Contents: Introduction Block diagram of the project AT89S52 Power supply Temperature Sensor Heart Beat Sensor ZIGBEE technology Comparison with other technologies Zigbee Based Patient Monitoring System Advantages Applications conclusion
Introduction: The patients in the ICU need a constant monitoring of their Temperature and heartbeat. This project incorporates sensors to measure important parameters. Any abnormality felt by the patient is indicated by an alarm signal. Works even when the patient is in unconscious state. The patient-staff ratio is very low, so these kind of advanced equipment isnecessary.
POWER SUPPLYAT89S52LCD DISPLAYADC0804HEART BEAT SENSORTEMPERATURESENSORZIGBEE MODULEZIGBEE MODULE MAX 232PCBLOCK DIAGRAM
AT89S52: Manufactured by AMTEL laboratories. Standard features like-1. 8 Kbytes of flash.2. 256 bytes of RAM.3. 32 I/O lines.4. 16-bit timer/counter.5. Full duplex serial port.6. On-chip oscillator.
AT89S52 VCC: pin 40-power supply. GND: pin 20-grounded. Port 0,port 1,port 2, port 3 are 8-bit bi-directional I/O ports. RST: pin 9 is reset pin. It is active high. ALE/prog: It is an output pin and is active high. PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. EA/VPP: Enables the device to fetch code from external device. XTAL1 & XTAL2 are input and output of oscillator amplifier.
Features of LM 35LM35 is a precision IC temperature sensor with itsoutput proportional to the temperature. You can measure temperature more accurately than ausing thermistors. The sensor circuitry is sealed andnot subject to oxidation, etc.Possesses a low self-heating capabilityThe output voltage is converted to temperature by asimple conversion factor.The operating temperature range is from -55°C to150°C.
Features of Heart BeatSensor The sensor consists of a super bright red LED and lightdetectorHeat beat indication by LED Instant output digital signal for directly connecting tomicrocontroller to measure Beats per Minute (BPM) Compact Size Working Voltage +5V DCIt works on the principle of light modulation by blood flowthrough finger at each pulse.
ZIGBEE technology A very low cost, low power consumption two-way, wireless communications standard forautomation, toys, & PC peripherals. Low Power consumption 6 months to 5 years battery life for most applications Low Cost At least half the cost of Bluetooth solutions High density of nodes per network 250 nodes per network, multiple co-located networks Data rate requirements Few bits to 250kbps sufficient Simple protocol, Global Implementation 2.4GHz Standard in a fragmented market Many proprietary solutions, interoperability issues Pent up demand due to lack of standard
ZIGBEE technology Data rates of 250 kbps with 10-100 meter range. Two addressing modes; 16-bit short and 64-bit IEEE addressing. CSMA-CA channel access. Power management to ensure low power consumption. 16 channels in the 2.4GHz ISM band. Low duty cycle - Provides long battery life. Low latency . Support for multiple network topologies: Static, dynamic, star and mesh . Up to 65,000 nodes on a network.
Comparison with other technologiesStandardZigBee®802.15.4Wi-Fi™802.11bBluetooth™802.15.1(meters)1 – 100* 1 – 100 1 – 10Life (days)100 – 1,000 0.5 – 5.0 1 - 7Network Size (# of nodes)> 64,000 32 7ApplicationMonitoring & Control Web, Email, Video Cable ReplacementStack Size (KB)4 – 32 1,000 250Throughput kb/s)20 – 250 11,000 720
Zigbee Based Patient Monitoring System-Transmitter
Advantages1. A place in the hospital where very ill patients are monitored very closely.2. The patients in the ICU need a constant monitoring of their Temperature and heart beat.This project is a working model, which incorporates sensors to measure importantparameters namely the Temperature, Respiratory temperature and Heart Beat.3. The patient can be analyzed by doctors in any part of the hospital wherever they are.4. Even when the patient is in an unconscious condition, all the parameters will be sensedand doctor will be cautioned, thus it reduces doctor’s workload and also gives moreaccurate results.5. Thus it reduces doctors work load and also gives more accurate results,6. We have also incorporated saline monitoring system which gives an alarm when thesaline bottle about to empty.
ApplicationsHospitals it monitoring the Heart Beat andTemperature continually .By using this system the patient can be analyzedby doctors in any part of the hospital .Used to transfer the information from thetransmitter side to the receiver side wirelessly.
ConclusionAs this project is based on micro-controller and zigbeetechnology is used to transmit data this can be of great use in the field of medicineand helps the doctors to keep a keen eye on the patients health."To get rich never your risk your health. For it is the truth thathealth is the wealth of wealth." Richard Baker