Munshi PremchandBorn: July 31, 1880, VaranasiDied: October 8, 1936, VaranasiMunshi Premchand (मुंशी ेमचंद) was an Indian writer famousfor his modern Hindi-Urdu literature.Born Dhanpat Rai, he began writing under the pen name"Nawab Rai", but subsequently switched to "Premchand",while he is also known as "Munshi Premchand", Munshi beingan honorary prefix. A novel writer, story writer and dramatist,he has been referred to as the "Upanyas Samrat" ("Emperorof Novels") by some Hindi writers.Early LifePremchand was born on 31 July 1880 in a village near Varanasi in India to Munshi Ajaib Lal, aclerk in the post office. His parents died when he was still very young. His mother died when hewas no more than seven and his father passed away when Premchand was fifteen or sixteen,and still a student.His parents named him Dhanpat Rai ("the master of wealth"), while his uncle, Mahabir, a richlandowner, nicknamed him "Nawab" ("Prince"). "Nawab Rai" was the first pen name chosen byPremchand.After loosing his parents, Premchand became responsible for his step mother and his siblingsborn from her. Premchand was married to a girl in an arranged child marriage-as then was thecustom- but the marriage proved to be painful for him and he left her in 1899. After thatPremchand married a child widow Shivrani Devi in 1906.After leaving his village in 1899, Premchand took up a job of a schoolmaster at a mission schoolin Chunar, another remote area. The salary was minimal and he was the only earning memberin the family. With that negligible amount he had to support his wife, step mother, his siblingsand himself. The condition became even worse when he was fired from the job and had toreturn to his village. After some efforts, he succeeded in getting a job of assistant master at agovernment school in Varanasi. He was transferred to a town near Allahabad, where hebecame the headmaster of a school in year 1902. After two years, he was sent to Kanpur as thedeputy sub-inspector of schools.Emperor of Novels
Early CareerDhanpat Rai first wrote under the pseudonym "Nawab Rai". His first short novel was Asrar eMaabid (Devasthan Rahasya in Hindi, "The Mystery of Gods Abode"), which explorescorruption among the temple priests and their sexual exploitation of poor women. The novelwas published in a series in the Benares-based Urdu weekly Awaz-e-Khalk from 8 October 1903to February 1905.After his death, Shivarani Devi wrote a book on him, titled Premchand Ghar Mein ("Premchandin House").In 1905, inspired by the nationalist activism, Premchand published an article on the IndianNational Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale in Zamana.Premchands first published story was Duniya Ka Sabse Anmol Ratan ("The Most PreciousJewel in the World"), which appeared in Zamana in 1907.Premchands second short novel Hamkhurma-o-Hamsavab (Prema in Hindi), published in 1907,and was penned under the name "Babu Nawab Rai Banarsi".In 1907, another of Premchands short novels, Kishna was published by the Medical Hall Pressof Benares.During April–August 1907, Premchands story Roothi Rani was published in serialform in Zamana. Also in 1907, the publisher’s of Zamana published Premchands first shortstory collection, titled Soz-e-Watan (Dirge of the Nation).Success as a WriterHis literary work in Urdu gained him a reputation of a journalist with social aim, rather than amere entertainer. Premchand was born in the British India and the Indian Independencemovement was at its peak when he started his writing career. His early writings were largelyinfluenced by the nationwide movement in which he often expressed his support to the fightfor freedom.In 1910, his collection of Soz-e-Watan was labeled as rebellious on account of its messagewhich provoked Indians to fight for the nation. An agonized British government confiscated thebook and all copies of Soz-e-Watan were burnt or destroyed. Premchand, who was writingunder the name of Nawabrai at that time, began to use Premchand as his pen name. Theprolific writer wrote more than 300 stories, novels and a number of plays.
The writer is credited with the introducing realism into the Hindi literature when it onlyconsisted of the fantasy stories, fairy tales and religious worpublished as Maansarovar.In 1921, Premchand resigned from his job as his support to the Indian independence movementand Gandhi’s Swadeshi movement. He took up a job in a printing press and became theproprietor of the press. During that time he also worked as the editor of Hindi and Urdujournals to support himself. It was miserable to see that though he had established himself as agreat writer and novelist, he failed to earn money and led a life of struggle amid povertyfinancial crisis.His first Hindi story Saut was published in the magazinefirst short story collection Sapta SarojBy 1919, Premchand had published fourPremchands first major novel Seva Sadanwritten in Urdu under the title Bazaarbased publisher, who offered Premchandof Lahorepublished the novel later in 1924, paying PremchandAfter quitting his job, Premchand left Gorakhpur for Benares on 18 March 1921, and decided tofocus on his literary career. Till his death in 1936, he faced sechronic ill health.In 1923, he established a printing press and publishing house in Benares, christenedPress". The year 1924 saw the publication of Premchandsbeggar called Surdas as its tragic hero. Schulz mentions that inacross as a "superb social chronicler", and although the novel contains some "structural flaws"and "too many authorial explanations", it shows a "marked progress" in Premchands writistyle.According to Schulz, it was inhis way to "a balanced, realistic level" that surpasses his earlier works and manages to "hold hisreaders in tutelage". Nirmala, a novel dealing with theserialized in the magazine Chandwith the subject of widow remarriage.In 1928, Premchands novel Gabanpublished. In March 1930, Premchand launched a literaryaimed at inspiring the Indians to mobilize against the British rule.politically provocative views, failed to make a profit. Premcanother magazine called JagaranThe writer is credited with the introducing realism into the Hindi literature when it onlyconsisted of the fantasy stories, fairy tales and religious work. His creations are compileIn 1921, Premchand resigned from his job as his support to the Indian independence movementand Gandhi’s Swadeshi movement. He took up a job in a printing press and became theess. During that time he also worked as the editor of Hindi and Urdujournals to support himself. It was miserable to see that though he had established himself as agreat writer and novelist, he failed to earn money and led a life of struggle amid povertywas published in the magazine Saraswati in DecemberSapta Saroj was published in June 1917.By 1919, Premchand had published four novellas, of about a hundred pages each. In 1919,Seva Sadan was published in Hindi. The novel was originallyBazaar-e-Husn, but was published in Hindi first by abased publisher, who offered Premchand 450 for his work. The Urdu PublisherLahorepublished the novel later in 1924, paying Premchand 250.After quitting his job, Premchand left Gorakhpur for Benares on 18 March 1921, and decided tofocus on his literary career. Till his death in 1936, he faced severe financial difficulties andIn 1923, he established a printing press and publishing house in Benares, christenedThe year 1924 saw the publication of Premchands Rangabhumi, which has a blindas its tragic hero. Schulz mentions that in Rangabhumi, Premchand comesacross as a "superb social chronicler", and although the novel contains some "structural flaws"and "too many authorial explanations", it shows a "marked progress" in Premchands writiAccording to Schulz, it was in Nirmala (1925) and Pratigya (1927) that Premchand foundhis way to "a balanced, realistic level" that surpasses his earlier works and manages to "hold his, a novel dealing with the dowry system in India, was firstChand, before being published as a novel. Pratigya ("The Vow") dealtwith the subject of widow remarriage.Gaban ("Embezzlement"), focusing on the middle class greed, wpublished. In March 1930, Premchand launched a literary-political weekly magazine titledaimed at inspiring the Indians to mobilize against the British rule. The magazine, noted for itspolitically provocative views, failed to make a profit. Premchand then took over and editedJagaran, which too ran at a loss.The writer is credited with the introducing realism into the Hindi literature when it onlyk. His creations are compiled andIn 1921, Premchand resigned from his job as his support to the Indian independence movementand Gandhi’s Swadeshi movement. He took up a job in a printing press and became theess. During that time he also worked as the editor of Hindi and Urdujournals to support himself. It was miserable to see that though he had established himself as agreat writer and novelist, he failed to earn money and led a life of struggle amid poverty andin December 1915 and hispages each. In 1919,Hindi. The novel was originally, but was published in Hindi first by a Calcutta-his work. The Urdu PublisherAfter quitting his job, Premchand left Gorakhpur for Benares on 18 March 1921, and decided tovere financial difficulties andIn 1923, he established a printing press and publishing house in Benares, christened "Saraswati, which has a blind, Premchand comesacross as a "superb social chronicler", and although the novel contains some "structural flaws"and "too many authorial explanations", it shows a "marked progress" in Premchands writing(1927) that Premchand foundhis way to "a balanced, realistic level" that surpasses his earlier works and manages to "hold hisdowry system in India, was first("The Vow") dealt("Embezzlement"), focusing on the middle class greed, waspolitical weekly magazine titled Hans,The magazine, noted for itshand then took over and edited
In 1931, Premchand moved to Kanpur as a teacher in the Marwari College, but had to leavebecause of difference with the college administration. He then returned to Benares, andbecame the editor of the Maryada magazine. In 1932, he published another noveltitled Karmabhumi. He briefly served as the headmaster of the Kashi Vidyapeeth, a local school.After the schools closure, he became the editor of the Madhuri magazine in Lucknow.Before Premchand, Hindi literature consisted mainly of fantasy or religious works. Premchandbrought realism to Hindi literature. He wrote over 300 stories, a dozen novels and two plays.The stories have been compiled and published as Maansarovar. His famous creations are:Panch Parameshvar, Idgah, Shatranj Ke Khiladi, Poos Ki Raat, Bade Ghar Ki Beti, Kafan, Udhar KiGhadi, Namak Ka Daroga, Gaban, Godaan, and Nirmala.Premchand was a great social reformer; he married a child widow named Shivarani Devi. Shewrote a book on him, Premchand Gharmein after his death. In 1921 he answered Gandhijis calland resigned from his job. He worked to generate patriotism and nationalistic sentiments in thegeneral populace. When the editor of the journal _Maryaada_ was jailed in the freedommovement, Premchand worked for a time as the editor of that journal. Afterward, he worked asthe principal in a school in the Kashi Vidyapeeth.The main characteristic of Premchands writings is his interesting storytelling and use of simplelanguage. His novels describe the problems of rural and urban India. He avoided the use ofhighly Sanskritized Hindi and instead used the dialect of the common people. Premchand wroteon the realistic issues of the day-communalism, corruption, zamindari, debt, poverty,colonialism etc.He stayed in Dadar, and wrote the script for the film Mazdoor ("The Labourer"). The film,directed by Mohan Bhawnani, depicted the poor conditions on the labour class. Premchandhimself did a cameo as the leader of laborers in the film.Premchand was elected as the first President of the Progressive Writers Association inLucknow, in 1936.Godaan (The Gift of a Cow, 1936), Premchands last completed work, is generally accepted ashis best novel, and is considered as one of the finest Hindi novels.In 1936, Premchand also published Kafan ("Shroud"), in which a poor man collects money forthe funeral rites of his dead wife, but spends it on food and drink. Premchands last publishedstory was Cricket Match, which appeared in Zamana in 1937, after his death.
Later Life & DeathPremchand believed that literature is a powerful medium to educate people and it showed inhis writings. In his later life, he continued to write fictions with social purpose and socialcriticism. Now a revered author and thinker, he presided over conferences, literature seminarsand received huge applause.He chaired the first All-India conference of the Indian Progressive Writer’s Association in year1936. However, in his personal life he was still struggling to make both ends meet. He alsosuffered from health problem particularly ‘abdominal problems’. Despite ever difficulty andchallenges, Premchand did not abandon writing and embarked on completing his last novelMangalsootra. The novel still remains incomplete as he died in the middle of it on 8 October1936.List of WorksNovelsTitle Publisher DateAsrar-e-Maabid (Urdu)Devasthan Rahasya(Hindi)Awaz-e-Khalk (serial form) 1903 (8 October)-1905(February)Prema (Hindi)Hamkhurma-o-HamSawab(Urdu)Indian Press/Hindustan PublishingHouse1907Kishna Medical Hall Press, Benares 1907Roothi Rani Zamana (serial form) 1907 (April–August)Soz-e-Watan(collection) Publishers of Zamana 1907Vardaan (Hindi)Jalwa-e-Isar(Urdu)Granth Bhandar and Dhanju 1912Seva Sadan(Hindi)Bazaar-e-Husn(Urdu)Calcutta Pustak Agency (Hindi) 1919 (Hindi); 1924 (Urdu)Premashram(Hindi)Gosha-e-Afiyat(Urdu)1922Rangbhoomi(Hindi)Chaugan-e-Hasti (Urdu)Darul Ishaat (Urdu, 1935) 1924Nirmala Idaara-e-Furoogh-Urdu 1925Kaayakalp(Hindi)Parda-i-Majaz(Urdu)Lajpat Rai & Sons, Lahore (Urdu) 1926 (Hindi), 1934 (Urdu)Pratigya (Hindi)Bewa (Urdu)1927Gaban (also transliteratedas Ghaban)Saraswati Press, Benares; Lajpatrai& Sons, Urdu Bazar1928Karmabhoomi(Hindi) Maktaba Jamia, Delhi 1932
Maidan-e-Amal(Urdu)Godaan Saraswati Press 1936Mangalsootra(incomplete) Hindustan Publishing HouseShort StoriesTitle Publisher DateDuniya ka Sabse Anmol Ratan Zamana 1907Bade Bhai Sahab Zamana 1910 (December)Beti ka Dhan Zamana 1915 (November)Saut Sarasvati(Vol. 16, Part 2, No. 6, 353-359) 1915 (December)Sajjanata ka dand Sarasvati 1916 (March)Panch Parameshvar Sarasvati 1916 (June)Ishwariya Nyaya Sarasvati 1917 (July)Durga ka Mandir Sarasvati 1917 (December)Balidan Sarasvati 1918 (May)Putra Prem Sarasvati 1920 (July)Boodhi Kaki(The Old Aunt) Hans 1921Pariksha Chand 1923 (January)Shatranj ke khiladi(Hindi)Shatranj ki bazi (Urdu)Madhuri October 1924Hinsa Parmo Dharma Madhuri 1926 (December)Ghasvali Madhuri 1929 (December)Idgah Chand 1933 (August)Nashaa Chand 1934 (February)Kafan Jamia 1936Cricket Match Zamana 1937Gupt DhanMantraNamak Ka DarogaPoos ki raatLottery ZamanaOther stories include:AbhushanAgni SamadhiAlagyojhaAmritAtmaramChoriDaroga SahabDeviDhaai ser gehunDikri Ke RupayeDo BahaneinDo Bailon ki KathaFauzdaarGrihaneetiGurumantra (1927)Har Ki JeetJail (1931)Juloos (1930)JurmanaKhudaiMahatirthaManushya Ka ParamDharma (March 1920)Maryada ki Vedi
Mukti MargNairashyaNimantran (1926)Pashu se ManushyaPrayaschitPrem PurnimaRamleelaSamar Yatra (1930)SatiSatyagraha (1923)Sawa Ser GehuSewa MargSuhag ki Sari (1923)Sujan BhagatSwatva RakshaThakur ka KuaanThriya CharitaUdhar Ki GhadiVajrpaatVimataHajje AkbarSautele MaaIbratRoshniBhadde ka TattuNijatTranslationsPremchand translated several non-Hindi works into Hindi. These included the writings of RatanNath Dhar Sarshar, Leo Tolstoy, Charles Dickens (The Story of Richard Doubledick), OscarWilde (Canterville), John Galsworthy (Strife), Sadi, Guy de Maupassant, MauriceMaeterlinck (Sightless) and Hendrik van Loon (The Story of Mankind).Some of the translated titles include:Premchands title OriginalAhankar Thais by Anatole France (adaptation)Azad Katha Fasana-e Azad (1880) by Ratan Nath Dhar SarsharParvat Yatra Sair-e-Kohsar (1890) by Ratan Nath Dhar SarsharChandi Ki Dibiya Silver Box (1906) by John GalsworthyHartal Strife (1909) by John GalsworthyNyaya Justice (1910) by John GalsworthySukhdas Silas Marner by George Eliot (adaptation)Tolstoy Ki Kahaniyan Stories of Leo TolstoyOtherFilm scriptMazdoor (1934)PlaysKarbalaTazurbaPrem Ki VediRoohani ShadiSangramEssaysKuchh Vichar (two parts) Qalam Tyag aur Talwar
BiographiesDurgadas Mahatma Sheikhsadi (biographyof Saadi)Childrens booksJangal ki KahaniyanKutte ki KahaniManmodakRam CharchaAdaptations of Premchand’s WorksSatyajit Ray filmed two of Premchands works– Sadgati and Shatranj Ke Khiladi.Sevasadan (first published in 1918) was made into a film with M.S. Subbulakshmi in thelead role.Premchand also worked with the film director Himanshu Rai of Bombay Talkies, one ofthe founders of Bollywood.The Actor Factor Theatre Company, a young Delhi based theatre group, staged Kafan in2010 in New Delhi.Oka Oori Katha (English title: The Marginal Ones) is a 1977 Telugu film directedby Mrinal Sen.Munshi Premchand Timeline:1880- Premchand was born on 31 July.1899-He left his village.1902-He became the headmaster of a school.1906- He married a child widow Shivrani Devi.1910- His collection of Soz-e-Watan was confiscated by the British government.1921- Premchand resigned from his job as his support to the Indian independence movement.1936- He chaired the first All-India conference of the Indian Progressive Writer’s Association.1936- Premchand died on 8 October.
Anita Mazumdar DesaiBorn: June 24, 1937 (age 75), MussoorieAnita Mazumdar Desai (born 24 June 1937) is an Indian novelistand the Emeritus John E. Burchard Professor of Humanities atthe Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As a writer she hasbeen shortlisted for the Booker Prize three times.She received a Sahitya Akademi Award in 1978 for her novel Fireon the Mountain, from the Sahitya Akademi, Indias NationalAcademy of Letters; she won the British Guardian Prize for TheVillage by the Sea.Early LifeAnita Desai was born as Anita Mazumdar on June 24, 1937 in Mussoorie. Her mother wasGerman and her father was Bengali. Anita Desai completed her schooling from Queen MarysHigher Secondary School in Delhi and graduated in English literature from the University ofDelhi (Miranda House).CareerDesai published her first novel, Cry The Peacock, in 1963. She considers Clear Light OfDay (1980) her most autobiographical work as it is set during her coming of age and also in thesame neighbourhood in which she grew up. In 1984 she published In Custody – aboutan Urdu poet in his declining days – which was shortlisted for the Booker Prize. In 1993 shebecame a creative writing teacher atMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Her novel, TheZigzag Way (2004), is set in 20th-century Mexico and her latest novel The Artist ofDisappearance came in 2011.Awards1978 – Winifred Holtby Memorial Prize- Fire on the Mountain1978 – Sahitya Akademi Award (National Academy of Letters Award)- Fire on the Mountain1980 – Shortlisted, Booker Prize for Fiction – Clear Light of Day1983 – Guardian Childrens Fiction Prize – The Village by the Sea: an Indian family story1984 – Shortlisted, Booker Prize for Fiction – In Custody
1993 – Neil Gunn Prize1999 – Shortlisted, Booker Prize for Fiction: Fasting, Feasting2000 – Alberto Moravia Prize for Literature (Italy)2003 – Benson Medal of Royal Society of LiteratureAnita Desai is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, the American Academy of Arts andLetters, Girton College, Cambridge and Clare Hall, Cambridge. Presently, Anita lives in theUnited States, where she is the John E. Burchard Professor of Writing at Massachusetts Instituteof Technology, Cambridge, MA.Selected WorksThe Artist Of Disappearance (2011)The Zigzag Way (2004)Diamond Dust and Other Stories (2000)Fasting, Feasting (1999)Journey to Ithaca (1995)Baumgartners Bombay (1988)In Custody (1984)The Village By The Sea (1982)Clear Light of Day (1980)Games at Twilight (1978)Fire on the Mountain (1977)Cat on a Houseboat (1976)Where Shall We Go ThisSummer? (1975)The Peacock Garden (1974)Bye-bye Blackbird (1971)Voices in the City (1965)Cry, The Peacock (1963)India- A Travellers Literary Companion
Arundhati RoyBorn: November 24, 1961 (age 51), AssamArundhati Roy is a popular writer, activist and novelist of theIndian subcontinent. She was born in the family of KeraliteSyrian Christian mother and a Bengali Hindu father in Shillongwhich forms a part of the Indian state of Meghalaya.Her mother was a woman`s rights activist and her father was atea planter by profession. She spent her childhood days inAymanam in the Indian state of Kerala. She finished herschooling from Corpus Christi School in Kottayam followed byThe Lawrence School, Lovedale that is situated in the Nilgiris.After schooling she studied architecture at the School ofPlanning and Architecture in Delhi.Literary Life of Arundhati RoyAt age of sixteen Arundhati left home, and eventually enrolled at the Delhi School ofArchitecture. There she met her first husband, Gerard Da Cunha, a fellow architecture student.Their marriage lasted four years. Both of them did not have great love for architecture, so theyquit their profession and went off to Goa. They used to make cake and sell it on the beach tomake living. This continued for seven months after which Arundhati returned back to Delhi.She took a job at the National Institute of Urban Affairs, rented a barsati near the dargah atNizamuddin and hired a bicycle. One day film director Pradeep Krishen saw her cycling down astreet and offered her a small role of tribal girl in the film "Massey Saab". Arundhati Royaccepted the role after initial reservations. She later on married Pradeep Krishen. Meanwhile,Arundhati got a scholarship to go to Italy for eight months to study the restoration ofmonuments.After returning from Italy Arundhati Roy linked with her husband to planned a 26 episodetelevision serial for Doordarshan called the Banyan Tree. The serial was later scrapped. Shewrote screenplays for a couple of TV films - "In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones" and "ElectricMoon". Arundhati Roy also wrote screenplay for Shekhar Kapurs controversial film BanditQueen.
Arundhati Roy started writing her first novel, The God of Small Things in the year and finishedthe work in 1996. This book is regarded as a semi-autobiography in which she relates to theaudience about her childhood experiences in Ayemenem. For this book she also received theMan booker Prize for Fiction in 1997 and it was also listed as one of the notable books of 1997in New York Times.Arundhati Roy is also involved in many social activities. She is the figurehead of theantiglobalization or alter-globalization movement and also a vehement critic of neo-imperialismand of the global policies of the United States of America. The lists of her criticisms includeIndia`s nuclear weapon policies and the approach to industrialization and rapid developmentas bring practiced in the nation in the recent times. She was also personally involved withactivist Medha Patkar in the campaign against the Narmada Dam Project. According to thejudgment of Supreme Court of India she also served one-day imprisonment and paid a fine ofRs. 2000.Arundhati Roy was awarded the Lannan Foundation`s Cultural Freedom award for her workrelated to the civil societies that are adversely affected by the world`s most powerfulgovernments and corporations. She was also awarded the Sydney Peace Prize in the year 2004for her significant contribution in social campaigns and her advocacy of non-violence. In themonth of January of the year 2006 Arundhati Roy was awarded the Sahitya Akademi award forher collection of essays on the contemporary issues.Personal Life of Arundhati RoyWhile studying Architecture at School of Planning and Architecture in Delhi, she met her firsthusband, Gerard Decunha who is also a renowned architect. It was with her second husbandPradip Krishen that Arundhati Roy ventured into filmmaking in the year 1984. The first cousin ofArundhati Roy, called Pranay Roy is also a prominent media personality and is settled in NewDelhi.Books by Arundhati Roy• The God of Small Things.• The End of Imagination.• The Cost of Living. Flamingo• The Greater Common Good.• The Algebra of Infinite Justice.• An Ordinary Person`s Guide To Empire.• Introduction to 13 December, a Reader: The Strange Case of the Attack on the IndianParliament.
• The Shape of the Beast: Conversations with Arundhati Roy.• Listening to Grasshoppers: Field Notes on Democracy• Walking with the ComradeAwards Won by Arundhati Roy• Arundhati Roy was awarded the 1997 Booker Prize for her novel The God of SmallThings.• She won the National Film Award for Best Screenplay in 1989, for the screenplay of InWhich Annie Gives It Those Ones.• In 2002, she won the Lannan Foundation`s Cultural Freedom Award• In 2003, she was awarded `special recognition` as a Woman of Peace at the GlobalExchange Human Rights Awards in San Francisco with Bianca Jagger, Barbara Lee andKathy Kelly.• Roy was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize in May 2004 for her work in social campaignsand her advocacy of non-violence.• She was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in 2006.• In November 2011, she was awarded the Norman Mailer Prize for Distinguished Writing.
Jhumpa LahiriBorn: July 11, 1967 (age 45), LondonJhumpa Lahiri is indeed the storyteller who weaves the lace of love,identity, crisis, lies and faults in a matured way. Her works areenriched with sensitive dilemmas in life. Characters in her booksexperience the cultural as well as the generation gaps. She,therefore, comments on the effects of Western colonialism onIndians and Indians in Diaspora. Jhumpa Lahiri is not only a writerbut the weaver of dreams, the fabricator of emotion and thereforeher each and every novel becomes an outlet for her emotions.She is the First Asian to win Pulitzer Prize. She won the 2000Pulitzer Prize for fiction for her book "Interpreter Of Maladies"Early Life of Jhumpa LahiriJhumpa Lahiri, a Bengali American author, was born in 1967 in London to a Bengali parent. Shemoved to South Kingstown, Rhode Island when she was child. Jhumpa Lahiri learned herBengali heritage from her mother from a very early age. Jhumpa Lahiri is a daughter of alibrarian and schoolteacher. She has always been inclined to creative writing.Jhumpa Lahiri received her B.A in English literature from Barnard College in 1989 and M.A inCreative Writing, Comparative Literature from Boston University. She also received her Ph.D. inRenaissance Studies from Boston University. She took up a fellowship at Provincetown`s FineArts Work Centre in 1997.Carrer in Writing for Jhumpa LahiriRight from a very young age she felt strong ties for her parents` homeland India, as well as theUnited States and England. A sense of homelessness and an inability to feel accepted took placeas she grew up with ties to all three countries. To her it is an inheritance of her parents` ties toIndia.At a press conference in Kolkata this absence of belongingness comes out of her word "Nocountry is my motherland. I always find myself in exile in whichever country I travel to, that`swhy I was tempted to write something about those living their lives in exile". We find the ideaof exile through out her work "Interpreter of Maladies". The collection of nine distinct storiesrevolves around the first and second-generation Indian immigrants and the idea of othernessamong the country. The story theme also includes the marital difficulties. It won `Pulitzer Prize`
in 2000 for fiction. In addition it received the PEN/Hemingway Award, the New Yorker Debutof the Year award, an American Academy of Arts and Letters Addison Metcalf Award, TheTransatlantic Review award from Henfield Foundation, The Louisiana Review award for shortfiction, the O.Henry Award for Best American Short Stories, and a nomination for the LosAngeles Times Book Prize. Guggenheim fellowship was awarded to her in the year 2002.Jhumpa Lahiri made her debut as novelist with "The Namesake" in 2003. The story of the novelreveals the cultural and generational gaps between the parents. The storyline revolves aroundparents who have immigrated to the United States born in Kolkata, West Bengal, and their sonAmerican-born Gogol, wants to fit in among his fellow New Yorkers, despite his family`sunwillingness to let go of their traditional ways. A film was made based upon her novel.Jhumpa Lahiri also wrote "Indian Holy Song" in 2000, "A temporary Prayer: What Happenswhen the Lights go out" in 1998, "Sexy" in 1998 and "The Third and Final Continent" in 1999.Jhumpa Lahiri exploded onto the literary sense from 1999. In her short career no sign ofslowing down appears till date. Reader`s curiosity brings her audience together and they seemto be mesmerized by her writings. It is difficult to compare Jhumpa Lahiri`s work to many otherIndian or Indian-American authors. Lahiri is also able to draw her readers into the story throughher details and by making her readers feel the emotional, physical, and mental needs of thecharacters.Personal Life of Jhumpa LahiriShe married Alberto Vourvoulias Bush in 2001. They have two children from their marriage.Books Written by Jhumpa LahiriShort Story CollectionsInterpreter of Maladies (1999)Unaccustomed Earth (2008)NovelsThe Namesake (2003)Uncollected Non-fictionCooking Lessons: The Long Way Home" (6 September 2004, The New Yorker)Improvisations: Rice" (23 November 2009, The New Yorker)Reflections: Notes from a Literary Apprenticeship" (13 June 2011, The New Yorker)
Awards Received by Jhumpa Lahiri1993 - TransAtlantic Award from the Henfield Foundation1999 - O. Henry Award for short story "Interpreter of Maladies"1999 - PEN/Hemingway Award (Best Fiction Debut of the Year) for "Interpreter ofMaladies"1999 - "Interpreter of Maladies" selected as one of Best American Short Stories2000 - Addison Metcalf Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters2000 - "The Third and Final Continent" selected as one of Best American Short Stories2000 - The New Yorker`s Best Debut of the Year for "Interpreter of Maladies"2000 - Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for her debut "Interpreter of Maladies"2000 - James Beard Foundation`s M.F.K. Fisher Distinguished Writing Award for "IndianTakeout" in Food & Wine Magazine2002 - Guggenheim Fellowship2002 - "Nobody`s Business" selected as one of Best American Short Stories2008 - Frank O`Connor International Short Story Award for "Unaccustomed Earth"2009 - Asian American Literary Award for "Unaccustomed Earth"
Mulk Raj AnandBorn: December 12, 1905, PeshawarDied: September 28, 2004, PuneMulk Raj Anand was among the first writers to incorporatePunjabi and Hindustani idioms into English.Mulk Raj Anand was an Indian novelist, short-story writer. Hewas among the first writers to incorporate Punjabi andHindustani idioms into English. Mulk Raj Anands storiesdepicted a realistic and sympathetic portrait of the poor inIndia.Mulk Raj Anand was born on December 12, 1905 in Peshawar.He graduated with honors from Khalsa College, Amritsar in1924. Mulk Raj Anand went to England and studied at University College London andCambridge University. He completed his PhD in 1929. Mulk Raj Anand also studied - and laterlectured - at League of Nations School of Intellectual Cooperation in Geneva. Between 1932 and1945 he lectured intermittently at Workes Educational Association in London.Mulk Raj Anand was initiated into the literary career by a family tragedy, instigated by therigidity of the caste system. Anands first prose essay was a response to the suicide of an aunt,who had been excommunicated by his family for sharing a meal with a Muslim.Mulk Raj Anands first novel, "Untouchable", (1935), was a stark reflection of the day-to-daylife of a member of Indias untouchable caste. The book was widely acclaimed and Mulk RajAnand was hailed as Indias Charles Dickens. His second novel "Coolie" depicts the plight ofIndias poor through the story of a 15-year-old boy, trapped in servitude as a child labourer,who eventually dies of tuberculosis.In the 1930s and 1940s Mulk Raj Anand divided his time between London and India. He joinedthe struggle for independence, but also fought with the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War.After the war Anand returned permanently to India and settled in Bombay.In 1946 he founded the fine-arts magazine Marg. He also became a director of KutubPublishers. From 1948 to 1966 Anand taught at Indian universities. Mulk Raj Anand was fine artchairman at Lalit Kala Akademi (National Academy of Arts from 1965 to 1970. In 1970, hebecame president of Lokayata Trust, for creating a community and cultural center in the villageof Hauz Khas, New Delhi. Mulk Raj Anand died on September 28, 2004.
R.K. NarayanBorn: October 10, 1906Died: May 13, 2001R.K. Narayan is one of the most famous and widely read Indiannovelists. His stories were grounded in a compassionatehumanism and celebrated the humour and energy of ordinarylife.R.K. Narayan was born on October 10, 1906 in Madras. Hisfather was a provincial head master. R.K. Narayan spent hisearly childhood with his maternal grandmother, Parvathi inMadras and used to spend only a few weeks each summervisiting his parents and siblings. R.K. Narayan studied for eightyears at Lutheran Mission School close to his grandmothershouse in Madras, also for a short time at the CRC High School. When his father was appointedheadmaster of the Maharajas High School in Mysore, R.K. Narayan moved back in with hisparents. He obtained his bachelors degree from the University of Mysore.R.K. Narayan began his writing career with Swami and Friends in 1935. Most of his workincluding Swami and friends is set in the fictional town of Malgudi which captures everythingIndian while having a unique identity of its own. R.K. Narayans writing style was marked bysimplicity and subtle humour. He told stories of ordinary people trying to live their simple livesin a changing world.R.K. Narayans famous works include The Bachelor of Arts (1937), The Dark Room (1938), TheEnglish Teacher (1945), The Financial Expert (1952), The Guide (1958), The Man-Eater ofMalgudi (1961), The Vendor of Sweets (1967), Malgudi Days (1982), and The GrandmothersTale (1993).R.K. Narayan won numerous awards and honors for his works. These include:Sahitya Akademi Award for The Guide in 1958;Padma Bhushan in 1964; andAC Benson Medal by the Royal Society of Literature in 1980;R.K. Narayan was elected an honorary member of the American Academy and Instituteof Arts and Letters in 1982.The Grand Old Man ofMalgudi
He was nominated to the Rajya Sabha in 1989. Besides, he was also conferred honorarydoctorates by the University of Mysore, Delhi University and the University of Leeds.
Salman RushdieBorn: June 19, 1947, MumbaiAchievement: Awarded the Booker of Bookers prize in 1993 for hisnovel "Midnights Children"Salman Rushdie was born in Bombay on 19 June 1947. He went toschool in Bombay and at Rugby in England, and read History at King`sCollege, Cambridge, where he joined the Cambridge Footlights theatrecompany. After graduating, he lived with his family who had moved toPakistan in 1964, and worked briefly in television before returning toEngland, beginning work as a copywriter for an advertising agency.His first novel, Grimus, was published in 1975.His second novel, the acclaimed Midnight`s Children, was published in 1981.It won the Booker Prize for Fiction, the James Tait Black Memorial Prize (for fiction), an ArtsCouncil Writers` Award and the English- Speaking Union Award, and in 1993 was judged tohave been the `Booker of Bookers`, the best novel to have won the Booker Prize for Fiction inthe award`s 25-year history. The novel narrates key events in the history of India through thestory of pickle-factory worker Saleem Sinai, one of 1001 children born as India wonindependence from Britain in 1947.Rushdie`s third novel, Shame (1983), which many critics saw as an allegory of the politicalsituation in Pakistan, won the Prix du Meilleur Livre Etranger and was shortlisted for the BookerPrize for Fiction. The publication in 1988 of his fourth novel, The Satanic Verses, leads toaccusations of blasphemy against Islam and demonstrations by Islamist groups in India andPakistan. The orthodox Iranian leadership issued a fatwa against Rushdie on 14 February 1989 -effectively a sentence of death - and he was forced into hiding under the protection of theBritish government and police. The book itself centres on the adventures of two Indian actors,Gibreel and Saladin, who fall to earth in Britain when their Air India jet explodes. It won theWhitbread Novel Award in 1988.Salman Rushdie continued to write and publish books, including a children`s book, Haroun andthe Sea of Stories (1990), a warning about the dangers of story-telling that won the Writers`Guild Award (Best Children`s Book), and which he adapted for the stage (with Tim Supple andDavid Tushingham. It was first staged at the Royal National Theatre, London.) There followed abook of essays entitled Imaginary Homelands: Essays and
Criticism 1981-1991 (1991); East, West (1994), a book of short stories; and a novel, The Moor`sLast Sigh (1995), the history of the wealthy Zogoiby family told through the story of MoraesZogoiby, a young man from Bombay descended from Sultan Muhammad XI, the last Muslimruler of AndalucÃ a.The Ground beneath Her Feet, published in 1999, re-works the myth of Orpheus and Eurydicein the context of modern popular music. His most recent novel, Fury, set in New York at thebeginning of the third millennium, was published in 2001. He is also the author of a travelnarrative, The Jaguar Smile (1987), an account of a visit to Nicaragua in 1986.• Salman Rushdie is the Honorary Professor in the Humanities at the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology (MIT), and Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.• He was made Distinguished Fellow in Literature at the University of East Anglia in 1995.• He was awarded the Austrian State Prize for European Literature in 1993 and theAristeion Literary Prize in 1996, and has received eight honorary doctorates.• He was elected to the Board of American PEN in 2002.The subjects in his new book Step Across This Line: Collected Non-fiction 1992-2002 (2002),range from popular culture and football to twentieth-century literature and politics. SalmanRushdie is also co-author (with Tim Supple and Simon Reade) of the stage adaptation ofMidnight`s Children, premiered by the Royal Shakespeare Company in 2002. His other novel"Shalimar The Clown" (2005), is the story of Max Ophuls, his killer and daughter, and a fourthcharacter who links them all. It was shortlisted for the 2005 Whitbread Novel Award.
Vikram SethBorn: June 20, 1952, KolkataAchievement: Won the WH Smith Literary Award and theCommonwealth Writers Prize for his novel, A Suitable Boy. Histravelogue "From Heaven Lake: Travels Through Sinkiang andTibet" won the Thomas Cook Travel Book Award.Vikram Seth is a famous Indian poet, novelist, travel writer,librettist, childrens writer, biographer and memoirist.Vikram Seth was born on June 20, 1952 at Kolkata. His father,Prem, was an employee of the Bata India Limited shoe companywho migrated to post-Partition India from West Punjab inPakistan. Vikram Seths childhood was spent in the town of Batanagar near Calcutta, Patna, andLondon. His mother Leila Seth was the first woman judge of the Delhi High Court as well as thefirst woman to become Chief Justice of a state High Court. She was the Chief Justice of ShimlaHigh Court.Vikram Seth did his schooling from The Doon School in Dehradun. He took his undergraduatedegree in philosophy, politics and economics from Oxford University. He was enrolled inpostgraduate economics courses at Stanford University and was also attached to NanjingUniversity for his intended doctoral dissertation on Chinese population planning.Vikram Seths first novel, "The Golden Gate" (1986), describes the experiences of a group offriends living in California. His other novel, "A Suitable Boy" (1993) is an acclaimed epic ofIndian life. The novel won the WH Smith Literary Award and the Commonwealth Writers Prize(Overall Winner, Best Book). Set in India in the early 1950s, it is the story of a young girl, Lata,and her search for a husband. "An Equal Music" (1999), is the story of a violinist haunted by thememory of a former lover.Vikram Seth has also written a travelogue "From Heaven Lake: Travels Through Sinkiang andTibet" (1983). The book is an account of a journey through Tibet, China and Nepal that won theThomas Cook Travel Book Award. He also wrote a libretto, Arion and the Dolphin (1994), whichwas performed at the English National Opera in June 1994, with music by Alec Roth. VikramSeth is also an accomplished poet. His works in poetry include Mappings (1980), The HumbleAdministrators Garden (1985), which was a winner of the Commonwealth Poetry Prize (Asia),and All You Who Sleep Tonight (1990). Vikram Seth has written a story book for children Beastly
Tales from Here and There (1992), which consists of ten stories about animals told in verse.Vikram Seths latest work is Two Lives (2005). The book is a memoir of the marriage of his greatuncle and aunt.
V.S. NaipaulBorn: August 17, 1932 (age 80), ChaguanasAchievement: Won Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001; Won theBooker Prize in 1971 and became the first person of Indian origindo so.V.S. Naipaul is a noble laureate who won Nobel Prize in Literaturein 2001. Though of Indian origin, V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidadand is currently a British citizen.V.S. Naipaul (Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul) was born onAugust 17, 1932, at Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago. Hisforefathers came as indentured labourers from India. Naipaulsupbringing familiarised him with every sort of deprivation,material and cultural. He got a scholarship to Oxford University and thus came to England. Itwas at Oxford that V.S. Naipaul discovered the writer in him.V.S. Naipaul traveled extensively in India and Africa. At that time decolonisation was takingplace and Sir V.S. Naipaul observed from close quarters the resulting turmoil of emotions.These observations were reflected in his writings. V.S. Naipaul has written about slavery,revolution, guerrillas, corrupt politicians, the poor and the oppressed, interpreting the rages sodeeply rooted in our societies.V.S. Naipauls fiction and especially his travel writing have been criticised for their allegedlyunsympathetic portrayal of the Third World. But his supporters argue that he is actually anadvocate for a more realistic development of the Third World. V.S. Naipauls contempt formany aspects of liberal orthodoxy is uncompromising, but at the same time he has exhibited anopen-mindedness toward some Third World leaders and cultures that isnt found in westernwriters.V.S. Naipaul has discussed Islam in several of his books and he has been criticised for harping onnegative aspects of Islam. V.S. Naipauls support for Hindutva has also been controversial. Hehas been quoted describing the destruction of the Babri Mosque as a "creative passion", andthe invasion of Babur in the 16th century as a "mortal wound."V.S. Naipaul has won several awards and honors for his writings.• In 1971, Naipaul won the Booker Prize for his book "In a Free State" and became thefirst person of Indian origin do so.• He won the Jerusalem Prize in 1983 and Nobel Prize for Literature in 2001.
Jaishankar PrasadBorn: January 30, 1889, VaranasiDied: January 14, 1937, VaranasiIf you are interested in Hindi literature, then you surely must haveheard the name of Jaishankar Prasad. If Dharamvir Bharati isreferred to as the Father of Hindi Literature, Jaishankar Prasadcannot be too far behind for he too needs to be credited formaking Hindi language popular amongst the present generation.Jaishankar Prasad is truly one of the most notable figures in theworld of modern Hindi literature. Although he had to drop out ofschool at a very early age due to financial problems that his familyfaced, his love for literature never died down. Apart from Hindi, Jaishankar Prasad wasinterested in a number of languages and their evolution. However, it was Hindi that he chosewhile penning his thoughts in the form of poems and novels. He was one of the greatest literaryfigures during his time and the best modern Hindi writer.ChildhoodJaishankar Prasad was born in a well-to-do madheshiya vaishya family of Varanasi. However,the familys condition deteriorated over the years after the death of Jaishankar Prasads father,when the future litterateur was still young. His father Babu Devki Prasad earned a living bybuying and selling tobacco in the markets of Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. Jaishankar Prasadsfamily was always known as one of the elite units in Varanasi. His father passed away when hewas still in school and thus, had to leave his studies after the eighth standard to help the familywhich was then affected by financial problems. This, however, did not mean that JaishankarPrasad gave up on his studies. He thoroughly read books at home, mastering the grammar andliterature and the evolution of many a language. It was language that interested JaishankarPrasad, but he later shifted his attention to the study of the Vedas, an aspect that reflected inhis writings that were penned later. Apart from writing poetry from a very early age, JaishankarPrasad also had an interest in reciting poems. As a child and in his later life, he spent much ofhis time playing chess and doing gardening work at home.Writing StyleHe is considered one of the Four Pillars (Char Stambh) of Romanticism in HindiLiterature (Chhayavad), along with Sumitranandan Pant, Mahadevi Verma, and SuryakantTripathi Nirala.
Jaishankar Prasad was interested in the Vedas. The content as well as the writing pattern of theVedas thus influenced him deeply, while he penned his own poetry, plays and novels. The firstcollection of poems that Jaishankar Prasad penned, named Chitraadhar, was written in theBraj dialect of Hindi, a dialect that is widely used in Uttar Pradesh. The entire collection ofpoems written by Jaishankar Prasad can best be described as touching and emotional. Not onlydid he pay attention to the language of his poems, but also look at their philosophic content. Itis to be remembered that this ace Hindi litterateur was a philosopher as well, apart from beinga writer. Therefore, this aspect too reflected in his poems. The content of Jaishankar Prasadspoetry ranged from the romantic to the patriotic. Himadri Tung Shring Se is the most famouspatriotic poem written by Jaishankar Prasad in the length of his career. It was written beforeIndia won its independence from the British, and was successful in popularizing the name ofJaishankar Prasad among the common masses.During the middle of his career as a novelist, playwright and poet, Jaishankar Prasad was highlyinfluenced by Sanskrit and other languages which originated from Sanskrit. According toreports, he read a lot of Bengali and Persian works to seek inspiration before penning his own.Jaishankar Prasads most famous dramas Chandragupta, Skandagupta and Dhruvaswaminiare inspired from Persian and Bengali plays. During the later stages of his career, JaishankarPrasad wrote in the Khadi dialect of Hindi. The stories of the plays written by Jaishankar Prasadwere most often based on true incidents taken from the history of India. The writer lovedreading books on history and therefore his writings were influenced by historical incidents andalso mythology. Jaishankar Prasad wrote a couple of short stories as well during the span of hisbrief career as a writer of Hindi literature. Expectedly, the plots of his short stories were alsobased either in Indian history or mythology. Mamta and Chhota Jadugar are two of the mostpopular short stories written by Jaishankar Prasad.KamayaniNo discussion on the collection of writings by Jaishankar Prasad is complete without a specialreference to Kamayani. Kamayani is, by far, not only the most popular work of JaishankarPrasad; it is also one of the best collections of poetry that the Hindi literary circuit has everseen. Kamayani, which has received popular and critical appreciation ever since it waspublished some decades ago, is still the most popular and best mahakavya that the Hindilanguage has witnessed. The epic poem may be described as an amalgamation of knowledge,desire and action, the three basic elements in the life of a human being. The central charactersof the mahakavya, Manu, Ida and Shradha describe through their actions in the poem, theevolution of culture in humans and the mythological story of the great flood. The threecharacters Manu, Ida and Shradha represent human psyche, rationality and love respectively inKamayani.
Death and BeyondJaishankar Prasad died at a very early age of 47 on January 14 of 1937. The great Hindilitterateur is survived by three wives and their children. After his death, Shanta Gandhi, a 1960sprofessor of ancient Indian drama at the National School of Drama in New Delhi, took theinitiative to stage several of Jaishankar Prasads plays for the modern Indian theater. ShantaGandhi took note of the fact that not many changes were made in the original writing ofJaishankar Prasad so that the modern generation gets a taste of the real Jaishankar Prasadwriting. The first play staged by her was Skandagupta which was written by the Hindilitterateur in 1928. Jaishankar Prasad is still fondly remembered as one of the pillars of Hindiliterature, the other two being Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla and Munshi Premchand.Jaishankar Prasad was not only a great writer; he also made a mark as a historian and aphilosopher.Timeline1889: Jaishankar Prasad is born on January 30.1915: He wrote his first significant drama, Rajyasri1928: Wrote his famous play Skandagupta.1935: The long poem Kamayani was published1937: Died on January 14 aged only 47.1960s: The National School of Drama staged plays written by Jaishankar Prasad.
Sahir LudhianviBorn: March 8, 1921 Ludhiana, PunjabDied: October 25, 1980Best remembered for penning the renowned "Kabhi kabhi mere dilmein" song from the movie "Kabhie Kabhie", Sahir Ludhianvi etched apermanent mark on songs and ghazals in the Hindi film industry. Trueto his name, Sahir was a magician who fascinated his listeners andreaders through his marvelous compositions. His wordings havesuccessfully created a plethora of emotions with its simple languageand distinguished feelings. Despite being unable to praise God,beauty, and wine, he divulged his bitterness with sensitive lyrics through his pen. For hisillustrious and magnificent compositions, he was honored with two Filmfare Awards and PadmaShri Award during his lifetime.Early LifeSahir Ludhianvi was born as Abdul Hayee into a rich Muslim Gujjar family in Ludhiana in Punjab.His father was a wealthy zamindar, while mother was Sardar Begum. Since birth, his parentswere undergoing an estranged relationship and chose to separate when Sahir was just 13 yearsold. His father married for the second time and chose to take custody of Sahir, but lost due tohis second marriage. As such, he threatened to snatch Sahir from his mother, no matter whatstep he had to take. Due to this, Sahir spent his childhood surrounded by fear and financialdeprivation. He attained his formal education from Khalsa High School in Ludhiana. Thereafter,he graduated to Satish Chander Dhawan Government College For Boys in Ludhiana to pursuehis higher studies. But he was expelled just after one year for being caught sitting with a femalein the lawns in 1943. He left Ludhiana and traveled to Lahore in search of a better careerprospect.Bollywood CareerIn Lahore, Sahir completed his first work in Urdu "Talkhiyaan" but was unable to find apublisher for the same. Finally, after two years of shuffling between Ludhiana and Lahore, hefound a publisher in 1945. Thereafter, he started editing four magazines, "Adab-e-Lateef","Shahkaar", "Prithlari", and "Savera". These magazines achieved immense success. However,due to his explosive writing in "Savera", the government of Pakistan issued an arrest warrantagainst him. As such, he fled from Lahore in 1949 and landed in Delhi. After spending a couple
months there, he traveled to Bombay where he settled for the rest of his life and createdhistory through his illustrious works.He made his debut into Bollywood by writing the lyrics for "Aazadi Ki Raah Par" in 1949.Though he wrote four songs, both the film and the songs sank unnoticed.Sahir was next seen in 1951 "Naujawaan" with S.D. Burman as the music director. This movieacted as the stepping stone for him as the film worked decently. But his major recognition camewith Guru Dutts directorial debut "Baazi" in 1951, again paired with Burman. Thereafter, hewas amongst the team of Guru Dutt. The combination delivered some marvelous musicalperformances that became legendary hits. Over his entire Bollywood career, Sahir deliveredevergreen and immortal pieces of Hindi film music. Some of the most prominent movies include"Pyaasa", "Hum Dono", "Taj Mahal", "Phir Subah Hogi", "Trishul", and "Waqt".His 1976 "Kabhie Kabhie" saw the best in Sahir that went on to break all records, andbestowing him with another Filmfare Award for Best Lyricist, second to "Taj Mahal".Poetry CareerWhile writing lyrics for Bollywood films were reaching skies at that time, his poetry was not leftbehind either. His poetry revealed a "Faizian" quality of writing. His works had that intellectualelement that caught the attention of people during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. Though Sahirwas egoistic by nature, probably due to his zamindari background, he was a compassionateman and felt for others, often neglecting his own needs. This nature reflected in his poetrywhich wrote as he aged. With different periods progressing, Sahir narrated various ages, whichis not very common in many writers style. Kahat-e-Bangal (The Famine of Bengal) talked aboutearly maturity, while Subah-e-Navroz (Dawn of a New Day) spoke about the conditions of thepoor. He was one amongst the few Urdu poets who illustrated his views towards the Taj Mahalin an entirely different manner.Personal LifeSahir Ludhianvi did not marry in his life and chose to remain a bachelor throughout. Afterexperiencing two failed relationships, one with journalist Amrita Pritam and another withsinger-actress Sudha Malhotra, he resolved to excessive drinking and became an alcoholic. Boththe ladies fathers rejected Sahir due to his perceived religion and atheism. Sahir and Amritawere so passionately in love with each other that she wrote his name a hundred times in sheetsof paper during one press conference. Though the couple met quite often, they never spoke aword during their date. After Sahir was done with smoking and left, Amrita would pick up thebutts and smoke them, hoping that they would meet someday in the other world. Another
reason for rejecting Sahir as a compatible partner for Amritas father was Sahirs inability toafford a house. As a result, Sahir built a taller house opposite Amritas residence in Ludhiana.DeathSahir Ludhianvi was honored with Padma Shri Award in 1971. He suffered a major heart attackon October 25th, 1980 and passed away in the arms of his friend Dr. R.P. Kapoor. He was 59years old then. He was later buried in Juhu Muslim cemetery, but his tomb was destroyed in2010 to make space for other dead bodies.Notable FilmsAazadi Ki Raah Par, 1949Naujawaan, 1951Baazi, 1951Shahenshah, 1953Humsafar, 1953Alif Laila, 1953Taxi Driver, 1954House No. 44, 1955Marine Drive, 1955Devad, 1955Pyaasa, 1957Naya Daur, 1957Phir Subah Hogi, 1958Barsat Ki Raat, 1960Hum Dono, 1961Taj Mahal, 1963Gumraah, 1963Chitralekha, 1964Waqt, 1965Humraaz, 1967Naya Rasta, 1970Dastan, 1972Joshila, 1973Deewar, 1975Zameer, 1975Laila Majnu, 1976Kabhie Kabhie, 1976Trishul, 1978Kala Patthar, 1978The Burning Train, 1980Distinguished SongsAana hai to aa (Naya Daur, 1957)Ye duniya agar mil bhi jaye to kya hai (Pyaasa, 1957)Wo subah kabhi to aayegi (Phir Subah Hogi, 1958)Tu Hindu banega na musalman banega (Dhool ka Phool, 1959)Allah tero naam, ishwar tero naam (Hum Dono, 1961)Chalo ek baar phir se ajnabi ban jaye hum dono (Gumraah, 1963)Aye meri zohrajabein (Waqt, 1965)Aagey bhi jane na tu (Waqt, 1965)Main pal do pal ka shayar hoon (Kabhie Kabhie, 1976)Kabhie kabhie (Kabhi Kabhie, 1976)Timeline1921: Was born on March 8th in Ludhiana, Punjab1934: Parents got divorced1942: Admitted to Satish Chander Dhawan Government College For Boys, Ludhiana
1943: Expelled from college and went to Lahore1945: Got his first Urdu poetry "Talkhiyaan" published1949: Ran away from Lahore to Delhi and later to Bombay1949: Got a break in his first Bollywood movie "Aazadi Ki Raah Par"1951: Gained recognition with Guru Dutts "Baazi"1964: Won the Filmfare Award for Best Lyricist for "Taj Mahal"1971: Honored with Padma Shri Award1977: Won the Filmfare Award for Best Lyricist for "Kabhie Kabhie"1980: Died in Mumbai on 25th October, aged 59
Kazi NazrulBorn: 25th May 1899 Churulia, Burdwan District of West BengalDied: 29th August 1976Nazrul said, "Even though I was born in this country (Bengal), inthis society, I dont belong to just this country, this society. Ibelong to the world."Also known as the Vidrohi kobi or rebel poet in Bengaliliterature and bulbul or nightingale of Bengali music, KaziNazrul Islam was one of the most inspiring personalities ofundivided Bengal between 1920 and 1930. For a significant partof his life, he was considered as the pioneer of post Tagore modernity in Bengali poetry. Theseveral ways in which he expressed himself include poems, short stories, plays and politicalactivities. Most of his works protested against the slavery, communalism, feudalism andcolonialism forced upon India by the British rule. To sum it all up, in the 1000 year history ofBengali music, K. N. Islam was the most original and creative. He brought traditional music tothe people by fusing different elements of North Indian classical music.Early LifeKazi Nazrul was born on May 24th 1899 in Churulia village in the district of Burdwan, WestBengal. He lost his father, Kazi Fakir Ahmed at an early age and was nicknamed Dukhu Mia orsorrow by the village people because of the hardships and misery he faced in his early life.He became the muazzin of the village mosque at the age of ten and started teaching at the localschool. It was at this point that he leaned about the practices of Islam which led him to join hisuncle, Bazle Karims folk group as a performer and composer. It is believed that his motivationin literature came from this stint.At 11 years, he resumed his studies only to discontinue them again due to financial crisis andwork in a bakery and tea shop in Asansole. However, in 1914, he re-entered school inMymensingh district and managed to complete class 10.In 1917, he joined the Indian Army and served it for three years as Battalion Quarter MasterHavildar. Nazruls engagement with a girl called Nargis ended in 1921 owing to her fathersunreasonable conditions and he later married Pramila Devi in 1924.
CareerIn May 1919, while serving the army, Nazrul composed and published his first piece TheAutobiography of a Delinquent or "Saogat". He was already publishing literary periodicals likeParbasi, Bharatbarsha and others from the Karachi Cantonment.After leaving the army in 1920, he settled in Calcutta and joined the Bangiya Mussalman SahiyaSamiti where he wrote his first poem Bandhan-hara or Freedom from bondage. He keptadding other poems viz., Bodhan, Shat-il-Arab, Kheya-parer Tarani and Badal PraterSharab etc. to the same collection for several years and was critically acclaimed all over thecountry for these.Nazrul worked with great writers like Mohammas Mozammel Haq, Afzalul Haq, Kazi etc andalso visited the Shantiniketan to meet Rabindranath Tagore in 1921 with whom he maintainedclose association.In 1922, he reached the peak with his work with Bidrohi which appealed to the classes and themasses alike. It was published in Bijli (Thunder) magazine and was co-incidentally inaccordance with the civil disobedience movement of 1942.In 1922, a bi-weekly magazine, Dhumketu (Comet), published his political poem which led toNazruls arrest. On April 14th 1923, he was transferred to Hooghly in Calcutta and was laterreleased in December 1923. While imprisoned, he composed a large number of poems andsongs.Kazi Nazrul Islam became a critic of the "Khilafat" struggle and the Indian National Congress fornot embracing political independence from the British Empire. He encouraged people to fightagainst the British and organized the Sramik Praja Swaraj Dal. On 16th December 1925, Nazrulstarted publishing the weekly Langal as the chief editor.In 1926, he settled in Krishnanagar and wrote poetry and songs for the downtrodden and weakclasses of the society. His famous poem Daridro (Pain or Poverty) was written during thistime. Nazrul also composed ghazals in Bengali and became the first person to introduce Islaminto traditional music. The first record was a huge success. Shamasangeet, Bhajan and Kirtanthat combined Hindu devotional music was also created by him.In 1928, he started working as a lyricist, composer and music director for His Masters VoiceGramophone Company. His songs, together called Nazrul geet, were broadcasted overseveral radio stations and he was enlisted with the Indian Broadcasting Company.After his mothers demise, Nazruls works changed from topics of rebellion to religion. He gotinto mainstream Bengali folk music and explored namaz (prayer), roza (fasting) and hajj
(pilgrimage). He devoted works to Quran and the life of Islams prophet Muhammad.In 1933, he published a collection of essays - Modern World Literature - which had differentthemes and styles of literature. He also published 800 songs based on classical ragas, kirtansand patriotic songs in 10 volumes.Nazrul slowly moved in Indian theatre in the year 1934 and the first picture for which he actedwas based on Girish Chandras story called Bhakta Dhruva. He also composed and sang for thismovie. A film "Vidyapati", based on his play, was featured in 1936. One of his biggest moves inthe industry was writing songs and directing music for Siraj-ud-Daula - a bioepic play.1939 was a good year for him where he began working for the Calcutta radio and he startedproducing music such as Haramoni and Navaraga-malika. He sang predominantly in the ragaBhairay. In 1940, he started working as a chief editor for Nabayug, founded by A.K. FazlulHuq.When Rabindranath Tagore died on 8th August 1941, he composed two poems dedicated tothe veteran.DeathNazruls health started deteriorating as a result of Pramila Devis paralysis and he underwentseveral mental treatments after 1941. He even stayed at a mental asylum for four months in1942 and was re-admitted in Ranchi in 1952. A group of admirers called "Nazrul TreatmentSociety" along with his prominent supporters, sent Nazrul and Pramila to London and Viennawhere Nazrul was diagnosed of Picks disease. His condition was incurable and he returned toIndia in 1953. Later, his wifes demise in 1962 followed by his youngest sons in 1974 took a tollon Nazrul and he succumbed to his illness on the 29th of August 1976. In accordance to his lastwishes, he was buried on the campus of University of Dhaka near the mosque.Awards And Accolades• Nazrul was awarded the Jagattarini Gold Medal in 1945, by the University of Calcuttafor his work in Bengali Literature.• He got the Padma Bhushan, one of the highest civilian honours, in 1960.• He was conferred the title of national poet and Ekushey Padak by the Government ofBangladesh.• He was also honoured with Honours in D. Litt. by the University of Dhaka.
LegacyKazi Nazrul Islams works have been acclaimed as well as criticized for egoism, but his admirerswho supported him throughout his life, considered this as self-confidence more than ego. Theysaid that he had the ability to defy God and yet be devoted.As against Tagores sophisticated style, he was rugged and unique. He used Persian in his worksbut compensated this with his use of rich and imaginative language for childrens works.He is still regarded for his secularism and was the first person to include the rise of Christians inBengal in his books. He was regarded for the cultural renaissance that he brought out throughhis literature.Several learning centers were opened in his memory including the Nazrul Endowment. Here,large collections of his works are preserved till date. The Bangladesh Nazrul Sena is anorganization that works on children education throughout Bangladesh.Timeline1899: Born on May 24th in Churulia of West Bengal.1917: Joined the Indian Armed Forces.1919: Wrote Autobiography of a Delinquent.1920: Left the forces and composed Bandhan-hara, his first poem.1921: Visited Santhiniketan and met Rabindranath Tagore.1922: Peaked with his work called Bidrohi, Agniveena and so on.1923: Was arrested for the content in his magazine called Dhumketu1924: Married Pramila Devi.1925: Became the Chief Editor of Langal.1926: Started composing mass music and was known for his poem called Daridro.1928: Lyricist, composer and music director with His Masters Voice Gramophone Company.1933: Published Modern World Literature.1934: Acted and composed music for Bhakta Dhruva.1936: A play based on his work Vidyapati was released.1939: Started working for Calcutta radio.1940: Chief Editor of Nabayug.1941: Tagores death which led to writing of Rabihara.1962: Nazruls wife died.1974: Nazruls son died.1976: Died on 29th August of an unnatural cause.
Bibhutibhushan BandopadhyayBorn: 12 September 1894 Ghoshpara-Muratipur village, Bengal,British IndiaDied: 1 November 1950A renowned figure and a celebrated name amongst the Bengaliliterary fraternity, Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay was a criticallyacclaimed Bengali novelist and writer born on the 12th ofSeptember 1894.He is known for his autobiographical novel "Pather Panchali",which got incorporated into Apu Trilogy films by Satyajit Ray.Bibhutibhushan was a man of simple living and simple words andhis ideologies were very visible in his writings. Realism was oneof the main plots of his writings apart from the themes he picked up from the happy and sadreal life experiences. He was a writer who portrayed a beautiful combination of human beingsand nature and showed the peaceful aspect of life. It was his ability of putting across seriousthoughts and realms of life in simple language to the people that gained him the popularity andrespect he enjoys. In order to learn more on Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyays profile,childhood, life, and timeline read on.ChildhoodBibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay was born on the 12th September 1894, in Kalyani, Muratipurvillage in the Nadia of Bengal, British India. He was born at his maternal uncles house in aHindu Brahmin family.His father Mahananda Bandopadhyay, was a Kathak - a person who recites stories for a living -and also a Sanskrit scholar. Bibhutibhushan finished his schooling in Bongaon High School,which happened to be one of the oldest institutions in British India. He also taught in the sameschool at the beginning of his work life.Bibhutibhushans childhood and early life was shadowed by the clouds of poverty, but henevertheless fought his way through to complete his undergraduate degree in History from theSurendranath College in Kolkata. However, since he was not financially strong to enrol for thepostgraduate course at the University of Calcutta, he had to discontinue his studies. After this,the burden of his familys economic wellness came on to his shoulders.
Early LifeThe career of a writer did not come easy to Bandopadhyay. Due to the economic crisis of hisfamily, he had to take up various odd jobs to make ends meet before taking up writingseriously.He taught at the school from where he completed his schooling, he also took up the job of asecretary and even managed an estate until finally, in 1921 he got an opportunity to publish hisfirst short story "Upekshita" in a leading literary magazine of Bengal named Probashi. But, itwas not until 1928 that Bandopadhyay published his first novel, "Pather Panchali", for which hereceived critical attention and acclaim. It was with this novel that he became a prominent namein Bengali literature.Career And WorkBibhutibhushan took up writing novels and short stories at a time when there was a lot ofresearch going on regarding the social degradation and economic imbalance. However, hiswritings did not emphasize on these aspects of research, rather they focused on simple life,human figures and the environmental pleasure of rural Bengal and the people of Bengal. Hewrote in simple language and in a way that his ideas reached the common man. Realism isanother major aspect that his writings portrayed. His writings picturised the subtle relationshipshared by human beings and nature and put across a peaceful picture of human beings,animals, birds, rivers and other aspects of nature.Bandopadhyay used to walk miles into the woods every day and carried a book along usually.He loved to put down his thoughts in writing amongst the peaceful environment of wilderness.His famous novel "Pather Panchali" was picked up by film-maker Satyajit Ray and convertedinto a movie of the same name as a part of the memorable Apu Trilogy. Some of the famousworks of Bandopadhyay apart from Pather Panchali are Aparajito, Aranyak, Chander Pahar,Heera Manik Jwale, Adarsha Hindu Hotel, Ichhamati, Bipiner Sangsar, Anubartan, KosiPranganeyer Chitthi, Dristi Pradeep, Debjan, Ashani Sanket, Kedar Raja, Dampati,Sundarbane Sat Batsar (which he couldnt complete), Dui Bari, Kajol (Sequel of Aparajito,completed by his son Taradas), Mismider Kabach, Jatrabadol, MeghaMallar, Mauriphooland Tal Nabami etc.Marriage And RelationshipsBibhutibhushan Bandopadhyays first wife, Gouri Devi, died during childbirth one year aftertheir marriage. This tragic occurrence and the loneliness that it brought about and shadowedhis life became a prominent theme in his early writings. He remarried at the age of 46 to hissecond wife, Rama Chattopadhyay, from whom he had his only son, Taradas, in 1947.
DeathBibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay left for holy abode on the 1st of November 1950 after sufferinga coronary attack. He was 56 years old then and was staying in Ghatshila.Timeline And Literary Works1894: Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay was born on 12th September1921: He published his first short story "Upekshita" in a leading Bengali literary magazineEarly 1920s: Married Gouri Devi who died in childbirth a year after the marriage.1928: Bandopadhyay published his first novel, "Pather Panchali"1940: Got married to Rama Chattopadhyay1947: His only son Taradas was born.1950: Bandopadhyay suffered a fatal heart attack and breathed his last on 1st November inGhatshila.
Dr. Pandurang Vaman KaneBorn: 1880 (date unknown) Maharashtra, IndiaDied: 1972 (date unknown)Some of the greatest writings on social reforms of India came fromthis man, Dr. Pandurang Vaman Kane. He was conferred with anhonorary degree of doctor of law at a special convocationceremony. He was an indologist, i.e., a person who excels atlanguages and literature, and could converse easily in both Sanskritand English. He authored several books, especially on religious andcivil law. In these books, he compiled the scriptures of ancient andmedieval India. Being a scholar, this great person was revered allover the country. The book History of Dharmasastra, penned byDr. Kane is, by far, one of the most inspiring books written about the social reforms of ancientIndia. The title Mahamahopadhyaya (the greatest teacher of all teachers) was bestowed uponhim in his later days and in 1963, he was given the highest civilian award of India, the BharatRatna.Early LifeDr. Kane was born in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra to a very conservative ChitpavanBrahmin family. Not much is known about his background or his family history. Dr. Kanegraduated from the University of Mumbai and worked there as a historian and Vice Chancellor.He also helped in establishing the Kurukshetra University in Indic studies.CareerIn 1930, Dr. Kanes best known work, History of Dharmasastra - which was under the subtitleAncient and Medieval Religions and Civil Law in India - was published. This books launch wasannounced by Dr. Radhakrishnan and it has been a significant landmark in the history of India.The book was a true combination of conception and execution and has nearly 6500 pages ofinformation, such as several texts and manuscripts, all compiled in one. It is also known tocontain certain information on the Mahabharat, Puranas and Kautilya in Sanskrit. Dr. Kanesbasic idea behind writing the book was to make the public aware of the ancient social laws andcustoms in India and also to study the social processes that were prevalent in ancient India. Thelast publication was on November 17th 1962.
He was said to have used reliable resources like the Asiatic Society of Bombay and theBhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.His next work as an author was a book called Vyavaharamayukha. An introductory paragraphon the history of Dharmasastra was included in this book so that the reader got a fair idea ofthe subject, apart from the contents of the book itself. This became one of his major works andwas translated into English and Marathi, apart from being written in Sanskrit. It was made up ofnearly 15000 pages.An additional part of Dr. Kanes career was spent in debating the Indian constitution. Hebelieved that these set of rules and regulations were a break from traditional ideas that werewidespread in India. He further implied that people residing in this country have rights but noobligations.Several issues were brought to light due to the nature of his work and writings. During the reignof the Atal Bihari Vajpayee in India, there was a discussion whether the ancient Indian ate beef.For answers, they reverted to Dr. Kanes works to prove that Hindus respected and worshippedthe Cow and eating beef was not allowed. Another example was the issue of whether girls inIndia were allowed to wear the sacred thread. But, it was found out, through his books, that itwas restricted only to men.DeathThe exact date and cause of Dr. Kanes death remain unknown. However, it is confirmed that ithappened in the year 1972 when he was 92 years old.Awards And Accolades• He was the Mahamahopadhyaya for his excellence in writings. Therefore, his name isalways prefixed with an MM.• He was awarded the prestigious, Sahitya Akademi Award in 1956 for History ofDharmasastra, Vol IV under the category of Sanskrit translation.• Dr. Kane was also an esteemed honorary member of the Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan wherehe achieved new heights of greatness.• Becoming a part of the Rajya Sabha as a Member of Parliament (MP) was also under hislist of achievements and he was there for having a distinguished record in the field ofacademics.• Last but not least, he was conferred with the highest civilian accolade of India, theBharat Ratna, in 1963.
LegacyIn 1974, for his study on Religious and Civil Law, the town hall of the Asiatic Society of Bombay(where he conducted his research) commemorated him with an institute called the MM P. V.Kane Institute for Post Graduate Studies and Research.His legacy is furthered by the fact that a P. V. Kane Gold Medal is given to scholars for theiroutstanding contribution in the study of Vedic, Dharmasastra or Alankara Literature.Timeline1880: Pandurang Kane was born to a conservative family in the Ratnagiri district ofMaharashtra.1930: First publication of History of Dharmasastra was released.1956: Dr. Kane received the Sahitya Akademi Award for History of Dharmasastra, Vol IV underthe category of Sanskrit translation.1962: Last publication of the History of Dharmasastra was released.1963: The Government of India bestowed Dr. Kane with the Bharat Ratna (highest civilianaward in the Republic of India) for excellence in Literature.1972: Died at the age of 92.1974: The Asiatic Society dedicated an institute in his name for study in Religions and Civil Law.
Jiddu KrishnamurtiBorn: 12th May, 1895 Madanapalle, Andhra PradeshDied: 17th Feb, 1986"I maintain that Truth is a pathless land, and you cannot approachit by any path whatsoever, by any religion, by any sect" - J.Krishnamurti.Jiddu Krishnamurti was considered a revolutionary writer andspeaker on philosophical meditation and was someone whobrought about a change in society. Krishnamurti believed thatsocial reforms could only be possible if the minds of theindividuals change. He also talked about spiritual issues and urgedevery human being to think about religious, political and socialrevolution. He was a guru who never wanted to be one. It is said that Jiddu did not remembermuch of his childhood. Some called him delusional and others said that this was a sign that hewas a self-realized master.Early LifeJiddu Krishnamurti was born in a Telugu speaking Brahmin family to Narainiah andSanjeevamma. His father was employed with the British administration and his mother diedwhen he was just ten years old. In 1903, he shifted base to Cudappah where he attendedschool. Here, he was considered vague and dreamy and mentally retarded. He startedpenning childhood memoirs when he was eighteen years old and claimed to have had a psychicvision of his dead sister. His father retired in 1907 and then wrote to the then President of theTheosophical Society, Annie Besant seeking employment. He was hired as a clerk and he andhis sons moved to the Theosophical Society headquarters in Chennai in 1909.In May 1909, Krishnamurti met the influential theosophist called Charles Webster Leadbeater.Despite Krishnamurtis unpleasant physical appearence, Leadbeater saw a spark in him andsaid that he would become a spiritual leader, a great orator and a vehicle for Lord Maitreya - aspiritual entity who appears on earth as a World Teacher to look into the evolution ofmankind. After this he was privately tutored under the wing of the Theosophical Society. It washere that he developed such a strong bond with Annie Besant that his father gave Besant alegal guardianship over Krishnamurti.
CareerIn 1911, the Theosophical Society named Krishnamurti the head of a new organization calledthe Order of the Star in the East (OSE) which was to prepare the world for a new WorldTeacher. This mission received publicity and worldwide press coverage. It is said that he wasuncomfortable with publicity surrounding him and his future being foretold.He was taken to England in 1911 where he gave his first public speech to the members ofOrder of the Star in the East in London. At the same time, he started writing in magazines andbooklets published by the Theosophical Society. After World War I, Krishnamurti gave a seriesof lectures and held meetings around the world regarding his role as the head of the Order ofthe Star in the East. He continued writing, most of which revolved around work of the Order inpreparation for the Coming.In 1922, he met Rosalind Williams and they discussed the World Teacher Project at Ojai Valleyin California which later became his official residence. During the month of September, he wentthrough a life changing spiritual experience. He experienced a mystical union followed byimmense peace. Slowly, the process began and Krishnamurti felt this initially as bodily painand then unconsciousness, but he always claimed to know his surroundings. Over the next fewyears, he started talking about more abstract and flexible concepts.On 3rd August 1929, he dissolved the Order in front of Besant in a speech known as theDissolution Speech which was heard over the radio.He kept denying the fact that he was a World Leader and never clarified his position. Heeventually dissociated himself from the Theosophical Society. He never had the concept offollowers and a teacher. J. Krishnamurti spent the rest of his life holding dialogues and givingpublic talks on nature, beliefs, truth, sorrow, freedom and death. This wise man never believedin dependency and exploitation and never accepted gifts showered on him for his works. Heurged people to think independently and gave lecture tours all over the world, published booksand transcripts for half a century.In the years between 1930 and 1944, he engaged himself in speaking tours with a publicationcompany trust called Star Publishing Trust. Rishi Valley School was opened based on hiseducational ideas. It operated under the Krishnamurti Foundations banner. Throughout the1930s, he spoke in Europe, America and Australia and spoke about everything that he acceptedwas true. He faced opposition for this.Krishnamurti talked of meditation in every discussion and also brought in new terms likechoiceless awareness and a single consciousness. In 1938, he spoke of World War-II and forthis he came under the surveillance of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). He stopped
giving lectures until 1944, after which when he again became regular. All his lectures werepublished in Krishnamurti Writings Inc.In 1953, he started writing prose and his first book was published by a mainstream commercialpublisher. Majority of his writings were in third person and he increased the number of talksand dialogues. He met prominent personalities like the Dalai Lama and Jawarhalal Nehru duringhis time. In 1961, he found a physicist called David Bohm, whose beliefs were parallel to his.They had several discussions together and even met a scientific community.In the late 1980s Jiddu Krishnamurti wrote the basic elements of his teachings called Core ofthe Teaching, in which he stressed on knowledge and man being built as a sense of his images -religious, political and personal.ContributionsBooks• Freedom from Known,• Awakening of Intelligence,• The Ending of Time,• The Future of Humanity,• Truth and Actuality,• The First and Last Freedom,• Wholeness of Life,• Think on these Things and some meditation books are major contributions byKrishnamurti.Poems• Hymn of the Innate Triumphant,• My Beloved and I are One,• Thou Art There and• From Darkness To Light: Poems of the Parable were some of the poetic works of JidduKrishnamurti.Education• A Purpose of Education,• The Act of Learning,• Discussion with the Teachers,• On Order,
• The Fundamental Meaning of Co-operation and A Different Kind of Education weresome of his most influential works.DeathJiddu Krishnamurti died on 17th February, 1986 at the age of 90 in California, due to pancreaticcancer.LegacyKrishanmurtis works were inspiring and many take interest in reading them even today. Hisbooks have been brought out in the form of videos and audio books. The KrishnamurtiFoundation still has archives of his teachings and it continues to grow. The schools that werestarted based on his teachings have reported huge growth. Unofficial Krishnamurti committeesare operating in several countries and his biographies and research papers are continuallyreferred to even to this day.Timeline1895: Birth of Jiddu Krishnamurti in Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh.1907: His father consulted Annie Besant for employment in the Theosophical Society.1909: He met Charles Leadbeater who said he would become a spiritual leader.1911: Became the Head of the Order of the Star to prepare for the World Teacher and gave hisfirst speech to OSE, London.1922: Experienced the process.1929: Dissolution Speech that ended the Order.1930-1944: He published under the Star Publishing Trust.1944: Publishing house called Krishnamurti Publishing Inc. is formed1953: Published his first book under a mainstream publisher.1961: Giving speeches to the scientific community along with David Bohm.1980s: Core of his teaching was released where his basic elements were documented.1986: He died at the age of 90 in Ojai, California.
Bharatendu HarishchandraBorn: September 9, 1850 VaranasiDied: January 6, 1885Bharatendu Harishchandra is one of the most heard names in thehistory of modern Hindi literature. He was an imminent poet ofthe 19th century who also wrote several novels and plays. It wasthe subject and pattern of his writings which caught the attentionof the critics and the masses and made BharatenduHarishchandra such a popular name in Hindi literature.Harishchandra possessed a revolutionary spirit and made knownall his nationalistic feelings through his writings. Almost everypiece of work from the hands of Bharatendu Harishchandra spoke about the exploitation whichexisted in the Indian society during his times, the inhuman conditions that the poor and needyhad to live in and the subjugation that the lower and middle classes of the society had to face inthe hands of the elite ruling class. Most of his poems were an urge to the people of India to joinhands in an effort to better the living conditions in the country.He is known as the father of modern Hindi literature as well as Hindi theatre.ChildhoodBharatendu Harishchandra was born on September 9, 1850 in Varanasi. His father GopalChandra was also a poet (by the pseudonym of Girdhar Das) and it was from his father thatBharatendu Harishchandra derived the inspiration to write in his later life. The nationalmovement in India during the British rule moved Bharatendu Harishchandra to a great degreeeven when he was young. He and his family visited the Jagannath Temple in Puri in the year1865 when Bharatendu Harishchandra was a mere 15 year old kid. But even as a child, theBengal Renaissance deeply touched him and he was influenced into being a part of themovement by introducing the concept in Hindi literature. After returning to his native Varanasifrom Puri, Bharatendu Harishchandra conducted an in-depth study of the plays, novels andpoems that were being written to bring about social and historical changes during the BengalRenaissance. And it was this study of Bengali literature that led Bharatendu Harishchandra totranslate an important Bengali play Vidyasundar to Hindi in the year 1868. BharatenduHarishchandras parents died when he was still very young, another incident which touched himand inspired him to get more involved with poetry, prose and drama writing.
Life & WorksAfter the death of his father, Bharatendu Harishchandra got completely immersed in Hindiliterature and always adopted ways to contribute better writings for the development of Hindiliterature. He introduced new concepts and ideas in Hindi prose and drama and is thusconsidered the pioneer of the modern age Hindi writing. However, Bharatendu Harishchandrascontribution was not just limited to the field of writing prose and poetry. He was in fact alsoinvolved with the development of Hindi journalism. He worked as an editor in magazines likeHarishchandra Patrika, Kavi Vachan Sudha, Harishchandra Magazine and Bal Vodhini.It was in recognizing his efforts towards the development of the Hindi language that renownedscholars in Hindi during his age bestowed on him the title of Bharatendu at a public eventorganized in the year 1880. It was their way of showing respect to the person who had brokennew grounds and ushered in a new era of Hindi literature, thus making him the rightful ownerof the title Father of Modern Hindi Literature. Bharatendu Harishchandra was a notablemember of the Chowdhury family residing in Varanasi. His forefathers, on the other hand, weremembers of the Agrawal community who were rich landlords in Bengal. BharatenduHarishchandra wrote extensively on the life and times of his great grandfathers from theAgrawal community. His family indeed had a flourishing history to boast of and severalaccounts of it were highlighted in the prose and essays written by Bharatendu Harishchandra.Notable Works of Bharatendu HarishchandraPoetry• Prem Madhuri• Prem Pralap• Raag Sangraha• Krishna Charitra• Phoolo ka GuchchaDrama• Vaidik Himsa Hitnda na Bhavati• Satya Harishchandra (a mythologicalclassic)• Neel Devi• Bharat Durdasha• Andher Nagari (City of Darkness’, which is considered as one of the most popular playsin India, being translated into a number of languages after Hindi.)Bharatendu Harishchandra was not only a playwright but also a director and actor in plays. Infact, it was acting that first brought Bharatendu Harishchandra to theater. He later chose towrite and direct plays as well.
Essay Collection• Bharatendu Grnthaaolly or Sahitya HarishchandraTranslation• Visakhadattas Mudra Rakshasa• Vidya Sundar• Harsha’s Ratnavali• Durlabh Bandhu (fromShakespeare’s Merchat of Venice.This writing was left incomplete dueto Harishchandra’s death.)• Kapoor MnajariDeathBharatendu Harishchandra passed away on January 6, 1885 at the age of 35, at his hometownVaranasi. His writings are still held in high regard by Hindi literature lovers all over the world.RecognitionBharatendu Harishchandra is such a respected name in Hindi writing that the Ministry ofInformation and Broadcasting in India still honors accomplished original writings in Hindi bybestowing upon the writers the Bharatendu Harishchandra Awards instituted in the year 1983.Popular Kannada scriptwriter and director Prasanna paid tribute to his chief inspirationBharatendu Harishchandra by preparing the play Seema Paar, which was staged at theNational School of Drama in New Delhi. Seema Paar focuses on Bharatendu Harishchandrasearly life in the ghats of Varanasi and the highpoints of his career in Hindi writing. Hindi scholarand critic Ramvilas Sharma famously commented that Bharatendu Harishchandra ushered in anera of "great literary awakening" in Hindi literature. His unique approach to writing earned histhe name of father of modern Hindi literature.Timeline1850: Bharatendu Harishchandra is born on September 9.1865: He visits Puri with family and gets inspired by Bengal Renaissance.1868: Translates Bengali writing Vidyasundar to Hindi.1880: Conferred the title of Bharatendu.1885: Bharatendu Harishchandra dies on January 6.1983: The Bharatendu Harishchandra Awards are instituted to celebrate original fresh talent inHindi writing.
Devaki Nandan KhatriBorn: 1861 Samastipur, BiharDied: 1913Devaki Nandan Khatri was one of the most popular authors of Hindinovels, best known to have introduced the concept of mystery inHindi novel writing. Fondly referred to as Babu DevakinandanKhatri, he was the first writer of mystery novels in the Hindilanguage. Devaki Nandan Khatris writings were so popular thateven people who were not Hindi literate made it a point to learn thelanguage to be able to read his mystery novels. Therefore, it may beaptly concluded that Devaki Nandan Khatri not only contributed toHindi literature, he also played a major role in making people of his times learn Hindi. DevakiNandan Khatri introduced several words in his novels which went on to become an integral partof mystery novel writing in Hindi by future authors.Early LifeDevaki Nandan Khatri was born in the year 1861 in the city of Samastipur in Bihar. Aftercompletion of his primary schooling in Samastipur, Devaki Nandan Khatri moved to the city ofTekari in Gaya for further education. He later assumed office as an employee of the Raja ofVaranasi. Since his initial years of professional life, Devaki Nandan Khatri was a resident ofVaranasi.CareerIt was in the year 1898 that Devaki Nandan Khatri took up novel writing in Hindi seriously. Bythat time, he had already started a printing press at Varanasi by the name of Lahari. It wasfrom Lahari that his first writing was published in a Hindi monthly called Sudarshan, alsostarted by Devaki Nandan Khatri. The Lahari Press inaugurated by Devaki Nandan Khatri at theRam Katora Road in Varanasi stands till today at the Ram Katora Crossing. Devaki Nandans sonand grandson followed his footsteps to take the tradition of mystery novel writing in Hindiforward.Babu Devakinandan Khatri, as he was fondly called after his works began to be distributed inplaces all over India, set up a book shop by the name of Lahrai Book Depot in Varanasi. Duringthis time, he had already acquired fame as one of the chief writers of mystery novels in Hindi.
The bookshop sold Hindi books written by Devaki Nandan Khatri and other eminent authors. Aunique feature of Devaki Nandan Khatris writings was that he never published one novel at onego. The authors novels were not published in the form of a book but as parts of the story in themonthly magazine Sudarshan.At the time when entire India was disturbed by the British rule in the country, Devaki NandanKhatri participated in the freedom struggle, while also taking time out to write parts or chaptersof his novels. The chapters, or bayaans as Devaki Nandan Khatri referred to them, wereeagerly awaited by one and all throughout the country. In fact, it became a ritual among thosewho were not educated in the Hindi language to visit friends or family members who wereHindi literate so that they may also hear the latest development in Devaki Nandan Khatrismystery saga. His works gradually gained so much popularity that people who did not knowHindi decided to learn the language only to be able to read the novels written by him. In thisway Babu Devakinandan Khatri contributed to the widespread dissemination of the Hindilanguage in India.As mentioned earlier, Devaki Nandan Khatri specialized in the writing of Hindi mystery novels.Aiyyar and Aiyarra were two of his most famous terms used to describe spies, male andfemale respectively, who served rulers of different regions in his novels. Both these words werepreviously unknown in the Hindi literary world. However, it was because of the popularity ofthe Devaki Nandan Khatri novels that both the terms began to be widely used thereafter.Similarly, he also introduced the word Tilism in the Hindi novel writing dictionary, a termwhich was used to mean a maze of hiding places, prisons and unknown passages.Popular WorksDevaki Nandan Khatri contributed some of the most popular novels that not only helped tointroduce a new genre in Hindi literature, but also led to the enrichment of the Hindi languageas a whole. Some of the most important works of Devaki Nandan Khatri are:• Chandrakanta• Chandrakanta Santati• Virendra Veer• Bhootnath (completed by his son after his death as Rohtasmath’)• Narendra Mohini• Gupt Godna