing components, including dampinground-skirted buckets in the shorter stages, s Improved dovetail design permittinglocking buckets in lieu of notch blocks at the optimized bucket root flow passagepoint of bucket insertion, conical sidewall geometrydiaphragms and slant-tip buckets with root and s Improved vane design, optimized fortip spill strips. centrifugal untwist and radial flowSpecial attention has been paid to optimizing distribution, to minimize aerodynamicthe performance of low-pressure turbine sec- lossestions, where the latest three-dimensional design s Transonic convergent-divergent flowtools have been employed to improve the aero- passage at the tip section to minimizedynamic performance of buckets, nozzles and shock lossesexhaust hoods. As an example, the low-pressure s Self-shielding bucket material andsection utilizing the 20-inch/508-millimeter L-shaped cover with integral sealinglast-stage bucket (Figure 13) shows a perform- rib for improved erosion protectionance improvement of 1.5 to 2%, over the previ-ously used design. For the largest industrial turbines, a nonreheat, low-pressure section, utilizing a 30-inch/762-The last-stage bucket’s design enhancements millmeter last-stage bucket, in a single-flowinclude the following: configuration, has been developed for outputs s Continuously coupled tip construction up to 130 MW, in a single casing, with minimal utilizing the well-proven over/under exhaust loss. The 30-inch/762 millimeter last- cover concept for improved damping stage bucket has been in service on utility units and modal suppression for over 25 years and has an excellent operat- s Loose tie wires relocated to a lower ing history.GE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 9
  13. 13. Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsBearings FrequencyThe reliability and dependability of steam tur- In many developing countries around thebines depend on rotor dynamics and bearing world, the utility, or site grid, often operatesperformance (Figure 14). Tilting pad journal within a wide range of frequency. Steam turbineand thrust bearings are now used on the vast operation in such a situation can cause vibrato-majority of IST applications. These bearings ry stress problems. When operation in a wideprovide optimal rotor stability and ensure a frequency range is expected, the turbine can behigh degree of reliability due to their tolerance designed using tools developed for mechanicalof misalignment. Proper selection of these criti- drive steam turbines, where operation at orcal components is part of our design process. near a natural frequency of a component is ana-For each turbine application, an in-depth later- lyzed to ensure long component life.al and torsional rotor dynamic analysis is per-formed following the development of a prelim- Axial Exhaustsinary design. Consideration is given to every In the past, most steam turbines that werepossible destabilizing force, such as those from designed for industrial and cogeneration appli-partial arc diaphragms, inlet valves and extrac- cations have featured a down exhaust arrange-tion controls, to ensure that the component ment with an underslung condenser. However,modules selected for each application will result exhaust losses, as well as turbine building costsin a turbine unsurpassed in reliability. can be reduced through the use of an axialThe steam path is the very essence of a turbine exhaust arrangement with an in-line condenser.and its design essentially determines the tur- Most GE ISTs are now available in an up, downbine’s performance. or axial exhaust configuration. The axial Figure 14. Turbine bearingsGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 10
  14. 14. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationsexhausts (Figure 15) have been designed with clutch will engage only if the driven equipmentperformance in mind and incorporate aerody- is stationary or turning at a speed equal to thenamically efficient bracings and optimized cas- turning gear speed. This leads to one of theing wall geometrics. On average, the selection greatest operational characteristics of the sys-of an axial exhaust arrangement can improve tem, the ability to catch on the fly. If the turningturbine performance by 0.25 to 0.50%. For a 40 gear controls are configured to start the motorMW turbine, that can mean an additional 100 while the steam turbine is coasting down, it willto 200 KW for the same amount of fuel. The automatically engage when the input and out-plant arrangement benefits of the axial exhaust put clutch speeds are synchronous, thus avoid-configuration are discussed in greater detail ing the need for a zero speed signal (from thelater. rotor at rest). This is by far the most advanta- geous means of operating the turning gear, offering the best protection to the rotating rotor while minimizing the duty cycle on the turning gear. In its simplest form, in order for it to operate, this turning gear package requires that motor power and lubricating oil be taken off the bearing supply header. The design method and rules we follow serve to protect the turning gear from damage. If the turning gear experiences a load in excess of its design, the motor simply will trip out on over- load and the turning gear components will not fail. The unit will only produce a certain Figure 15. Axial exhaust configuration amount of torque, and the components are designed to handle this load with appropriate service factors. In fact, this turning gear can beTurning Gear used as an excellent indicator of train integrityOptional turning gear packages (Figure 16) are problems. If there is train misalignment, tip orcomposed of an electric motor that drives a sin- seal rubs, the turning gear motor will drawgle-, double- or helical/worm reduction gear greater amperage after breakaway as an indica-reducer through a torsionally resilient cou- tor of the increase in load.pling. The input half of a syncro-self-shifting(SSS) overrunning clutch is mounted to the SPEEDTRONIC™ Mark VI Controloutput shaft of the gear reducer, with the out- GE ISTs are available with the SPEEDTRON-put half mounted to the turbine rotor. The IC™ Mark VI Control, the latest generation ofclutch operates automatically, by mechanical our steam turbine control product line. Thismeans, to engage whenever the input speed turbine control system is available in either sin-(turning gear) is the same as or greater than the gle-channel or triple-redundant configurationsoutput speed (i.e., turbine speed). Therefore, and offers a number of enhancements over pre-when the turning gear motor is energized, the vious generations of turbine control.GE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 11
  15. 15. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications dual or triple redundant, or combinations of redundancy levels. The TMR architecture allows uninterrupted operation following a single- point failure in the electronics and repair of the defective card or module while the process is running. Adding sensor redundancy increases an overall system’s fault tolerance. Another feature of the TMR is its ability to dis- tinguish between field sensor faults and internal electronic faults. Diagnostics continuously mon- itor the three sets of input electronic and alarm any discrepancies between them as an internal fault versus a sensor fault. In addition, all three main processors continue to execute the cor- rect two out of three “voted” input data. Figure 16. Turning gear Mark VI TMR Control ConfigurationThe SPEEDTRONIC™ Mark VI turbine control Operator Interfaceis the current state-of-the-art control for GE tur-bines. It is based on over 30 years of successful The operator interface is commonly referred tooperation of electronic turbine control systems. as the human-machine interface (HMI). It is aIt is designed as a completely integrated con- PC with a Microsoft® Windows NT® operatingtrol, protection and monitoring system for gen- system supporting client/server capability, aerator and mechanical drive applications for CIMPLICITY ® graphics display system, a con-gas and steam turbines. It is also an ideal plat- trol system toolbox for maintenance and a soft-form for integrating all power island and bal- ware interface for the Mark VI as well as otherance-of-plant controls. control systems on the network. The HMI can be applied as:Redundancy s The primary operator interface forMark VI control systems are available in simplex one or multiple unitsand triple redundant forms for small applica- s A backup operator interface to thetions and large integrated systems, with control plant DCS operator interfacecapability ranging from a single module to s A gateway for communication links tomany distributed modules. The name triple other control systemsmodule redundant (TMR) is derived from the s A permanent or temporarybasic architecture of three completely separate maintenance stationand independent control modules, power sup-plies, and IO Nets. Mark VI is the third genera- s An engineer’s workstation.tion of triple-redundant control systems thatwere pioneered by GE in 1983. HMI System StructureSensor interface for TMR controls can be single, The HMI system can provide plant visualizationGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 12
  16. 16. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationsfor control systems that span a wide range of Communicationsequipment. Systems using the Mark V HMI may Communications are provided for internal datainclude one or more of the following types of transfer within a single Mark VI control or com-equipment: munications between Mark VI controls and s Mark V gas or steam turbine control peer GE control systems as well as external com- s Mark VI gas or steam turbine control munications to remote systems such as a plant- s EX2000 generator voltage regulator distributed control system (DCS). The unit data highway (UDH) is an Ethernet-based local area s Generator protection network (LAN) with peer-to-peer communica- s LCI static starters tion among Mark VI controls, EX2000 genera- s Historians tor excitation controls, static starters, the GE s Engineering workstations for system Fanuc family of PLC-based controls, HMIs and tools historians (Figures 17–19). s System and documentation printers VF Series Fluid System Package s Ethernet networking components The VF series fluid system packages combine s Arcnet networking components GE’s experience from the industrial, petro- s Integrated third-party systems chemical and power industries into a robust, s HRSG controllers full-featured, highly reliable and low-mainte- nance product offering that is optimized to ful- s Balance-of-plant controllers fill the demanding requirements of today’s s GE integrated control system competitive power generation marketplace. Communication Links to Plant DCS RS232/485 Modbus Slave RTU/ASCII RS232/485 Modbus Slave/Master RTU Governor Ethernet TCP-IP Modbus Slave Operator / Maintenance Ethernet TCP-IP GSM Station CIMPLICITY ® Drivers CIMPLICITYR Drivers VCMI UCV_ VSVO VAIC VTUR VCRC VVIB VRTD VTCC VGEN Flat Panel & Touchscreen Proximitors: (16) Vibration, (8) Position, (2) KP (4) Servos (24) Thermocouples (20) Analog In & (4) Out (48) Contact In & (24) Out (2) 3 Phase PTs & (3) 1 Phase CTs (16) RTDs Speed, Auto Synch, SVM, Trip Ethernet Genius Bus Actuator Actuator Remote I/O Inlet Pressure OR Trip Gen Speed Extraction Pressure Exhaust Pressure Shaft Voltage & Current Monitor Automatic Synchronizing Vibration, Thrust, Differ, Expan, Eccentricity Temperature (RTDs) Temperature (Thermocouples) Generator 3 Phase PTs & 1 Phase CTs Figure 17. Industrial steam turbine control – architectureGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 13
  17. 17. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications Steam Turbine • NEMA 1 Convection Cooled Control Cabinet • Front Access • Top/Bottom Cable Entrance • Separate High & Low Level Channels • Various Cabinet Arrangements Available Figure 18. The Mark VI C C Control Cabinet Figure 19. The Mark VIGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 14
  18. 18. Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsThe VF package includes a hydraulically sepa- and cooling systemrate lubrication and lubricating oil dehydration s Oil pressure and temperature controlssystem, a hydraulic fluid supply and condition- s Extensive instrumentationing system and a common control console in asingle package (Figure 20). The fluid system s Enclosed control console with integralpackage can mount separately from the steam gauge boardturbine-generator or be installed integrally with s Stainless steel pipe and epoxy finishthe turbine base. coatingsFull-Feature Designs Simple, Cost-Effective Installation s Redundant ac motor-driven pumps for s A single package requiring a single both lubrication and hydraulic service foundation for the fluid system s Duplex lubricating oil filters and oil s Compact size to ease the plant coolers arrangement s DC motor-driven emergency oil pump s Suitable for four-point support or s Integral lubricating oil dehydration perimeter grout system s Factory performance test to verify s Lubricating oil mist elimination system performance s Redundant hydraulic filters s Stainless steel pipe and factory cleaning to reduce the installation cycle s Integral hydraulic fluid conditioning Figure 20. GE VF fluid systemGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 15
  19. 19. Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsOperational Reliability s Lightweight hydraulically efficient reservoir construction for strength s Manufactured to fully detailed GE- produced drawings, for control and s Epoxy-finish coatings repeatability s Extensive control interfaces with GE’s s Simple, robust construction control system and the plant DCS s Redundant components for online s Motors suitable for 50°C ambient maintenance conditions s Online testability Simple, Cost-Effective Maintenance s Sealed reservoir and console s Extra-severe-duty motors for extended s Integral continuous fluid operating life and power margin conditioning s C-face motors with rabbet fits for easy s Two of three voting trip solenoids alignment with high-tolerance, (electrical trip device) for fault oversize couplings tolerance s Long-service life, high-capacity filter s Special-purpose dc motor designs for elements predictable and reliable performance s Spin-on desiccant canister to prevent moisture from contaminating thePerformance and Economy hydraulic fluid s Proven fluid-system components s Hydraulic fluid conditioning and large shared with other VF designs and hydraulic reservoir that reduce stress refined by continuous improvement on the operating fluid and extend s Custom selection for each site to fluid service life assure performance and suitability for s High-performance dehydration system site conditions eliminates free-water contamination s Extensive use of specialized integrated and prevents lube oil deterioration. hydraulic circuits for simple assembly and leak-free construction Environmental Compatibility s Watertight construction to resist s High-efficiency centrifugal pumps and moisture contamination of fluids or variable-capacity hydraulic pumps to damage to controls minimize power consumption s Integral oil-side temperature control s Oil-mist elimination system to reduce oil discharges s Dehydration system circulating pump and heaters, which double as startup s Integral dehydration system with no heaters external piping or connections to the sewer to eliminate another potential s High-performance filtration, for total source of oil discharge fluid cleanliness s Long fluid service to reduce spent s Stainless hydraulic reservoir and fluid disposal costs stainless pipe throughoutGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 16
  20. 20. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications s High-performance, high-capacity performed in the factory to the maximum filtration to reduce element disposal extent possible. The benefits of factory packag- costs ing are minimized installation time and cost, with reduced risk to the schedule. To date, GEAbility to Meet Site Conditions has shipped more than 120 packaged steam tur- s Customized for a specific site bine-generators representing more than 4.5 environment gigawatts in output capacity. s Optional materials for aggressive The experience gained in packaging these atmospheric and cooling water smaller units has now been applied to larger environments units. Specifically, GE now offers packaged s Large inventory of practical solutions steam turbine-generators using up to a 23- for unique site problems inch/584.2 millimeter last-stage bucket in down s Optional control configurations for exhaust configurations and a 30-inch/762 mil- the plant DCS or GE turbine control limeter last-stage bucket in axial exhaust config- system urations. This means that units of up to 80 MW with a down exhaust and 130 MW with an axial s Available local pump and motor exhaust can be shipped to site, fully assembled control panels and base mounted, with virtually all unit piping s Highly experienced GE system and wiring done in the factory. engineering for fluid, innovative solutions to difficult problems Features of the Packaged TurbineApplication Range Due primarily to shipping limits, the turbine-The VF-F/Q design series includes sizes for generator and lubrication and hydraulic sys-applications with steam turbines and combined- tems are provided on separate prepackagedcycle steam turbines with either air-cooled or bases or skids. With nonaxial exhaust turbineshydrogen-cooled generators and system flow the lubrication and hydraulic oil system can becapacity from 70 up to 900 gallons per minute installed into the turbine base.(nominally 10–350 MW). Steam turbines come factory aligned on a baseThe VF-HP series, VF-LP series, UT series and fabricated from I-beams. Optical targets areTCS series are designs available for industrial provided at each corner of the base, and theirpower, vintage machine replacement, mechani- (vertical) locations relative to a common refer-cal drive and control retrofit applications. ence are recorded following factory alignment. Once the unit is on site, the base is leveled usingTurbine Factory Packaging base jacking bolts to duplicate the factory set-GE has been the pioneer in the area of “pack- tings.aged” industrial steam turbine-generators, To provide an additional field alignment check,which are completely assembled and aligned in a pin is fitted at the factory in the gib key thatthe quality-controlled environment of the facto- guides the high-pressure shell at the front stan-ry. The units can be mounted on bases for quick dard. If the pin can be easily inserted andand easy installation and alignment verification removed after the base is leveled in the field,in the field. Piping, wiring and testing are also then no twists and strains have been put intoGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 17
  21. 21. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationsthe base during field installation and the upper- Figure 21 shows a typical 80 MW automatic-half casing need not be removed to confirm the extraction condensing steam turbine without aalignment. base, mounted on a traditional pedestal. TheOn units supplied with a spray chamber in lieu unit’s exhaust is directed downward into anof a gland condenser, the entire steam seal sys- underslung condenser.tem can be fabricated and assembled in the fac- Foundation complexity, as well as installationtory prior to shipment, thus saving considerable time and cost, can be reduced by selecting atime and installation cost in the field. base-mounted down exhaust unit with an on- skid lubrication and hydraulic oil system, asOn other units, because of its size, the skid- shown in Figure 22.mounted gland condenser system is installedseparately beside or below the turbine. Allsteam seal piping is factory assembled, and a Axial Exhaustflanged connection is provided at the edge of Costs can be further reduced by selection of anthe base for field interconnection to the gland axial exhaust configuration. Figure 23 shows ancondenser. axial exhaust turbine of the same capacity and similar functionality that is base mounted in aA low-profile combined lubrication and low-profile configuration.hydraulic system can be provided for mountingin close proximity to the turbine-generator. The The following describe the advantages of thesystem design and the short distance between packaged axial-exhaust, low-profile design overthe turbine-generator and the lubrication and the unpackaged down exhaust design.hydraulic system minimize the vertical drop Improved Turbine Performancerequired for proper oil drainage and allow axial The performance of an axial exhaust unit is typ-exhaust turbine-generators to be mounted at or ically 0.25 to 0.50% better than a comparableclose to grade for lower building and installa- down exhaust unit. The present value of thetion cost. fuel savings over the operating life of the unitFeed and drain piping are assembled in the fac- can range from 2.5 to 12.5% of equipment cost.tory and are terminated at a single point at the Reduced Building Costsedge of the turbine base. Only a short length ofprefabricated interconnecting piping, with The overall height of the building can be low-flanged connections and flexible expansion ered significantly by the low-profile design. Thejoints needs to be installed in the field. total amount of concrete required and the com-Installation and flushing time in the field is plexity of the foundation design are reducedminimized because the feed and drain piping is significantly.mounted on the turbine base, and the com- Reduced Installation Costsbined lubrication and hydraulic skid are pre- The packaged design includes pre-assembledcleaned in the factory. and precleaned piping as well as all unit electri-All turbine-generator electrical devices and sen- cal and instrumentation wiring that is terminat-sors are prewired in the factory with connec- ed in junction boxes for reduced field installa-tions terminated in junction boxes located on tion time. Additionally, the time required tothe bases. install the axial condenser and check the align-GE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 18
  22. 22. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications Figure 21. Unpackaged down exhaust unit in pedestal installation Figure 22. Packaged down exhaust unit in a pedestal installationGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 19
  23. 23. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications Figure 23. Packaged axial exhaust unit in a low-profile installationment of the turbine stationary and rotating by other manufacturers. These designs incorpo-parts is reduced. rate separate high-pressure and low-pressure turbines interconnected by a cross-under pipe.Reduced Installation Time The turbine-generator unit arrives on site in sev-Experience has demonstrated that a packaged eral more pieces than a GE single-casing unit;turbine-generator can be installed in up to 40% utilizes a higher and more elaborate founda-less time that an unpackaged unit. With tion; and requires significantly more time onreduced potential for field installation delays, site for field piping, wiring and alignment.plants can be brought on line faster than everthought possible. Design StandardizationCost Comparison Increased Design StandardizationA cost comparison between the alternatives GE has optimized the standard components uti-shown in Figure 21 and Figure 23 are shown in lized in its building-block structure, to reduceFigure 24. the number of “special” and infrequently usedApproximately a half million dollars (U.S.) in modules. Greater use of optimized and fre-total cost is saved by selecting the packaged tur- quently applied component modules results inbine-generator with an axial exhaust in a low- reduced design, drafting, sourcing and manu-profile installation. It should be noted that facturing times.these savings do not include any fuel cost sav-ings or savings associated with a faster plant Increased Design Automationstartup. These savings vary from application to An automated design system has been devel-application but can be quite significant for oped to optimize turbines for specific applica-many independent power projects. tions by selecting and combining standard com- ponent modules. The system automatically laysIt should also be noted that although the eco- out the turbine steam path from which manynomic advantages of selecting a base-mounted turbine component detail drawings can beaxial exhaust design are considerable com- downloaded and created electronically, with anpared to a comparable unpackaged GE design absolute minimum of drafting time.with a down exhaust, they are even larger incomparison to the multicasing designs offered While the turbine design is automated andGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 20
  24. 24. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applications Savings From Low Profile Base Mounted Axial Exhaust Steam Turbine Plant Cost Savings $ Installation Savings $ Total Savings $ 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Savings ($K) Figure 24. Savings from a 40 MW base-mounted turbine with an axial exhaust and low-profile plant layoutdeveloped from standardized hardware mod- use of customized conical barrel-section pat-ules, a full mechanical analysis is done to check terns. To reduce rotor-forging cycles, GE hassteady-state and vibratory stresses on the reserved a number of slots in our major forgingmachine. This design process results in a steam vendors’ production plans to ensure customturbine configuration with maximum power rotor forging availability in the minimum possi-density that has been fully analyzed in its cus- ble cycle time.tom configuration. The level of design automa- Additionally, our automated production plan-tion employed enables the development of first- ning system with it electronic data interchangelevel casting and forging drawings within a few communications, allow automatic placement ofweeks following receipt of an order. many component orders with suppliers imme- diately following the release of a design forSourcing Partnerships manufacture. As many as half of all purchaseGE has developed partnerships with major sup- orders placed by GE are now executed directlypliers of long-lead and high-value turbine com- through the system with minimum buyer inter-ponents. Extensive producibility reviews have vention.been held with these suppliers to make sure ourdesigns can be executed by them in minimal Manufacturing Initiativestime while still ensuring high quality. These Increased use of numerically controlledreviews have led to several changes in the design machine tools has led to a reduction in manu-of head castings for reduced cycles, such as the facturing cycles for casings, rotors and steamGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 21
  25. 25. Steam Turbines for Industrial Applicationspath components. Major subassemblies, such as These well-known and proven features havethe front standard, the valve gear and the oil sys- made GE a leader in the areas of performance,tem, can be fully assembled and tested before reliability, dependability, maintainability andfinal unit assembly. This parallel manufacturing life-cycle costs. Enhancements to the productapproach results in shorter total cycle times. line further build on these strengths without compromising one for the other. As a matter ofIncreased Packaging policy, GE attempts to develop product lineIncreased assembly and packaging of steam tur- improvements that not only are applicable tobines in the factory allows significant reduction the new units it builds but also can be retrofit-in the time from site delivery to synchroniza- ted into the large and ever-expanding fleet oftion. Less work done on the site also minimizes industrial units already operating in plantsthe risk of unforeseen installation problems, around the world. Through this approach,which can extend project schedules. users of older GE turbines are able to benefitProject Execution from newly developed enhancements in the product line.Every order is executed by a project team head-ed by a project manager. This single-point con- Our experience suggests that power producers,tact coordinates all technical communication to particularly those employing gas turbines as theand from the customer and acts as the focal primary heat source for the steam turbine,point for internal coordination. Proper com- require faster delivery cycles than were requiredmunication and project support from these in the past. GE has taken steps to reduce itsexperts is critical to the timely completion of cycle times for its industrial steam turbine-gen-the turbine-generator set as well as its integra- erators to respond to this need. A combinationtion into a customer’s site. of integration as well as design, manufacturing and sourcing initiatives has made these reduc-Conclusion tions possible.Many innovations have been developed and GE’s IST business unit has a broad product line,adopted in the IST product line, to better meet can offer shorter delivery cycles on its productsthe needs of industrial users. While improving (as short as 12 months or even less) and pro-upon the previous generation of turbines, basic vides responsive quotes at competitive pricesproduct line attributes have been retained. (budgetary quotes within 48 hours).GE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 22
  26. 26. Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsList of Figures1. The industrial steam turbine (IST) business2. Global resources3. Product line4. Product line configurations5. Geared steam turbine generator sets6. Mechanical drives7. Direct coupled steam turbines8. Geothermal turbine9. Modular design philosophy10. Industrial turbine building block structure11. Alternative inlet concepts12. Turbine configurations13. 20-inch (508 mm) last-stage bucket14. Turbine bearings15. Axial exhaust configuration16. Turning gear17. Industrial steam turbine control – architecture18. The Mark VI19. The Mark VI20. GE VF fluid system21. Unpackaged down exhaust unit in pedestal installation22. Packaged down exhaust unit in a pedestal installation23. Packaged axial exhaust unit in a low-profile installation24. Savings from a 40 MW base-mounted turbine with an axial exhaust and low-profile plant layoutGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 23
  27. 27. Steam Turbines for Industrial ApplicationsGE Power Systems GER-3706D (10/00) s s 24
  28. 28. For further information, contact your GE Field Sales Representative or write to GE Power Systems Marketing g GE Power Systems GE Power Systems 4200 Wildwood Parkway Atlanta, GA 30339GER 3706D, 10/00 (2.5M)

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