1. Munshi PremchandBorn: July 31, 1880, VaranasiDied: October 8, 1936, VaranasiMunshi Premchand (मुंशी ेमचंद) was an Indian writer famousfor his modern Hindi-Urdu literature.Born Dhanpat Rai, he began writing under the pen name"Nawab Rai", but subsequently switched to "Premchand",while he is also known as "Munshi Premchand", Munshi beingan honorary prefix. A novel writer, story writer and dramatist,he has been referred to as the "Upanyas Samrat" ("Emperorof Novels") by some Hindi writers.Early LifePremchand was born on 31 July 1880 in a village near Varanasi in India to Munshi Ajaib Lal, aclerk in the post office. His parents died when he was still very young. His mother died when hewas no more than seven and his father passed away when Premchand was fifteen or sixteen,and still a student.His parents named him Dhanpat Rai ("the master of wealth"), while his uncle, Mahabir, a richlandowner, nicknamed him "Nawab" ("Prince"). "Nawab Rai" was the first pen name chosen byPremchand.After loosing his parents, Premchand became responsible for his step mother and his siblingsborn from her. Premchand was married to a girl in an arranged child marriage-as then was thecustom- but the marriage proved to be painful for him and he left her in 1899. After thatPremchand married a child widow Shivrani Devi in 1906.After leaving his village in 1899, Premchand took up a job of a schoolmaster at a mission schoolin Chunar, another remote area. The salary was minimal and he was the only earning memberin the family. With that negligible amount he had to support his wife, step mother, his siblingsand himself. The condition became even worse when he was fired from the job and had toreturn to his village. After some efforts, he succeeded in getting a job of assistant master at agovernment school in Varanasi. He was transferred to a town near Allahabad, where hebecame the headmaster of a school in year 1902. After two years, he was sent to Kanpur as thedeputy sub-inspector of schools.Emperor of Novels
2. Early CareerDhanpat Rai first wrote under the pseudonym "Nawab Rai". His first short novel was Asrar eMaabid (Devasthan Rahasya in Hindi, "The Mystery of Gods Abode"), which explorescorruption among the temple priests and their sexual exploitation of poor women. The novelwas published in a series in the Benares-based Urdu weekly Awaz-e-Khalk from 8 October 1903to February 1905.After his death, Shivarani Devi wrote a book on him, titled Premchand Ghar Mein ("Premchandin House").In 1905, inspired by the nationalist activism, Premchand published an article on the IndianNational Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale in Zamana.Premchands first published story was Duniya Ka Sabse Anmol Ratan ("The Most PreciousJewel in the World"), which appeared in Zamana in 1907.Premchands second short novel Hamkhurma-o-Hamsavab (Prema in Hindi), published in 1907,and was penned under the name "Babu Nawab Rai Banarsi".In 1907, another of Premchands short novels, Kishna was published by the Medical Hall Pressof Benares.During April–August 1907, Premchands story Roothi Rani was published in serialform in Zamana. Also in 1907, the publisher’s of Zamana published Premchands first shortstory collection, titled Soz-e-Watan (Dirge of the Nation).Success as a WriterHis literary work in Urdu gained him a reputation of a journalist with social aim, rather than amere entertainer. Premchand was born in the British India and the Indian Independencemovement was at its peak when he started his writing career. His early writings were largelyinfluenced by the nationwide movement in which he often expressed his support to the fightfor freedom.In 1910, his collection of Soz-e-Watan was labeled as rebellious on account of its messagewhich provoked Indians to fight for the nation. An agonized British government confiscated thebook and all copies of Soz-e-Watan were burnt or destroyed. Premchand, who was writingunder the name of Nawabrai at that time, began to use Premchand as his pen name. Theprolific writer wrote more than 300 stories, novels and a number of plays.
3. The writer is credited with the introducing realism into the Hindi literature when it onlyconsisted of the fantasy stories, fairy tales and religious worpublished as Maansarovar.In 1921, Premchand resigned from his job as his support to the Indian independence movementand Gandhi’s Swadeshi movement. He took up a job in a printing press and became theproprietor of the press. During that time he also worked as the editor of Hindi and Urdujournals to support himself. It was miserable to see that though he had established himself as agreat writer and novelist, he failed to earn money and led a life of struggle amid povertyfinancial crisis.His first Hindi story Saut was published in the magazinefirst short story collection Sapta SarojBy 1919, Premchand had published fourPremchands first major novel Seva Sadanwritten in Urdu under the title Bazaarbased publisher, who offered Premchandof Lahorepublished the novel later in 1924, paying PremchandAfter quitting his job, Premchand left Gorakhpur for Benares on 18 March 1921, and decided tofocus on his literary career. Till his death in 1936, he faced sechronic ill health.In 1923, he established a printing press and publishing house in Benares, christenedPress". The year 1924 saw the publication of Premchandsbeggar called Surdas as its tragic hero. Schulz mentions that inacross as a "superb social chronicler", and although the novel contains some "structural flaws"and "too many authorial explanations", it shows a "marked progress" in Premchands writistyle.According to Schulz, it was inhis way to "a balanced, realistic level" that surpasses his earlier works and manages to "hold hisreaders in tutelage". Nirmala, a novel dealing with theserialized in the magazine Chandwith the subject of widow remarriage.In 1928, Premchands novel Gabanpublished. In March 1930, Premchand launched a literaryaimed at inspiring the Indians to mobilize against the British rule.politically provocative views, failed to make a profit. Premcanother magazine called JagaranThe writer is credited with the introducing realism into the Hindi literature when it onlyconsisted of the fantasy stories, fairy tales and religious work. His creations are compileIn 1921, Premchand resigned from his job as his support to the Indian independence movementand Gandhi’s Swadeshi movement. He took up a job in a printing press and became theess. During that time he also worked as the editor of Hindi and Urdujournals to support himself. It was miserable to see that though he had established himself as agreat writer and novelist, he failed to earn money and led a life of struggle amid povertywas published in the magazine Saraswati in DecemberSapta Saroj was published in June 1917.By 1919, Premchand had published four novellas, of about a hundred pages each. In 1919,Seva Sadan was published in Hindi. The novel was originallyBazaar-e-Husn, but was published in Hindi first by abased publisher, who offered Premchand 450 for his work. The Urdu PublisherLahorepublished the novel later in 1924, paying Premchand 250.After quitting his job, Premchand left Gorakhpur for Benares on 18 March 1921, and decided tofocus on his literary career. Till his death in 1936, he faced severe financial difficulties andIn 1923, he established a printing press and publishing house in Benares, christenedThe year 1924 saw the publication of Premchands Rangabhumi, which has a blindas its tragic hero. Schulz mentions that in Rangabhumi, Premchand comesacross as a "superb social chronicler", and although the novel contains some "structural flaws"and "too many authorial explanations", it shows a "marked progress" in Premchands writiAccording to Schulz, it was in Nirmala (1925) and Pratigya (1927) that Premchand foundhis way to "a balanced, realistic level" that surpasses his earlier works and manages to "hold his, a novel dealing with the dowry system in India, was firstChand, before being published as a novel. Pratigya ("The Vow") dealtwith the subject of widow remarriage.Gaban ("Embezzlement"), focusing on the middle class greed, wpublished. In March 1930, Premchand launched a literary-political weekly magazine titledaimed at inspiring the Indians to mobilize against the British rule. The magazine, noted for itspolitically provocative views, failed to make a profit. Premchand then took over and editedJagaran, which too ran at a loss.The writer is credited with the introducing realism into the Hindi literature when it onlyk. His creations are compiled andIn 1921, Premchand resigned from his job as his support to the Indian independence movementand Gandhi’s Swadeshi movement. He took up a job in a printing press and became theess. During that time he also worked as the editor of Hindi and Urdujournals to support himself. It was miserable to see that though he had established himself as agreat writer and novelist, he failed to earn money and led a life of struggle amid poverty andin December 1915 and hispages each. In 1919,Hindi. The novel was originally, but was published in Hindi first by a Calcutta-his work. The Urdu PublisherAfter quitting his job, Premchand left Gorakhpur for Benares on 18 March 1921, and decided tovere financial difficulties andIn 1923, he established a printing press and publishing house in Benares, christened "Saraswati, which has a blind, Premchand comesacross as a "superb social chronicler", and although the novel contains some "structural flaws"and "too many authorial explanations", it shows a "marked progress" in Premchands writing(1927) that Premchand foundhis way to "a balanced, realistic level" that surpasses his earlier works and manages to "hold hisdowry system in India, was first("The Vow") dealt("Embezzlement"), focusing on the middle class greed, waspolitical weekly magazine titled Hans,The magazine, noted for itshand then took over and edited
4. In 1931, Premchand moved to Kanpur as a teacher in the Marwari College, but had to leavebecause of difference with the college administration. He then returned to Benares, andbecame the editor of the Maryada magazine. In 1932, he published another noveltitled Karmabhumi. He briefly served as the headmaster of the Kashi Vidyapeeth, a local school.After the schools closure, he became the editor of the Madhuri magazine in Lucknow.Before Premchand, Hindi literature consisted mainly of fantasy or religious works. Premchandbrought realism to Hindi literature. He wrote over 300 stories, a dozen novels and two plays.The stories have been compiled and published as Maansarovar. His famous creations are:Panch Parameshvar, Idgah, Shatranj Ke Khiladi, Poos Ki Raat, Bade Ghar Ki Beti, Kafan, Udhar KiGhadi, Namak Ka Daroga, Gaban, Godaan, and Nirmala.Premchand was a great social reformer; he married a child widow named Shivarani Devi. Shewrote a book on him, Premchand Gharmein after his death. In 1921 he answered Gandhijis calland resigned from his job. He worked to generate patriotism and nationalistic sentiments in thegeneral populace. When the editor of the journal _Maryaada_ was jailed in the freedommovement, Premchand worked for a time as the editor of that journal. Afterward, he worked asthe principal in a school in the Kashi Vidyapeeth.The main characteristic of Premchands writings is his interesting storytelling and use of simplelanguage. His novels describe the problems of rural and urban India. He avoided the use ofhighly Sanskritized Hindi and instead used the dialect of the common people. Premchand wroteon the realistic issues of the day-communalism, corruption, zamindari, debt, poverty,colonialism etc.He stayed in Dadar, and wrote the script for the film Mazdoor ("The Labourer"). The film,directed by Mohan Bhawnani, depicted the poor conditions on the labour class. Premchandhimself did a cameo as the leader of laborers in the film.Premchand was elected as the first President of the Progressive Writers Association inLucknow, in 1936.Godaan (The Gift of a Cow, 1936), Premchands last completed work, is generally accepted ashis best novel, and is considered as one of the finest Hindi novels.In 1936, Premchand also published Kafan ("Shroud"), in which a poor man collects money forthe funeral rites of his dead wife, but spends it on food and drink. Premchands last publishedstory was Cricket Match, which appeared in Zamana in 1937, after his death.
5. Later Life & DeathPremchand believed that literature is a powerful medium to educate people and it showed inhis writings. In his later life, he continued to write fictions with social purpose and socialcriticism. Now a revered author and thinker, he presided over conferences, literature seminarsand received huge applause.He chaired the first All-India conference of the Indian Progressive Writer’s Association in year1936. However, in his personal life he was still struggling to make both ends meet. He alsosuffered from health problem particularly ‘abdominal problems’. Despite ever difficulty andchallenges, Premchand did not abandon writing and embarked on completing his last novelMangalsootra. The novel still remains incomplete as he died in the middle of it on 8 October1936.List of WorksNovelsTitle Publisher DateAsrar-e-Maabid (Urdu)Devasthan Rahasya(Hindi)Awaz-e-Khalk (serial form) 1903 (8 October)-1905(February)Prema (Hindi)Hamkhurma-o-HamSawab(Urdu)Indian Press/Hindustan PublishingHouse1907Kishna Medical Hall Press, Benares 1907Roothi Rani Zamana (serial form) 1907 (April–August)Soz-e-Watan(collection) Publishers of Zamana 1907Vardaan (Hindi)Jalwa-e-Isar(Urdu)Granth Bhandar and Dhanju 1912Seva Sadan(Hindi)Bazaar-e-Husn(Urdu)Calcutta Pustak Agency (Hindi) 1919 (Hindi); 1924 (Urdu)Premashram(Hindi)Gosha-e-Afiyat(Urdu)1922Rangbhoomi(Hindi)Chaugan-e-Hasti (Urdu)Darul Ishaat (Urdu, 1935) 1924Nirmala Idaara-e-Furoogh-Urdu 1925Kaayakalp(Hindi)Parda-i-Majaz(Urdu)Lajpat Rai & Sons, Lahore (Urdu) 1926 (Hindi), 1934 (Urdu)Pratigya (Hindi)Bewa (Urdu)1927Gaban (also transliteratedas Ghaban)Saraswati Press, Benares; Lajpatrai& Sons, Urdu Bazar1928Karmabhoomi(Hindi) Maktaba Jamia, Delhi 1932
6. Maidan-e-Amal(Urdu)Godaan Saraswati Press 1936Mangalsootra(incomplete) Hindustan Publishing HouseShort StoriesTitle Publisher DateDuniya ka Sabse Anmol Ratan Zamana 1907Bade Bhai Sahab Zamana 1910 (December)Beti ka Dhan Zamana 1915 (November)Saut Sarasvati(Vol. 16, Part 2, No. 6, 353-359) 1915 (December)Sajjanata ka dand Sarasvati 1916 (March)Panch Parameshvar Sarasvati 1916 (June)Ishwariya Nyaya Sarasvati 1917 (July)Durga ka Mandir Sarasvati 1917 (December)Balidan Sarasvati 1918 (May)Putra Prem Sarasvati 1920 (July)Boodhi Kaki(The Old Aunt) Hans 1921Pariksha Chand 1923 (January)Shatranj ke khiladi(Hindi)Shatranj ki bazi (Urdu)Madhuri October 1924Hinsa Parmo Dharma Madhuri 1926 (December)Ghasvali Madhuri 1929 (December)Idgah Chand 1933 (August)Nashaa Chand 1934 (February)Kafan Jamia 1936Cricket Match Zamana 1937Gupt DhanMantraNamak Ka DarogaPoos ki raatLottery ZamanaOther stories include:AbhushanAgni SamadhiAlagyojhaAmritAtmaramChoriDaroga SahabDeviDhaai ser gehunDikri Ke RupayeDo BahaneinDo Bailon ki KathaFauzdaarGrihaneetiGurumantra (1927)Har Ki JeetJail (1931)Juloos (1930)JurmanaKhudaiMahatirthaManushya Ka ParamDharma (March 1920)Maryada ki Vedi
7. Mukti MargNairashyaNimantran (1926)Pashu se ManushyaPrayaschitPrem PurnimaRamleelaSamar Yatra (1930)SatiSatyagraha (1923)Sawa Ser GehuSewa MargSuhag ki Sari (1923)Sujan BhagatSwatva RakshaThakur ka KuaanThriya CharitaUdhar Ki GhadiVajrpaatVimataHajje AkbarSautele MaaIbratRoshniBhadde ka TattuNijatTranslationsPremchand translated several non-Hindi works into Hindi. These included the writings of RatanNath Dhar Sarshar, Leo Tolstoy, Charles Dickens (The Story of Richard Doubledick), OscarWilde (Canterville), John Galsworthy (Strife), Sadi, Guy de Maupassant, MauriceMaeterlinck (Sightless) and Hendrik van Loon (The Story of Mankind).Some of the translated titles include:Premchands title OriginalAhankar Thais by Anatole France (adaptation)Azad Katha Fasana-e Azad (1880) by Ratan Nath Dhar SarsharParvat Yatra Sair-e-Kohsar (1890) by Ratan Nath Dhar SarsharChandi Ki Dibiya Silver Box (1906) by John GalsworthyHartal Strife (1909) by John GalsworthyNyaya Justice (1910) by John GalsworthySukhdas Silas Marner by George Eliot (adaptation)Tolstoy Ki Kahaniyan Stories of Leo TolstoyOtherFilm scriptMazdoor (1934)PlaysKarbalaTazurbaPrem Ki VediRoohani ShadiSangramEssaysKuchh Vichar (two parts) Qalam Tyag aur Talwar
8. BiographiesDurgadas Mahatma Sheikhsadi (biographyof Saadi)Childrens booksJangal ki KahaniyanKutte ki KahaniManmodakRam CharchaAdaptations of Premchand’s WorksSatyajit Ray filmed two of Premchands works– Sadgati and Shatranj Ke Khiladi.Sevasadan (first published in 1918) was made into a film with M.S. Subbulakshmi in thelead role.Premchand also worked with the film director Himanshu Rai of Bombay Talkies, one ofthe founders of Bollywood.The Actor Factor Theatre Company, a young Delhi based theatre group, staged Kafan in2010 in New Delhi.Oka Oori Katha (English title: The Marginal Ones) is a 1977 Telugu film directedby Mrinal Sen.Munshi Premchand Timeline:1880- Premchand was born on 31 July.1899-He left his village.1902-He became the headmaster of a school.1906- He married a child widow Shivrani Devi.1910- His collection of Soz-e-Watan was confiscated by the British government.1921- Premchand resigned from his job as his support to the Indian independence movement.1936- He chaired the first All-India conference of the Indian Progressive Writer’s Association.1936- Premchand died on 8 October.
9. Anita Mazumdar DesaiBorn: June 24, 1937 (age 75), MussoorieAnita Mazumdar Desai (born 24 June 1937) is an Indian novelistand the Emeritus John E. Burchard Professor of Humanities atthe Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As a writer she hasbeen shortlisted for the Booker Prize three times.She received a Sahitya Akademi Award in 1978 for her novel Fireon the Mountain, from the Sahitya Akademi, Indias NationalAcademy of Letters; she won the British Guardian Prize for TheVillage by the Sea.Early LifeAnita Desai was born as Anita Mazumdar on June 24, 1937 in Mussoorie. Her mother wasGerman and her father was Bengali. Anita Desai completed her schooling from Queen MarysHigher Secondary School in Delhi and graduated in English literature from the University ofDelhi (Miranda House).CareerDesai published her first novel, Cry The Peacock, in 1963. She considers Clear Light OfDay (1980) her most autobiographical work as it is set during her coming of age and also in thesame neighbourhood in which she grew up. In 1984 she published In Custody – aboutan Urdu poet in his declining days – which was shortlisted for the Booker Prize. In 1993 shebecame a creative writing teacher atMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Her novel, TheZigzag Way (2004), is set in 20th-century Mexico and her latest novel The Artist ofDisappearance came in 2011.Awards1978 – Winifred Holtby Memorial Prize- Fire on the Mountain1978 – Sahitya Akademi Award (National Academy of Letters Award)- Fire on the Mountain1980 – Shortlisted, Booker Prize for Fiction – Clear Light of Day1983 – Guardian Childrens Fiction Prize – The Village by the Sea: an Indian family story1984 – Shortlisted, Booker Prize for Fiction – In Custody
10. 1993 – Neil Gunn Prize1999 – Shortlisted, Booker Prize for Fiction: Fasting, Feasting2000 – Alberto Moravia Prize for Literature (Italy)2003 – Benson Medal of Royal Society of LiteratureAnita Desai is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, the American Academy of Arts andLetters, Girton College, Cambridge and Clare Hall, Cambridge. Presently, Anita lives in theUnited States, where she is the John E. Burchard Professor of Writing at Massachusetts Instituteof Technology, Cambridge, MA.Selected WorksThe Artist Of Disappearance (2011)The Zigzag Way (2004)Diamond Dust and Other Stories (2000)Fasting, Feasting (1999)Journey to Ithaca (1995)Baumgartners Bombay (1988)In Custody (1984)The Village By The Sea (1982)Clear Light of Day (1980)Games at Twilight (1978)Fire on the Mountain (1977)Cat on a Houseboat (1976)Where Shall We Go ThisSummer? (1975)The Peacock Garden (1974)Bye-bye Blackbird (1971)Voices in the City (1965)Cry, The Peacock (1963)India- A Travellers Literary Companion
11. Arundhati RoyBorn: November 24, 1961 (age 51), AssamArundhati Roy is a popular writer, activist and novelist of theIndian subcontinent. She was born in the family of KeraliteSyrian Christian mother and a Bengali Hindu father in Shillongwhich forms a part of the Indian state of Meghalaya.Her mother was a woman`s rights activist and her father was atea planter by profession. She spent her childhood days inAymanam in the Indian state of Kerala. She finished herschooling from Corpus Christi School in Kottayam followed byThe Lawrence School, Lovedale that is situated in the Nilgiris.After schooling she studied architecture at the School ofPlanning and Architecture in Delhi.Literary Life of Arundhati RoyAt age of sixteen Arundhati left home, and eventually enrolled at the Delhi School ofArchitecture. There she met her first husband, Gerard Da Cunha, a fellow architecture student.Their marriage lasted four years. Both of them did not have great love for architecture, so theyquit their profession and went off to Goa. They used to make cake and sell it on the beach tomake living. This continued for seven months after which Arundhati returned back to Delhi.She took a job at the National Institute of Urban Affairs, rented a barsati near the dargah atNizamuddin and hired a bicycle. One day film director Pradeep Krishen saw her cycling down astreet and offered her a small role of tribal girl in the film "Massey Saab". Arundhati Royaccepted the role after initial reservations. She later on married Pradeep Krishen. Meanwhile,Arundhati got a scholarship to go to Italy for eight months to study the restoration ofmonuments.After returning from Italy Arundhati Roy linked with her husband to planned a 26 episodetelevision serial for Doordarshan called the Banyan Tree. The serial was later scrapped. Shewrote screenplays for a couple of TV films - "In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones" and "ElectricMoon". Arundhati Roy also wrote screenplay for Shekhar Kapurs controversial film BanditQueen.
12. Arundhati Roy started writing her first novel, The God of Small Things in the year and finishedthe work in 1996. This book is regarded as a semi-autobiography in which she relates to theaudience about her childhood experiences in Ayemenem. For this book she also received theMan booker Prize for Fiction in 1997 and it was also listed as one of the notable books of 1997in New York Times.Arundhati Roy is also involved in many social activities. She is the figurehead of theantiglobalization or alter-globalization movement and also a vehement critic of neo-imperialismand of the global policies of the United States of America. The lists of her criticisms includeIndia`s nuclear weapon policies and the approach to industrialization and rapid developmentas bring practiced in the nation in the recent times. She was also personally involved withactivist Medha Patkar in the campaign against the Narmada Dam Project. According to thejudgment of Supreme Court of India she also served one-day imprisonment and paid a fine ofRs. 2000.Arundhati Roy was awarded the Lannan Foundation`s Cultural Freedom award for her workrelated to the civil societies that are adversely affected by the world`s most powerfulgovernments and corporations. She was also awarded the Sydney Peace Prize in the year 2004for her significant contribution in social campaigns and her advocacy of non-violence. In themonth of January of the year 2006 Arundhati Roy was awarded the Sahitya Akademi award forher collection of essays on the contemporary issues.Personal Life of Arundhati RoyWhile studying Architecture at School of Planning and Architecture in Delhi, she met her firsthusband, Gerard Decunha who is also a renowned architect. It was with her second husbandPradip Krishen that Arundhati Roy ventured into filmmaking in the year 1984. The first cousin ofArundhati Roy, called Pranay Roy is also a prominent media personality and is settled in NewDelhi.Books by Arundhati Roy• The God of Small Things.• The End of Imagination.• The Cost of Living. Flamingo• The Greater Common Good.• The Algebra of Infinite Justice.• An Ordinary Person`s Guide To Empire.• Introduction to 13 December, a Reader: The Strange Case of the Attack on the IndianParliament.
13. • The Shape of the Beast: Conversations with Arundhati Roy.• Listening to Grasshoppers: Field Notes on Democracy• Walking with the ComradeAwards Won by Arundhati Roy• Arundhati Roy was awarded the 1997 Booker Prize for her novel The God of SmallThings.• She won the National Film Award for Best Screenplay in 1989, for the screenplay of InWhich Annie Gives It Those Ones.• In 2002, she won the Lannan Foundation`s Cultural Freedom Award• In 2003, she was awarded `special recognition` as a Woman of Peace at the GlobalExchange Human Rights Awards in San Francisco with Bianca Jagger, Barbara Lee andKathy Kelly.• Roy was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize in May 2004 for her work in social campaignsand her advocacy of non-violence.• She was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in 2006.• In November 2011, she was awarded the Norman Mailer Prize for Distinguished Writing.
14. Jhumpa LahiriBorn: July 11, 1967 (age 45), LondonJhumpa Lahiri is indeed the storyteller who weaves the lace of love,identity, crisis, lies and faults in a matured way. Her works areenriched with sensitive dilemmas in life. Characters in her booksexperience the cultural as well as the generation gaps. She,therefore, comments on the effects of Western colonialism onIndians and Indians in Diaspora. Jhumpa Lahiri is not only a writerbut the weaver of dreams, the fabricator of emotion and thereforeher each and every novel becomes an outlet for her emotions.She is the First Asian to win Pulitzer Prize. She won the 2000Pulitzer Prize for fiction for her book "Interpreter Of Maladies"Early Life of Jhumpa LahiriJhumpa Lahiri, a Bengali American author, was born in 1967 in London to a Bengali parent. Shemoved to South Kingstown, Rhode Island when she was child. Jhumpa Lahiri learned herBengali heritage from her mother from a very early age. Jhumpa Lahiri is a daughter of alibrarian and schoolteacher. She has always been inclined to creative writing.Jhumpa Lahiri received her B.A in English literature from Barnard College in 1989 and M.A inCreative Writing, Comparative Literature from Boston University. She also received her Ph.D. inRenaissance Studies from Boston University. She took up a fellowship at Provincetown`s FineArts Work Centre in 1997.Carrer in Writing for Jhumpa LahiriRight from a very young age she felt strong ties for her parents` homeland India, as well as theUnited States and England. A sense of homelessness and an inability to feel accepted took placeas she grew up with ties to all three countries. To her it is an inheritance of her parents` ties toIndia.At a press conference in Kolkata this absence of belongingness comes out of her word "Nocountry is my motherland. I always find myself in exile in whichever country I travel to, that`swhy I was tempted to write something about those living their lives in exile". We find the ideaof exile through out her work "Interpreter of Maladies". The collection of nine distinct storiesrevolves around the first and second-generation Indian immigrants and the idea of othernessamong the country. The story theme also includes the marital difficulties. It won `Pulitzer Prize`
15. in 2000 for fiction. In addition it received the PEN/Hemingway Award, the New Yorker Debutof the Year award, an American Academy of Arts and Letters Addison Metcalf Award, TheTransatlantic Review award from Henfield Foundation, The Louisiana Review award for shortfiction, the O.Henry Award for Best American Short Stories, and a nomination for the LosAngeles Times Book Prize. Guggenheim fellowship was awarded to her in the year 2002.Jhumpa Lahiri made her debut as novelist with "The Namesake" in 2003. The story of the novelreveals the cultural and generational gaps between the parents. The storyline revolves aroundparents who have immigrated to the United States born in Kolkata, West Bengal, and their sonAmerican-born Gogol, wants to fit in among his fellow New Yorkers, despite his family`sunwillingness to let go of their traditional ways. A film was made based upon her novel.Jhumpa Lahiri also wrote "Indian Holy Song" in 2000, "A temporary Prayer: What Happenswhen the Lights go out" in 1998, "Sexy" in 1998 and "The Third and Final Continent" in 1999.Jhumpa Lahiri exploded onto the literary sense from 1999. In her short career no sign ofslowing down appears till date. Reader`s curiosity brings her audience together and they seemto be mesmerized by her writings. It is difficult to compare Jhumpa Lahiri`s work to many otherIndian or Indian-American authors. Lahiri is also able to draw her readers into the story throughher details and by making her readers feel the emotional, physical, and mental needs of thecharacters.Personal Life of Jhumpa LahiriShe married Alberto Vourvoulias Bush in 2001. They have two children from their marriage.Books Written by Jhumpa LahiriShort Story CollectionsInterpreter of Maladies (1999)Unaccustomed Earth (2008)NovelsThe Namesake (2003)Uncollected Non-fictionCooking Lessons: The Long Way Home" (6 September 2004, The New Yorker)Improvisations: Rice" (23 November 2009, The New Yorker)Reflections: Notes from a Literary Apprenticeship" (13 June 2011, The New Yorker)
16. Awards Received by Jhumpa Lahiri1993 - TransAtlantic Award from the Henfield Foundation1999 - O. Henry Award for short story "Interpreter of Maladies"1999 - PEN/Hemingway Award (Best Fiction Debut of the Year) for "Interpreter ofMaladies"1999 - "Interpreter of Maladies" selected as one of Best American Short Stories2000 - Addison Metcalf Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters2000 - "The Third and Final Continent" selected as one of Best American Short Stories2000 - The New Yorker`s Best Debut of the Year for "Interpreter of Maladies"2000 - Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for her debut "Interpreter of Maladies"2000 - James Beard Foundation`s M.F.K. Fisher Distinguished Writing Award for "IndianTakeout" in Food & Wine Magazine2002 - Guggenheim Fellowship2002 - "Nobody`s Business" selected as one of Best American Short Stories2008 - Frank O`Connor International Short Story Award for "Unaccustomed Earth"2009 - Asian American Literary Award for "Unaccustomed Earth"
17. Mulk Raj AnandBorn: December 12, 1905, PeshawarDied: September 28, 2004, PuneMulk Raj Anand was among the first writers to incorporatePunjabi and Hindustani idioms into English.Mulk Raj Anand was an Indian novelist, short-story writer. Hewas among the first writers to incorporate Punjabi andHindustani idioms into English. Mulk Raj Anands storiesdepicted a realistic and sympathetic portrait of the poor inIndia.Mulk Raj Anand was born on December 12, 1905 in Peshawar.He graduated with honors from Khalsa College, Amritsar in1924. Mulk Raj Anand went to England and studied at University College London andCambridge University. He completed his PhD in 1929. Mulk Raj Anand also studied - and laterlectured - at League of Nations School of Intellectual Cooperation in Geneva. Between 1932 and1945 he lectured intermittently at Workes Educational Association in London.Mulk Raj Anand was initiated into the literary career by a family tragedy, instigated by therigidity of the caste system. Anands first prose essay was a response to the suicide of an aunt,who had been excommunicated by his family for sharing a meal with a Muslim.Mulk Raj Anands first novel, "Untouchable", (1935), was a stark reflection of the day-to-daylife of a member of Indias untouchable caste. The book was widely acclaimed and Mulk RajAnand was hailed as Indias Charles Dickens. His second novel "Coolie" depicts the plight ofIndias poor through the story of a 15-year-old boy, trapped in servitude as a child labourer,who eventually dies of tuberculosis.In the 1930s and 1940s Mulk Raj Anand divided his time between London and India. He joinedthe struggle for independence, but also fought with the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War.After the war Anand returned permanently to India and settled in Bombay.In 1946 he founded the fine-arts magazine Marg. He also became a director of KutubPublishers. From 1948 to 1966 Anand taught at Indian universities. Mulk Raj Anand was fine artchairman at Lalit Kala Akademi (National Academy of Arts from 1965 to 1970. In 1970, hebecame president of Lokayata Trust, for creating a community and cultural center in the villageof Hauz Khas, New Delhi. Mulk Raj Anand died on September 28, 2004.
18. R.K. NarayanBorn: October 10, 1906Died: May 13, 2001R.K. Narayan is one of the most famous and widely read Indiannovelists. His stories were grounded in a compassionatehumanism and celebrated the humour and energy of ordinarylife.R.K. Narayan was born on October 10, 1906 in Madras. Hisfather was a provincial head master. R.K. Narayan spent hisearly childhood with his maternal grandmother, Parvathi inMadras and used to spend only a few weeks each summervisiting his parents and siblings. R.K. Narayan studied for eightyears at Lutheran Mission School close to his grandmothershouse in Madras, also for a short time at the CRC High School. When his father was appointedheadmaster of the Maharajas High School in Mysore, R.K. Narayan moved back in with hisparents. He obtained his bachelors degree from the University of Mysore.R.K. Narayan began his writing career with Swami and Friends in 1935. Most of his workincluding Swami and friends is set in the fictional town of Malgudi which captures everythingIndian while having a unique identity of its own. R.K. Narayans writing style was marked bysimplicity and subtle humour. He told stories of ordinary people trying to live their simple livesin a changing world.R.K. Narayans famous works include The Bachelor of Arts (1937), The Dark Room (1938), TheEnglish Teacher (1945), The Financial Expert (1952), The Guide (1958), The Man-Eater ofMalgudi (1961), The Vendor of Sweets (1967), Malgudi Days (1982), and The GrandmothersTale (1993).R.K. Narayan won numerous awards and honors for his works. These include:Sahitya Akademi Award for The Guide in 1958;Padma Bhushan in 1964; andAC Benson Medal by the Royal Society of Literature in 1980;R.K. Narayan was elected an honorary member of the American Academy and Instituteof Arts and Letters in 1982.The Grand Old Man ofMalgudi
19. He was nominated to the Rajya Sabha in 1989. Besides, he was also conferred honorarydoctorates by the University of Mysore, Delhi University and the University of Leeds.
20. Salman RushdieBorn: June 19, 1947, MumbaiAchievement: Awarded the Booker of Bookers prize in 1993 for hisnovel "Midnights Children"Salman Rushdie was born in Bombay on 19 June 1947. He went toschool in Bombay and at Rugby in England, and read History at King`sCollege, Cambridge, where he joined the Cambridge Footlights theatrecompany. After graduating, he lived with his family who had moved toPakistan in 1964, and worked briefly in television before returning toEngland, beginning work as a copywriter for an advertising agency.His first novel, Grimus, was published in 1975.His second novel, the acclaimed Midnight`s Children, was published in 1981.It won the Booker Prize for Fiction, the James Tait Black Memorial Prize (for fiction), an ArtsCouncil Writers` Award and the English- Speaking Union Award, and in 1993 was judged tohave been the `Booker of Bookers`, the best novel to have won the Booker Prize for Fiction inthe award`s 25-year history. The novel narrates key events in the history of India through thestory of pickle-factory worker Saleem Sinai, one of 1001 children born as India wonindependence from Britain in 1947.Rushdie`s third novel, Shame (1983), which many critics saw as an allegory of the politicalsituation in Pakistan, won the Prix du Meilleur Livre Etranger and was shortlisted for the BookerPrize for Fiction. The publication in 1988 of his fourth novel, The Satanic Verses, leads toaccusations of blasphemy against Islam and demonstrations by Islamist groups in India andPakistan. The orthodox Iranian leadership issued a fatwa against Rushdie on 14 February 1989 -effectively a sentence of death - and he was forced into hiding under the protection of theBritish government and police. The book itself centres on the adventures of two Indian actors,Gibreel and Saladin, who fall to earth in Britain when their Air India jet explodes. It won theWhitbread Novel Award in 1988.Salman Rushdie continued to write and publish books, including a children`s book, Haroun andthe Sea of Stories (1990), a warning about the dangers of story-telling that won the Writers`Guild Award (Best Children`s Book), and which he adapted for the stage (with Tim Supple andDavid Tushingham. It was first staged at the Royal National Theatre, London.) There followed abook of essays entitled Imaginary Homelands: Essays and
21. Criticism 1981-1991 (1991); East, West (1994), a book of short stories; and a novel, The Moor`sLast Sigh (1995), the history of the wealthy Zogoiby family told through the story of MoraesZogoiby, a young man from Bombay descended from Sultan Muhammad XI, the last Muslimruler of AndalucÃ a.The Ground beneath Her Feet, published in 1999, re-works the myth of Orpheus and Eurydicein the context of modern popular music. His most recent novel, Fury, set in New York at thebeginning of the third millennium, was published in 2001. He is also the author of a travelnarrative, The Jaguar Smile (1987), an account of a visit to Nicaragua in 1986.• Salman Rushdie is the Honorary Professor in the Humanities at the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology (MIT), and Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.• He was made Distinguished Fellow in Literature at the University of East Anglia in 1995.• He was awarded the Austrian State Prize for European Literature in 1993 and theAristeion Literary Prize in 1996, and has received eight honorary doctorates.• He was elected to the Board of American PEN in 2002.The subjects in his new book Step Across This Line: Collected Non-fiction 1992-2002 (2002),range from popular culture and football to twentieth-century literature and politics. SalmanRushdie is also co-author (with Tim Supple and Simon Reade) of the stage adaptation ofMidnight`s Children, premiered by the Royal Shakespeare Company in 2002. His other novel"Shalimar The Clown" (2005), is the story of Max Ophuls, his killer and daughter, and a fourthcharacter who links them all. It was shortlisted for the 2005 Whitbread Novel Award.
22. Vikram SethBorn: June 20, 1952, KolkataAchievement: Won the WH Smith Literary Award and theCommonwealth Writers Prize for his novel, A Suitable Boy. Histravelogue "From Heaven Lake: Travels Through Sinkiang andTibet" won the Thomas Cook Travel Book Award.Vikram Seth is a famous Indian poet, novelist, travel writer,librettist, childrens writer, biographer and memoirist.Vikram Seth was born on June 20, 1952 at Kolkata. His father,Prem, was an employee of the Bata India Limited shoe companywho migrated to post-Partition India from West Punjab inPakistan. Vikram Seths childhood was spent in the town of Batanagar near Calcutta, Patna, andLondon. His mother Leila Seth was the first woman judge of the Delhi High Court as well as thefirst woman to become Chief Justice of a state High Court. She was the Chief Justice of ShimlaHigh Court.Vikram Seth did his schooling from The Doon School in Dehradun. He took his undergraduatedegree in philosophy, politics and economics from Oxford University. He was enrolled inpostgraduate economics courses at Stanford University and was also attached to NanjingUniversity for his intended doctoral dissertation on Chinese population planning.Vikram Seths first novel, "The Golden Gate" (1986), describes the experiences of a group offriends living in California. His other novel, "A Suitable Boy" (1993) is an acclaimed epic ofIndian life. The novel won the WH Smith Literary Award and the Commonwealth Writers Prize(Overall Winner, Best Book). Set in India in the early 1950s, it is the story of a young girl, Lata,and her search for a husband. "An Equal Music" (1999), is the story of a violinist haunted by thememory of a former lover.Vikram Seth has also written a travelogue "From Heaven Lake: Travels Through Sinkiang andTibet" (1983). The book is an account of a journey through Tibet, China and Nepal that won theThomas Cook Travel Book Award. He also wrote a libretto, Arion and the Dolphin (1994), whichwas performed at the English National Opera in June 1994, with music by Alec Roth. VikramSeth is also an accomplished poet. His works in poetry include Mappings (1980), The HumbleAdministrators Garden (1985), which was a winner of the Commonwealth Poetry Prize (Asia),and All You Who Sleep Tonight (1990). Vikram Seth has written a story book for children Beastly
23. Tales from Here and There (1992), which consists of ten stories about animals told in verse.Vikram Seths latest work is Two Lives (2005). The book is a memoir of the marriage of his greatuncle and aunt.
24. V.S. NaipaulBorn: August 17, 1932 (age 80), ChaguanasAchievement: Won Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001; Won theBooker Prize in 1971 and became the first person of Indian origindo so.V.S. Naipaul is a noble laureate who won Nobel Prize in Literaturein 2001. Though of Indian origin, V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidadand is currently a British citizen.V.S. Naipaul (Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul) was born onAugust 17, 1932, at Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago. Hisforefathers came as indentured labourers from India. Naipaulsupbringing familiarised him with every sort of deprivation,material and cultural. He got a scholarship to Oxford University and thus came to England. Itwas at Oxford that V.S. Naipaul discovered the writer in him.V.S. Naipaul traveled extensively in India and Africa. At that time decolonisation was takingplace and Sir V.S. Naipaul observed from close quarters the resulting turmoil of emotions.These observations were reflected in his writings. V.S. Naipaul has written about slavery,revolution, guerrillas, corrupt politicians, the poor and the oppressed, interpreting the rages sodeeply rooted in our societies.V.S. Naipauls fiction and especially his travel writing have been criticised for their allegedlyunsympathetic portrayal of the Third World. But his supporters argue that he is actually anadvocate for a more realistic development of the Third World. V.S. Naipauls contempt formany aspects of liberal orthodoxy is uncompromising, but at the same time he has exhibited anopen-mindedness toward some Third World leaders and cultures that isnt found in westernwriters.V.S. Naipaul has discussed Islam in several of his books and he has been criticised for harping onnegative aspects of Islam. V.S. Naipauls support for Hindutva has also been controversial. Hehas been quoted describing the destruction of the Babri Mosque as a "creative passion", andthe invasion of Babur in the 16th century as a "mortal wound."V.S. Naipaul has won several awards and honors for his writings.• In 1971, Naipaul won the Booker Prize for his book "In a Free State" and became thefirst person of Indian origin do so.• He won the Jerusalem Prize in 1983 and Nobel Prize for Literature in 2001.
25. Jaishankar PrasadBorn: January 30, 1889, VaranasiDied: January 14, 1937, VaranasiIf you are interested in Hindi literature, then you surely must haveheard the name of Jaishankar Prasad. If Dharamvir Bharati isreferred to as the Father of Hindi Literature, Jaishankar Prasadcannot be too far behind for he too needs to be credited formaking Hindi language popular amongst the present generation.Jaishankar Prasad is truly one of the most notable figures in theworld of modern Hindi literature. Although he had to drop out ofschool at a very early age due to financial problems that his familyfaced, his love for literature never died down. Apart from Hindi, Jaishankar Prasad wasinterested in a number of languages and their evolution. However, it was Hindi that he chosewhile penning his thoughts in the form of poems and novels. He was one of the greatest literaryfigures during his time and the best modern Hindi writer.ChildhoodJaishankar Prasad was born in a well-to-do madheshiya vaishya family of Varanasi. However,the familys condition deteriorated over the years after the death of Jaishankar Prasads father,when the future litterateur was still young. His father Babu Devki Prasad earned a living bybuying and selling tobacco in the markets of Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. Jaishankar Prasadsfamily was always known as one of the elite units in Varanasi. His father passed away when hewas still in school and thus, had to leave his studies after the eighth standard to help the familywhich was then affected by financial problems. This, however, did not mean that JaishankarPrasad gave up on his studies. He thoroughly read books at home, mastering the grammar andliterature and the evolution of many a language. It was language that interested JaishankarPrasad, but he later shifted his attention to the study of the Vedas, an aspect that reflected inhis writings that were penned later. Apart from writing poetry from a very early age, JaishankarPrasad also had an interest in reciting poems. As a child and in his later life, he spent much ofhis time playing chess and doing gardening work at home.Writing StyleHe is considered one of the Four Pillars (Char Stambh) of Romanticism in HindiLiterature (Chhayavad), along with Sumitranandan Pant, Mahadevi Verma, and SuryakantTripathi Nirala.
26. Jaishankar Prasad was interested in the Vedas. The content as well as the writing pattern of theVedas thus influenced him deeply, while he penned his own poetry, plays and novels. The firstcollection of poems that Jaishankar Prasad penned, named Chitraadhar, was written in theBraj dialect of Hindi, a dialect that is widely used in Uttar Pradesh. The entire collection ofpoems written by Jaishankar Prasad can best be described as touching and emotional. Not onlydid he pay attention to the language of his poems, but also look at their philosophic content. Itis to be remembered that this ace Hindi litterateur was a philosopher as well, apart from beinga writer. Therefore, this aspect too reflected in his poems. The content of Jaishankar Prasadspoetry ranged from the romantic to the patriotic. Himadri Tung Shring Se is the most famouspatriotic poem written by Jaishankar Prasad in the length of his career. It was written beforeIndia won its independence from the British, and was successful in popularizing the name ofJaishankar Prasad among the common masses.During the middle of his career as a novelist, playwright and poet, Jaishankar Prasad was highlyinfluenced by Sanskrit and other languages which originated from Sanskrit. According toreports, he read a lot of Bengali and Persian works to seek inspiration before penning his own.Jaishankar Prasads most famous dramas Chandragupta, Skandagupta and Dhruvaswaminiare inspired from Persian and Bengali plays. During the later stages of his career, JaishankarPrasad wrote in the Khadi dialect of Hindi. The stories of the plays written by Jaishankar Prasadwere most often based on true incidents taken from the history of India. The writer lovedreading books on history and therefore his writings were influenced by historical incidents andalso mythology. Jaishankar Prasad wrote a couple of short stories as well during the span of hisbrief career as a writer of Hindi literature. Expectedly, the plots of his short stories were alsobased either in Indian history or mythology. Mamta and Chhota Jadugar are two of the mostpopular short stories written by Jaishankar Prasad.KamayaniNo discussion on the collection of writings by Jaishankar Prasad is complete without a specialreference to Kamayani. Kamayani is, by far, not only the most popular work of JaishankarPrasad; it is also one of the best collections of poetry that the Hindi literary circuit has everseen. Kamayani, which has received popular and critical appreciation ever since it waspublished some decades ago, is still the most popular and best mahakavya that the Hindilanguage has witnessed. The epic poem may be described as an amalgamation of knowledge,desire and action, the three basic elements in the life of a human being. The central charactersof the mahakavya, Manu, Ida and Shradha describe through their actions in the poem, theevolution of culture in humans and the mythological story of the great flood. The threecharacters Manu, Ida and Shradha represent human psyche, rationality and love respectively inKamayani.
27. Death and BeyondJaishankar Prasad died at a very early age of 47 on January 14 of 1937. The great Hindilitterateur is survived by three wives and their children. After his death, Shanta Gandhi, a 1960sprofessor of ancient Indian drama at the National School of Drama in New Delhi, took theinitiative to stage several of Jaishankar Prasads plays for the modern Indian theater. ShantaGandhi took note of the fact that not many changes were made in the original writing ofJaishankar Prasad so that the modern generation gets a taste of the real Jaishankar Prasadwriting. The first play staged by her was Skandagupta which was written by the Hindilitterateur in 1928. Jaishankar Prasad is still fondly remembered as one of the pillars of Hindiliterature, the other two being Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla and Munshi Premchand.Jaishankar Prasad was not only a great writer; he also made a mark as a historian and aphilosopher.Timeline1889: Jaishankar Prasad is born on January 30.1915: He wrote his first significant drama, Rajyasri1928: Wrote his famous play Skandagupta.1935: The long poem Kamayani was published1937: Died on January 14 aged only 47.1960s: The National School of Drama staged plays written by Jaishankar Prasad.
28. Sahir LudhianviBorn: March 8, 1921 Ludhiana, PunjabDied: October 25, 1980Best remembered for penning the renowned "Kabhi kabhi mere dilmein" song from the movie "Kabhie Kabhie", Sahir Ludhianvi etched apermanent mark on songs and ghazals in the Hindi film industry. Trueto his name, Sahir was a magician who fascinated his listeners andreaders through his marvelous compositions. His wordings havesuccessfully created a plethora of emotions with its simple languageand distinguished feelings. Despite being unable to praise God,beauty, and wine, he divulged his bitterness with sensitive lyrics through his pen. For hisillustrious and magnificent compositions, he was honored with two Filmfare Awards and PadmaShri Award during his lifetime.Early LifeSahir Ludhianvi was born as Abdul Hayee into a rich Muslim Gujjar family in Ludhiana in Punjab.His father was a wealthy zamindar, while mother was Sardar Begum. Since birth, his parentswere undergoing an estranged relationship and chose to separate when Sahir was just 13 yearsold. His father married for the second time and chose to take custody of Sahir, but lost due tohis second marriage. As such, he threatened to snatch Sahir from his mother, no matter whatstep he had to take. Due to this, Sahir spent his childhood surrounded by fear and financialdeprivation. He attained his formal education from Khalsa High School in Ludhiana. Thereafter,he graduated to Satish Chander Dhawan Government College For Boys in Ludhiana to pursuehis higher studies. But he was expelled just after one year for being caught sitting with a femalein the lawns in 1943. He left Ludhiana and traveled to Lahore in search of a better careerprospect.Bollywood CareerIn Lahore, Sahir completed his first work in Urdu "Talkhiyaan" but was unable to find apublisher for the same. Finally, after two years of shuffling between Ludhiana and Lahore, hefound a publisher in 1945. Thereafter, he started editing four magazines, "Adab-e-Lateef","Shahkaar", "Prithlari", and "Savera". These magazines achieved immense success. However,due to his explosive writing in "Savera", the government of Pakistan issued an arrest warrantagainst him. As such, he fled from Lahore in 1949 and landed in Delhi. After spending a couple
29. months there, he traveled to Bombay where he settled for the rest of his life and createdhistory through his illustrious works.He made his debut into Bollywood by writing the lyrics for "Aazadi Ki Raah Par" in 1949.Though he wrote four songs, both the film and the songs sank unnoticed.Sahir was next seen in 1951 "Naujawaan" with S.D. Burman as the music director. This movieacted as the stepping stone for him as the film worked decently. But his major recognition camewith Guru Dutts directorial debut "Baazi" in 1951, again paired with Burman. Thereafter, hewas amongst the team of Guru Dutt. The combination delivered some marvelous musicalperformances that became legendary hits. Over his entire Bollywood career, Sahir deliveredevergreen and immortal pieces of Hindi film music. Some of the most prominent movies include"Pyaasa", "Hum Dono", "Taj Mahal", "Phir Subah Hogi", "Trishul", and "Waqt".His 1976 "Kabhie Kabhie" saw the best in Sahir that went on to break all records, andbestowing him with another Filmfare Award for Best Lyricist, second to "Taj Mahal".Poetry CareerWhile writing lyrics for Bollywood films were reaching skies at that time, his poetry was not leftbehind either. His poetry revealed a "Faizian" quality of writing. His works had that intellectualelement that caught the attention of people during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. Though Sahirwas egoistic by nature, probably due to his zamindari background, he was a compassionateman and felt for others, often neglecting his own needs. This nature reflected in his poetrywhich wrote as he aged. With different periods progressing, Sahir narrated various ages, whichis not very common in many writers style. Kahat-e-Bangal (The Famine of Bengal) talked aboutearly maturity, while Subah-e-Navroz (Dawn of a New Day) spoke about the conditions of thepoor. He was one amongst the few Urdu poets who illustrated his views towards the Taj Mahalin an entirely different manner.Personal LifeSahir Ludhianvi did not marry in his life and chose to remain a bachelor throughout. Afterexperiencing two failed relationships, one with journalist Amrita Pritam and another withsinger-actress Sudha Malhotra, he resolved to excessive drinking and became an alcoholic. Boththe ladies fathers rejected Sahir due to his perceived religion and atheism. Sahir and Amritawere so passionately in love with each other that she wrote his name a hundred times in sheetsof paper during one press conference. Though the couple met quite often, they never spoke aword during their date. After Sahir was done with smoking and left, Amrita would pick up thebutts and smoke them, hoping that they would meet someday in the other world. Another
30. reason for rejecting Sahir as a compatible partner for Amritas father was Sahirs inability toafford a house. As a result, Sahir built a taller house opposite Amritas residence in Ludhiana.DeathSahir Ludhianvi was honored with Padma Shri Award in 1971. He suffered a major heart attackon October 25th, 1980 and passed away in the arms of his friend Dr. R.P. Kapoor. He was 59years old then. He was later buried in Juhu Muslim cemetery, but his tomb was destroyed in2010 to make space for other dead bodies.Notable FilmsAazadi Ki Raah Par, 1949Naujawaan, 1951Baazi, 1951Shahenshah, 1953Humsafar, 1953Alif Laila, 1953Taxi Driver, 1954House No. 44, 1955Marine Drive, 1955Devad, 1955Pyaasa, 1957Naya Daur, 1957Phir Subah Hogi, 1958Barsat Ki Raat, 1960Hum Dono, 1961Taj Mahal, 1963Gumraah, 1963Chitralekha, 1964Waqt, 1965Humraaz, 1967Naya Rasta, 1970Dastan, 1972Joshila, 1973Deewar, 1975Zameer, 1975Laila Majnu, 1976Kabhie Kabhie, 1976Trishul, 1978Kala Patthar, 1978The Burning Train, 1980Distinguished SongsAana hai to aa (Naya Daur, 1957)Ye duniya agar mil bhi jaye to kya hai (Pyaasa, 1957)Wo subah kabhi to aayegi (Phir Subah Hogi, 1958)Tu Hindu banega na musalman banega (Dhool ka Phool, 1959)Allah tero naam, ishwar tero naam (Hum Dono, 1961)Chalo ek baar phir se ajnabi ban jaye hum dono (Gumraah, 1963)Aye meri zohrajabein (Waqt, 1965)Aagey bhi jane na tu (Waqt, 1965)Main pal do pal ka shayar hoon (Kabhie Kabhie, 1976)Kabhie kabhie (Kabhi Kabhie, 1976)Timeline1921: Was born on March 8th in Ludhiana, Punjab1934: Parents got divorced1942: Admitted to Satish Chander Dhawan Government College For Boys, Ludhiana
31. 1943: Expelled from college and went to Lahore1945: Got his first Urdu poetry "Talkhiyaan" published1949: Ran away from Lahore to Delhi and later to Bombay1949: Got a break in his first Bollywood movie "Aazadi Ki Raah Par"1951: Gained recognition with Guru Dutts "Baazi"1964: Won the Filmfare Award for Best Lyricist for "Taj Mahal"1971: Honored with Padma Shri Award1977: Won the Filmfare Award for Best Lyricist for "Kabhie Kabhie"1980: Died in Mumbai on 25th October, aged 59
32. Kazi NazrulBorn: 25th May 1899 Churulia, Burdwan District of West BengalDied: 29th August 1976Nazrul said, "Even though I was born in this country (Bengal), inthis society, I dont belong to just this country, this society. Ibelong to the world."Also known as the Vidrohi kobi or rebel poet in Bengaliliterature and bulbul or nightingale of Bengali music, KaziNazrul Islam was one of the most inspiring personalities ofundivided Bengal between 1920 and 1930. For a significant partof his life, he was considered as the pioneer of post Tagore modernity in Bengali poetry. Theseveral ways in which he expressed himself include poems, short stories, plays and politicalactivities. Most of his works protested against the slavery, communalism, feudalism andcolonialism forced upon India by the British rule. To sum it all up, in the 1000 year history ofBengali music, K. N. Islam was the most original and creative. He brought traditional music tothe people by fusing different elements of North Indian classical music.Early LifeKazi Nazrul was born on May 24th 1899 in Churulia village in the district of Burdwan, WestBengal. He lost his father, Kazi Fakir Ahmed at an early age and was nicknamed Dukhu Mia orsorrow by the village people because of the hardships and misery he faced in his early life.He became the muazzin of the village mosque at the age of ten and started teaching at the localschool. It was at this point that he leaned about the practices of Islam which led him to join hisuncle, Bazle Karims folk group as a performer and composer. It is believed that his motivationin literature came from this stint.At 11 years, he resumed his studies only to discontinue them again due to financial crisis andwork in a bakery and tea shop in Asansole. However, in 1914, he re-entered school inMymensingh district and managed to complete class 10.In 1917, he joined the Indian Army and served it for three years as Battalion Quarter MasterHavildar. Nazruls engagement with a girl called Nargis ended in 1921 owing to her fathersunreasonable conditions and he later married Pramila Devi in 1924.
33. CareerIn May 1919, while serving the army, Nazrul composed and published his first piece TheAutobiography of a Delinquent or "Saogat". He was already publishing literary periodicals likeParbasi, Bharatbarsha and others from the Karachi Cantonment.After leaving the army in 1920, he settled in Calcutta and joined the Bangiya Mussalman SahiyaSamiti where he wrote his first poem Bandhan-hara or Freedom from bondage. He keptadding other poems viz., Bodhan, Shat-il-Arab, Kheya-parer Tarani and Badal PraterSharab etc. to the same collection for several years and was critically acclaimed all over thecountry for these.Nazrul worked with great writers like Mohammas Mozammel Haq, Afzalul Haq, Kazi etc andalso visited the Shantiniketan to meet Rabindranath Tagore in 1921 with whom he maintainedclose association.In 1922, he reached the peak with his work with Bidrohi which appealed to the classes and themasses alike. It was published in Bijli (Thunder) magazine and was co-incidentally inaccordance with the civil disobedience movement of 1942.In 1922, a bi-weekly magazine, Dhumketu (Comet), published his political poem which led toNazruls arrest. On April 14th 1923, he was transferred to Hooghly in Calcutta and was laterreleased in December 1923. While imprisoned, he composed a large number of poems andsongs.Kazi Nazrul Islam became a critic of the "Khilafat" struggle and the Indian National Congress fornot embracing political independence from the British Empire. He encouraged people to fightagainst the British and organized the Sramik Praja Swaraj Dal. On 16th December 1925, Nazrulstarted publishing the weekly Langal as the chief editor.In 1926, he settled in Krishnanagar and wrote poetry and songs for the downtrodden and weakclasses of the society. His famous poem Daridro (Pain or Poverty) was written during thistime. Nazrul also composed ghazals in Bengali and became the first person to introduce Islaminto traditional music. The first record was a huge success. Shamasangeet, Bhajan and Kirtanthat combined Hindu devotional music was also created by him.In 1928, he started working as a lyricist, composer and music director for His Masters VoiceGramophone Company. His songs, together called Nazrul geet, were broadcasted overseveral radio stations and he was enlisted with the Indian Broadcasting Company.After his mothers demise, Nazruls works changed from topics of rebellion to religion. He gotinto mainstream Bengali folk music and explored namaz (prayer), roza (fasting) and hajj
34. (pilgrimage). He devoted works to Quran and the life of Islams prophet Muhammad.In 1933, he published a collection of essays - Modern World Literature - which had differentthemes and styles of literature. He also published 800 songs based on classical ragas, kirtansand patriotic songs in 10 volumes.Nazrul slowly moved in Indian theatre in the year 1934 and the first picture for which he actedwas based on Girish Chandras story called Bhakta Dhruva. He also composed and sang for thismovie. A film "Vidyapati", based on his play, was featured in 1936. One of his biggest moves inthe industry was writing songs and directing music for Siraj-ud-Daula - a bioepic play.1939 was a good year for him where he began working for the Calcutta radio and he startedproducing music such as Haramoni and Navaraga-malika. He sang predominantly in the ragaBhairay. In 1940, he started working as a chief editor for Nabayug, founded by A.K. FazlulHuq.When Rabindranath Tagore died on 8th August 1941, he composed two poems dedicated tothe veteran.DeathNazruls health started deteriorating as a result of Pramila Devis paralysis and he underwentseveral mental treatments after 1941. He even stayed at a mental asylum for four months in1942 and was re-admitted in Ranchi in 1952. A group of admirers called "Nazrul TreatmentSociety" along with his prominent supporters, sent Nazrul and Pramila to London and Viennawhere Nazrul was diagnosed of Picks disease. His condition was incurable and he returned toIndia in 1953. Later, his wifes demise in 1962 followed by his youngest sons in 1974 took a tollon Nazrul and he succumbed to his illness on the 29th of August 1976. In accordance to his lastwishes, he was buried on the campus of University of Dhaka near the mosque.Awards And Accolades• Nazrul was awarded the Jagattarini Gold Medal in 1945, by the University of Calcuttafor his work in Bengali Literature.• He got the Padma Bhushan, one of the highest civilian honours, in 1960.• He was conferred the title of national poet and Ekushey Padak by the Government ofBangladesh.• He was also honoured with Honours in D. Litt. by the University of Dhaka.
35. LegacyKazi Nazrul Islams works have been acclaimed as well as criticized for egoism, but his admirerswho supported him throughout his life, considered this as self-confidence more than ego. Theysaid that he had the ability to defy God and yet be devoted.As against Tagores sophisticated style, he was rugged and unique. He used Persian in his worksbut compensated this with his use of rich and imaginative language for childrens works.He is still regarded for his secularism and was the first person to include the rise of Christians inBengal in his books. He was regarded for the cultural renaissance that he brought out throughhis literature.Several learning centers were opened in his memory including the Nazrul Endowment. Here,large collections of his works are preserved till date. The Bangladesh Nazrul Sena is anorganization that works on children education throughout Bangladesh.Timeline1899: Born on May 24th in Churulia of West Bengal.1917: Joined the Indian Armed Forces.1919: Wrote Autobiography of a Delinquent.1920: Left the forces and composed Bandhan-hara, his first poem.1921: Visited Santhiniketan and met Rabindranath Tagore.1922: Peaked with his work called Bidrohi, Agniveena and so on.1923: Was arrested for the content in his magazine called Dhumketu1924: Married Pramila Devi.1925: Became the Chief Editor of Langal.1926: Started composing mass music and was known for his poem called Daridro.1928: Lyricist, composer and music director with His Masters Voice Gramophone Company.1933: Published Modern World Literature.1934: Acted and composed music for Bhakta Dhruva.1936: A play based on his work Vidyapati was released.1939: Started working for Calcutta radio.1940: Chief Editor of Nabayug.1941: Tagores death which led to writing of Rabihara.1962: Nazruls wife died.1974: Nazruls son died.1976: Died on 29th August of an unnatural cause.
36. Bibhutibhushan BandopadhyayBorn: 12 September 1894 Ghoshpara-Muratipur village, Bengal,British IndiaDied: 1 November 1950A renowned figure and a celebrated name amongst the Bengaliliterary fraternity, Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay was a criticallyacclaimed Bengali novelist and writer born on the 12th ofSeptember 1894.He is known for his autobiographical novel "Pather Panchali",which got incorporated into Apu Trilogy films by Satyajit Ray.Bibhutibhushan was a man of simple living and simple words andhis ideologies were very visible in his writings. Realism was oneof the main plots of his writings apart from the themes he picked up from the happy and sadreal life experiences. He was a writer who portrayed a beautiful combination of human beingsand nature and showed the peaceful aspect of life. It was his ability of putting across seriousthoughts and realms of life in simple language to the people that gained him the popularity andrespect he enjoys. In order to learn more on Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyays profile,childhood, life, and timeline read on.ChildhoodBibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay was born on the 12th September 1894, in Kalyani, Muratipurvillage in the Nadia of Bengal, British India. He was born at his maternal uncles house in aHindu Brahmin family.His father Mahananda Bandopadhyay, was a Kathak - a person who recites stories for a living -and also a Sanskrit scholar. Bibhutibhushan finished his schooling in Bongaon High School,which happened to be one of the oldest institutions in British India. He also taught in the sameschool at the beginning of his work life.Bibhutibhushans childhood and early life was shadowed by the clouds of poverty, but henevertheless fought his way through to complete his undergraduate degree in History from theSurendranath College in Kolkata. However, since he was not financially strong to enrol for thepostgraduate course at the University of Calcutta, he had to discontinue his studies. After this,the burden of his familys economic wellness came on to his shoulders.
37. Early LifeThe career of a writer did not come easy to Bandopadhyay. Due to the economic crisis of hisfamily, he had to take up various odd jobs to make ends meet before taking up writingseriously.He taught at the school from where he completed his schooling, he also took up the job of asecretary and even managed an estate until finally, in 1921 he got an opportunity to publish hisfirst short story "Upekshita" in a leading literary magazine of Bengal named Probashi. But, itwas not until 1928 that Bandopadhyay published his first novel, "Pather Panchali", for which hereceived critical attention and acclaim. It was with this novel that he became a prominent namein Bengali literature.Career And WorkBibhutibhushan took up writing novels and short stories at a time when there was a lot ofresearch going on regarding the social degradation and economic imbalance. However, hiswritings did not emphasize on these aspects of research, rather they focused on simple life,human figures and the environmental pleasure of rural Bengal and the people of Bengal. Hewrote in simple language and in a way that his ideas reached the common man. Realism isanother major aspect that his writings portrayed. His writings picturised the subtle relationshipshared by human beings and nature and put across a peaceful picture of human beings,animals, birds, rivers and other aspects of nature.Bandopadhyay used to walk miles into the woods every day and carried a book along usually.He loved to put down his thoughts in writing amongst the peaceful environment of wilderness.His famous novel "Pather Panchali" was picked up by film-maker Satyajit Ray and convertedinto a movie of the same name as a part of the memorable Apu Trilogy. Some of the famousworks of Bandopadhyay apart from Pather Panchali are Aparajito, Aranyak, Chander Pahar,Heera Manik Jwale, Adarsha Hindu Hotel, Ichhamati, Bipiner Sangsar, Anubartan, KosiPranganeyer Chitthi, Dristi Pradeep, Debjan, Ashani Sanket, Kedar Raja, Dampati,Sundarbane Sat Batsar (which he couldnt complete), Dui Bari, Kajol (Sequel of Aparajito,completed by his son Taradas), Mismider Kabach, Jatrabadol, MeghaMallar, Mauriphooland Tal Nabami etc.Marriage And RelationshipsBibhutibhushan Bandopadhyays first wife, Gouri Devi, died during childbirth one year aftertheir marriage. This tragic occurrence and the loneliness that it brought about and shadowedhis life became a prominent theme in his early writings. He remarried at the age of 46 to hissecond wife, Rama Chattopadhyay, from whom he had his only son, Taradas, in 1947.
38. DeathBibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay left for holy abode on the 1st of November 1950 after sufferinga coronary attack. He was 56 years old then and was staying in Ghatshila.Timeline And Literary Works1894: Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay was born on 12th September1921: He published his first short story "Upekshita" in a leading Bengali literary magazineEarly 1920s: Married Gouri Devi who died in childbirth a year after the marriage.1928: Bandopadhyay published his first novel, "Pather Panchali"1940: Got married to Rama Chattopadhyay1947: His only son Taradas was born.1950: Bandopadhyay suffered a fatal heart attack and breathed his last on 1st November inGhatshila.
39. Dr. Pandurang Vaman KaneBorn: 1880 (date unknown) Maharashtra, IndiaDied: 1972 (date unknown)Some of the greatest writings on social reforms of India came fromthis man, Dr. Pandurang Vaman Kane. He was conferred with anhonorary degree of doctor of law at a special convocationceremony. He was an indologist, i.e., a person who excels atlanguages and literature, and could converse easily in both Sanskritand English. He authored several books, especially on religious andcivil law. In these books, he compiled the scriptures of ancient andmedieval India. Being a scholar, this great person was revered allover the country. The book History of Dharmasastra, penned byDr. Kane is, by far, one of the most inspiring books written about the social reforms of ancientIndia. The title Mahamahopadhyaya (the greatest teacher of all teachers) was bestowed uponhim in his later days and in 1963, he was given the highest civilian award of India, the BharatRatna.Early LifeDr. Kane was born in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra to a very conservative ChitpavanBrahmin family. Not much is known about his background or his family history. Dr. Kanegraduated from the University of Mumbai and worked there as a historian and Vice Chancellor.He also helped in establishing the Kurukshetra University in Indic studies.CareerIn 1930, Dr. Kanes best known work, History of Dharmasastra - which was under the subtitleAncient and Medieval Religions and Civil Law in India - was published. This books launch wasannounced by Dr. Radhakrishnan and it has been a significant landmark in the history of India.The book was a true combination of conception and execution and has nearly 6500 pages ofinformation, such as several texts and manuscripts, all compiled in one. It is also known tocontain certain information on the Mahabharat, Puranas and Kautilya in Sanskrit. Dr. Kanesbasic idea behind writing the book was to make the public aware of the ancient social laws andcustoms in India and also to study the social processes that were prevalent in ancient India. Thelast publication was on November 17th 1962.
40. He was said to have used reliable resources like the Asiatic Society of Bombay and theBhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.His next work as an author was a book called Vyavaharamayukha. An introductory paragraphon the history of Dharmasastra was included in this book so that the reader got a fair idea ofthe subject, apart from the contents of the book itself. This became one of his major works andwas translated into English and Marathi, apart from being written in Sanskrit. It was made up ofnearly 15000 pages.An additional part of Dr. Kanes career was spent in debating the Indian constitution. Hebelieved that these set of rules and regulations were a break from traditional ideas that werewidespread in India. He further implied that people residing in this country have rights but noobligations.Several issues were brought to light due to the nature of his work and writings. During the reignof the Atal Bihari Vajpayee in India, there was a discussion whether the ancient Indian ate beef.For answers, they reverted to Dr. Kanes works to prove that Hindus respected and worshippedthe Cow and eating beef was not allowed. Another example was the issue of whether girls inIndia were allowed to wear the sacred thread. But, it was found out, through his books, that itwas restricted only to men.DeathThe exact date and cause of Dr. Kanes death remain unknown. However, it is confirmed that ithappened in the year 1972 when he was 92 years old.Awards And Accolades• He was the Mahamahopadhyaya for his excellence in writings. Therefore, his name isalways prefixed with an MM.• He was awarded the prestigious, Sahitya Akademi Award in 1956 for History ofDharmasastra, Vol IV under the category of Sanskrit translation.• Dr. Kane was also an esteemed honorary member of the Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan wherehe achieved new heights of greatness.• Becoming a part of the Rajya Sabha as a Member of Parliament (MP) was also under hislist of achievements and he was there for having a distinguished record in the field ofacademics.• Last but not least, he was conferred with the highest civilian accolade of India, theBharat Ratna, in 1963.
41. LegacyIn 1974, for his study on Religious and Civil Law, the town hall of the Asiatic Society of Bombay(where he conducted his research) commemorated him with an institute called the MM P. V.Kane Institute for Post Graduate Studies and Research.His legacy is furthered by the fact that a P. V. Kane Gold Medal is given to scholars for theiroutstanding contribution in the study of Vedic, Dharmasastra or Alankara Literature.Timeline1880: Pandurang Kane was born to a conservative family in the Ratnagiri district ofMaharashtra.1930: First publication of History of Dharmasastra was released.1956: Dr. Kane received the Sahitya Akademi Award for History of Dharmasastra, Vol IV underthe category of Sanskrit translation.1962: Last publication of the History of Dharmasastra was released.1963: The Government of India bestowed Dr. Kane with the Bharat Ratna (highest civilianaward in the Republic of India) for excellence in Literature.1972: Died at the age of 92.1974: The Asiatic Society dedicated an institute in his name for study in Religions and Civil Law.
42. Jiddu KrishnamurtiBorn: 12th May, 1895 Madanapalle, Andhra PradeshDied: 17th Feb, 1986"I maintain that Truth is a pathless land, and you cannot approachit by any path whatsoever, by any religion, by any sect" - J.Krishnamurti.Jiddu Krishnamurti was considered a revolutionary writer andspeaker on philosophical meditation and was someone whobrought about a change in society. Krishnamurti believed thatsocial reforms could only be possible if the minds of theindividuals change. He also talked about spiritual issues and urgedevery human being to think about religious, political and socialrevolution. He was a guru who never wanted to be one. It is said that Jiddu did not remembermuch of his childhood. Some called him delusional and others said that this was a sign that hewas a self-realized master.Early LifeJiddu Krishnamurti was born in a Telugu speaking Brahmin family to Narainiah andSanjeevamma. His father was employed with the British administration and his mother diedwhen he was just ten years old. In 1903, he shifted base to Cudappah where he attendedschool. Here, he was considered vague and dreamy and mentally retarded. He startedpenning childhood memoirs when he was eighteen years old and claimed to have had a psychicvision of his dead sister. His father retired in 1907 and then wrote to the then President of theTheosophical Society, Annie Besant seeking employment. He was hired as a clerk and he andhis sons moved to the Theosophical Society headquarters in Chennai in 1909.In May 1909, Krishnamurti met the influential theosophist called Charles Webster Leadbeater.Despite Krishnamurtis unpleasant physical appearence, Leadbeater saw a spark in him andsaid that he would become a spiritual leader, a great orator and a vehicle for Lord Maitreya - aspiritual entity who appears on earth as a World Teacher to look into the evolution ofmankind. After this he was privately tutored under the wing of the Theosophical Society. It washere that he developed such a strong bond with Annie Besant that his father gave Besant alegal guardianship over Krishnamurti.
43. CareerIn 1911, the Theosophical Society named Krishnamurti the head of a new organization calledthe Order of the Star in the East (OSE) which was to prepare the world for a new WorldTeacher. This mission received publicity and worldwide press coverage. It is said that he wasuncomfortable with publicity surrounding him and his future being foretold.He was taken to England in 1911 where he gave his first public speech to the members ofOrder of the Star in the East in London. At the same time, he started writing in magazines andbooklets published by the Theosophical Society. After World War I, Krishnamurti gave a seriesof lectures and held meetings around the world regarding his role as the head of the Order ofthe Star in the East. He continued writing, most of which revolved around work of the Order inpreparation for the Coming.In 1922, he met Rosalind Williams and they discussed the World Teacher Project at Ojai Valleyin California which later became his official residence. During the month of September, he wentthrough a life changing spiritual experience. He experienced a mystical union followed byimmense peace. Slowly, the process began and Krishnamurti felt this initially as bodily painand then unconsciousness, but he always claimed to know his surroundings. Over the next fewyears, he started talking about more abstract and flexible concepts.On 3rd August 1929, he dissolved the Order in front of Besant in a speech known as theDissolution Speech which was heard over the radio.He kept denying the fact that he was a World Leader and never clarified his position. Heeventually dissociated himself from the Theosophical Society. He never had the concept offollowers and a teacher. J. Krishnamurti spent the rest of his life holding dialogues and givingpublic talks on nature, beliefs, truth, sorrow, freedom and death. This wise man never believedin dependency and exploitation and never accepted gifts showered on him for his works. Heurged people to think independently and gave lecture tours all over the world, published booksand transcripts for half a century.In the years between 1930 and 1944, he engaged himself in speaking tours with a publicationcompany trust called Star Publishing Trust. Rishi Valley School was opened based on hiseducational ideas. It operated under the Krishnamurti Foundations banner. Throughout the1930s, he spoke in Europe, America and Australia and spoke about everything that he acceptedwas true. He faced opposition for this.Krishnamurti talked of meditation in every discussion and also brought in new terms likechoiceless awareness and a single consciousness. In 1938, he spoke of World War-II and forthis he came under the surveillance of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). He stopped
44. giving lectures until 1944, after which when he again became regular. All his lectures werepublished in Krishnamurti Writings Inc.In 1953, he started writing prose and his first book was published by a mainstream commercialpublisher. Majority of his writings were in third person and he increased the number of talksand dialogues. He met prominent personalities like the Dalai Lama and Jawarhalal Nehru duringhis time. In 1961, he found a physicist called David Bohm, whose beliefs were parallel to his.They had several discussions together and even met a scientific community.In the late 1980s Jiddu Krishnamurti wrote the basic elements of his teachings called Core ofthe Teaching, in which he stressed on knowledge and man being built as a sense of his images -religious, political and personal.ContributionsBooks• Freedom from Known,• Awakening of Intelligence,• The Ending of Time,• The Future of Humanity,• Truth and Actuality,• The First and Last Freedom,• Wholeness of Life,• Think on these Things and some meditation books are major contributions byKrishnamurti.Poems• Hymn of the Innate Triumphant,• My Beloved and I are One,• Thou Art There and• From Darkness To Light: Poems of the Parable were some of the poetic works of JidduKrishnamurti.Education• A Purpose of Education,• The Act of Learning,• Discussion with the Teachers,• On Order,
45. • The Fundamental Meaning of Co-operation and A Different Kind of Education weresome of his most influential works.DeathJiddu Krishnamurti died on 17th February, 1986 at the age of 90 in California, due to pancreaticcancer.LegacyKrishanmurtis works were inspiring and many take interest in reading them even today. Hisbooks have been brought out in the form of videos and audio books. The KrishnamurtiFoundation still has archives of his teachings and it continues to grow. The schools that werestarted based on his teachings have reported huge growth. Unofficial Krishnamurti committeesare operating in several countries and his biographies and research papers are continuallyreferred to even to this day.Timeline1895: Birth of Jiddu Krishnamurti in Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh.1907: His father consulted Annie Besant for employment in the Theosophical Society.1909: He met Charles Leadbeater who said he would become a spiritual leader.1911: Became the Head of the Order of the Star to prepare for the World Teacher and gave hisfirst speech to OSE, London.1922: Experienced the process.1929: Dissolution Speech that ended the Order.1930-1944: He published under the Star Publishing Trust.1944: Publishing house called Krishnamurti Publishing Inc. is formed1953: Published his first book under a mainstream publisher.1961: Giving speeches to the scientific community along with David Bohm.1980s: Core of his teaching was released where his basic elements were documented.1986: He died at the age of 90 in Ojai, California.
46. Bharatendu HarishchandraBorn: September 9, 1850 VaranasiDied: January 6, 1885Bharatendu Harishchandra is one of the most heard names in thehistory of modern Hindi literature. He was an imminent poet ofthe 19th century who also wrote several novels and plays. It wasthe subject and pattern of his writings which caught the attentionof the critics and the masses and made BharatenduHarishchandra such a popular name in Hindi literature.Harishchandra possessed a revolutionary spirit and made knownall his nationalistic feelings through his writings. Almost everypiece of work from the hands of Bharatendu Harishchandra spoke about the exploitation whichexisted in the Indian society during his times, the inhuman conditions that the poor and needyhad to live in and the subjugation that the lower and middle classes of the society had to face inthe hands of the elite ruling class. Most of his poems were an urge to the people of India to joinhands in an effort to better the living conditions in the country.He is known as the father of modern Hindi literature as well as Hindi theatre.ChildhoodBharatendu Harishchandra was born on September 9, 1850 in Varanasi. His father GopalChandra was also a poet (by the pseudonym of Girdhar Das) and it was from his father thatBharatendu Harishchandra derived the inspiration to write in his later life. The nationalmovement in India during the British rule moved Bharatendu Harishchandra to a great degreeeven when he was young. He and his family visited the Jagannath Temple in Puri in the year1865 when Bharatendu Harishchandra was a mere 15 year old kid. But even as a child, theBengal Renaissance deeply touched him and he was influenced into being a part of themovement by introducing the concept in Hindi literature. After returning to his native Varanasifrom Puri, Bharatendu Harishchandra conducted an in-depth study of the plays, novels andpoems that were being written to bring about social and historical changes during the BengalRenaissance. And it was this study of Bengali literature that led Bharatendu Harishchandra totranslate an important Bengali play Vidyasundar to Hindi in the year 1868. BharatenduHarishchandras parents died when he was still very young, another incident which touched himand inspired him to get more involved with poetry, prose and drama writing.
47. Life & WorksAfter the death of his father, Bharatendu Harishchandra got completely immersed in Hindiliterature and always adopted ways to contribute better writings for the development of Hindiliterature. He introduced new concepts and ideas in Hindi prose and drama and is thusconsidered the pioneer of the modern age Hindi writing. However, Bharatendu Harishchandrascontribution was not just limited to the field of writing prose and poetry. He was in fact alsoinvolved with the development of Hindi journalism. He worked as an editor in magazines likeHarishchandra Patrika, Kavi Vachan Sudha, Harishchandra Magazine and Bal Vodhini.It was in recognizing his efforts towards the development of the Hindi language that renownedscholars in Hindi during his age bestowed on him the title of Bharatendu at a public eventorganized in the year 1880. It was their way of showing respect to the person who had brokennew grounds and ushered in a new era of Hindi literature, thus making him the rightful ownerof the title Father of Modern Hindi Literature. Bharatendu Harishchandra was a notablemember of the Chowdhury family residing in Varanasi. His forefathers, on the other hand, weremembers of the Agrawal community who were rich landlords in Bengal. BharatenduHarishchandra wrote extensively on the life and times of his great grandfathers from theAgrawal community. His family indeed had a flourishing history to boast of and severalaccounts of it were highlighted in the prose and essays written by Bharatendu Harishchandra.Notable Works of Bharatendu HarishchandraPoetry• Prem Madhuri• Prem Pralap• Raag Sangraha• Krishna Charitra• Phoolo ka GuchchaDrama• Vaidik Himsa Hitnda na Bhavati• Satya Harishchandra (a mythologicalclassic)• Neel Devi• Bharat Durdasha• Andher Nagari (City of Darkness’, which is considered as one of the most popular playsin India, being translated into a number of languages after Hindi.)Bharatendu Harishchandra was not only a playwright but also a director and actor in plays. Infact, it was acting that first brought Bharatendu Harishchandra to theater. He later chose towrite and direct plays as well.
48. Essay Collection• Bharatendu Grnthaaolly or Sahitya HarishchandraTranslation• Visakhadattas Mudra Rakshasa• Vidya Sundar• Harsha’s Ratnavali• Durlabh Bandhu (fromShakespeare’s Merchat of Venice.This writing was left incomplete dueto Harishchandra’s death.)• Kapoor MnajariDeathBharatendu Harishchandra passed away on January 6, 1885 at the age of 35, at his hometownVaranasi. His writings are still held in high regard by Hindi literature lovers all over the world.RecognitionBharatendu Harishchandra is such a respected name in Hindi writing that the Ministry ofInformation and Broadcasting in India still honors accomplished original writings in Hindi bybestowing upon the writers the Bharatendu Harishchandra Awards instituted in the year 1983.Popular Kannada scriptwriter and director Prasanna paid tribute to his chief inspirationBharatendu Harishchandra by preparing the play Seema Paar, which was staged at theNational School of Drama in New Delhi. Seema Paar focuses on Bharatendu Harishchandrasearly life in the ghats of Varanasi and the highpoints of his career in Hindi writing. Hindi scholarand critic Ramvilas Sharma famously commented that Bharatendu Harishchandra ushered in anera of "great literary awakening" in Hindi literature. His unique approach to writing earned histhe name of father of modern Hindi literature.Timeline1850: Bharatendu Harishchandra is born on September 9.1865: He visits Puri with family and gets inspired by Bengal Renaissance.1868: Translates Bengali writing Vidyasundar to Hindi.1880: Conferred the title of Bharatendu.1885: Bharatendu Harishchandra dies on January 6.1983: The Bharatendu Harishchandra Awards are instituted to celebrate original fresh talent inHindi writing.
49. Devaki Nandan KhatriBorn: 1861 Samastipur, BiharDied: 1913Devaki Nandan Khatri was one of the most popular authors of Hindinovels, best known to have introduced the concept of mystery inHindi novel writing. Fondly referred to as Babu DevakinandanKhatri, he was the first writer of mystery novels in the Hindilanguage. Devaki Nandan Khatris writings were so popular thateven people who were not Hindi literate made it a point to learn thelanguage to be able to read his mystery novels. Therefore, it may beaptly concluded that Devaki Nandan Khatri not only contributed toHindi literature, he also played a major role in making people of his times learn Hindi. DevakiNandan Khatri introduced several words in his novels which went on to become an integral partof mystery novel writing in Hindi by future authors.Early LifeDevaki Nandan Khatri was born in the year 1861 in the city of Samastipur in Bihar. Aftercompletion of his primary schooling in Samastipur, Devaki Nandan Khatri moved to the city ofTekari in Gaya for further education. He later assumed office as an employee of the Raja ofVaranasi. Since his initial years of professional life, Devaki Nandan Khatri was a resident ofVaranasi.CareerIt was in the year 1898 that Devaki Nandan Khatri took up novel writing in Hindi seriously. Bythat time, he had already started a printing press at Varanasi by the name of Lahari. It wasfrom Lahari that his first writing was published in a Hindi monthly called Sudarshan, alsostarted by Devaki Nandan Khatri. The Lahari Press inaugurated by Devaki Nandan Khatri at theRam Katora Road in Varanasi stands till today at the Ram Katora Crossing. Devaki Nandans sonand grandson followed his footsteps to take the tradition of mystery novel writing in Hindiforward.Babu Devakinandan Khatri, as he was fondly called after his works began to be distributed inplaces all over India, set up a book shop by the name of Lahrai Book Depot in Varanasi. Duringthis time, he had already acquired fame as one of the chief writers of mystery novels in Hindi.
50. The bookshop sold Hindi books written by Devaki Nandan Khatri and other eminent authors. Aunique feature of Devaki Nandan Khatris writings was that he never published one novel at onego. The authors novels were not published in the form of a book but as parts of the story in themonthly magazine Sudarshan.At the time when entire India was disturbed by the British rule in the country, Devaki NandanKhatri participated in the freedom struggle, while also taking time out to write parts or chaptersof his novels. The chapters, or bayaans as Devaki Nandan Khatri referred to them, wereeagerly awaited by one and all throughout the country. In fact, it became a ritual among thosewho were not educated in the Hindi language to visit friends or family members who wereHindi literate so that they may also hear the latest development in Devaki Nandan Khatrismystery saga. His works gradually gained so much popularity that people who did not knowHindi decided to learn the language only to be able to read the novels written by him. In thisway Babu Devakinandan Khatri contributed to the widespread dissemination of the Hindilanguage in India.As mentioned earlier, Devaki Nandan Khatri specialized in the writing of Hindi mystery novels.Aiyyar and Aiyarra were two of his most famous terms used to describe spies, male andfemale respectively, who served rulers of different regions in his novels. Both these words werepreviously unknown in the Hindi literary world. However, it was because of the popularity ofthe Devaki Nandan Khatri novels that both the terms began to be widely used thereafter.Similarly, he also introduced the word Tilism in the Hindi novel writing dictionary, a termwhich was used to mean a maze of hiding places, prisons and unknown passages.Popular WorksDevaki Nandan Khatri contributed some of the most popular novels that not only helped tointroduce a new genre in Hindi literature, but also led to the enrichment of the Hindi languageas a whole. Some of the most important works of Devaki Nandan Khatri are:• Chandrakanta• Chandrakanta Santati• Virendra Veer• Bhootnath (completed by his son after his death as Rohtasmath’)• Narendra Mohini• Gupt Godna
51. • Kajar Ki Kothari• Kusum Kumari• Katora Bhar BhoonPersonal LifeDevaki Nandan Khatri lived in his home named by him as Khatri Haveli in the Ramapura regionof Varanasi. His sons Durga Prasad Khatri and Kamlapati Khatri were instrumental in taking thetradition of mystery novel writing in Hindi started by their father Devaki Nandan Khatri forward.While Durga Prasad Khatri completed the last part of his fathers novel Bhootnath after hisdeath, Kamalpati Khatri looked after the proper functioning of the Lahari printing press afterDevaki Nandan Khatri passed away. Devaki Nandan Khatri lived in different parts of Varanasifrom the beginning to the end of his career as a mystery novel author in Hindi.DeathDevaki Nandan Khatri died in the year 1913 leaving behind a collection of mystery novels in theHindi language, which are read by children till today. Babu Devakinandan Khatris novelChandrakanta was adapted as a television serial in the mid-90s, though with several changesmade in its plot and characters for the television audience. Chandrakanta was by far the mostpopular novel written by Devaki Nandan Khatri and word has it that the story will soon beadapted for the big screen in Bollywood. If all goes well, we may soon see Amitabh Bachchan,Abhishek Bachchan and also Aishwarya Rai Bachchan portraying the chief characters in theDevaki Nandan Khatri novel for the onscreen adaptation of Chandrakanta in a film made byVidhu Vinod Chopra.
52. Hazari Prasad DwivediBorn: August 19, 1907 Uttar Pradesh, IndiaDied: May 19, 1979Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, later referred to as Acharya Hazari PrasadDwivedi, was a very popular writer and critic of Hindi literature. He isknown for the numerous novels and essays that he has contributedto Hindi literature. An eminent scholar, he was also one of the bestcritics that Hindi literature has witnessed. Moreover, Hazari PrasadDwivedi had an in-depth knowledge about the evolution and thehistory of the Hindi language, a factor which largely contributed tohis rich collection of writings in Hindi. Go through the following linesto know more about his life and childhood.Early LifeHazari Prasad Dwivedi was born on August 19, 1907 in the small village of Arat-Dubeka Chhaprain the Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh. It was here that he spent the maximum part of hischildhood years. When Hazari Prasad Dwivedi took up the profession of teaching in his later life,he settled in a number of places from Santiniketan to Benaras and Chandigarh.Education and CareerAfter completing his school studies from Ballia district in Uttar Pradesh, Hazari Prasad Dwivedipassed the Shastri examination from the Sanskrit University. On November 18, 1930 HazariPrasad Dwivedi was appointed a teacher of the Hindi department at Santiniketan. Hisassociation with the university town Santiniketan continued till the year 1950. After 1950,Hazari Prasad Dwivedi was appointed as a teacher and subsequently, became the head of thedepartment of Hindi at the Benaras Hindu University and the Punjab University located inChandigarh. While he continued with his activities as a scholar in universities spread all overIndia, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi also spent a large part of his time composing novels and essays ofhis own. Besides writing, he was also one of the most important critics of Hindi works publishedduring his time. In an attempt to reach out to the masses through his works, Hazari PrasadDwivedi began to participate actively in programs arranged by the government of India.
53. Banbhatta Ki Atmakatha (which later became one of the most famous novels in Hindiliterature), Punarnava, Charuchandra Lekh and Anamdas Ka Potha are some of the mostpopular works by Hazari Prasad Dwivedi in this genre.His writings Hindi Sahitya Ki Bhumika and Hindi Sahitya Ka Aadial are two books whichreflect Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedis profound knowledge on the evolution and history ofthe Hindi language. He was also a brilliant essay writer and gave to the Hindi language somewonderful collection of essays. Kutaj, Nakhoon Kyon Barhte Hain and Ashok Ke Phool are afew unforgettable essays penned by Hazari Prasad Dwivedi. His books were so valuable to theenrichment of the Hindi language that a large number of copies of his writings derived fromarchives were donated to the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts by Hazari PrasadDwivedis children.Awards• The government of India conferred the civilian award Padma Bhushan to Hazari PrasadDwivedi in the year 1957 to celebrate his contributions in the world of Hindi literature.• In 1973, Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi received the Sahitya Akademi Award for thecollection of essays Alok Parva.DeathAcharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi died on May 19, 1979 leaving behind an enriching collection ofwritings in Hindi. He was staying in Delhi at the time of his death.Timeline1907: Hazari Prasad Dwivedi was born on August 19.1930: Appointed Hindi teacher at Santiniketan.1950: The end of his term in Santiniketan.1957: Was awarded the Padma Bhushan.1973: Won the Sahitya Akademi Award for his essays Alok Parva.1979: He died on May 19.
54. Amrita PritamBorn: August 31, 1919 Gujranwala, British IndiaDied: 31st October, 2005Amrita Pritam is considered to be one of the most well-knownfemale writers. A versatile talent who penned poems, novels,short stories, essays, and autobiographies, she is bestremembered for her elegy on the partition of Punjab. Manydescribe Amrita Pritam as the goddess of defiance, a rebel and arevolutionary who lived her life with utmost intensity. She had anadmirable influence on Punjabi literature. Often a householdname in Punjab, she was one of the most eminent of poets andfiction writers. In spite of her poor health, she remained activetill the end, working as the editor of a Punjabi magazine. Though she migrated to Delhi afterindependence, she lived and still lives in the hearts of people in both India and Pakistan.in 1956, she became the first woman to win the Sahitya Akademi Award for her magnum opus,a long poem, Sunehe (Messages), later she received the Bhartiya Jnanpith, one of Indiashighest literary awards, in 1982 for Kagaz Te Canvas (The Paper and the Canvas). ThePadmaShri came her way in 1969 and finally, Padma Vibhushan, Indias second highest civilian award,in 2004, and in the same year she was honoured with Indias highest literary award, given bythe Sahitya Akademi (Indias Academy of Letters), the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship given to the"immortals of literature" for lifetime achievement.Early LifeAmrita Pritam was born in Gujranwala in Punjab (now in Pakistan) on 31st August, 1919. Shewas the only child to Kartar Singh Hitkari who was a school teacher and a scholar. Her fatherwas also a Sikh preacher and the editor of a literary journal. After her mothers death in 1930,when she was eleven, Amrita and her father moved to Lahore where she lived until hermigration to Delhi in 1947. The early demise of her mother left her in a state of isolation andsaw her handling many adult-like responsibilities at a very young age.This led her to writing poetry as a young girl. She started her literary career as a romantic poet.Her leanings towards romance can be seen in Amrit Lehren (Immortal Waves) in 1936. Whenshe was sixteen, Amrita married Pritam Singh, an editor to whom she was engaged to when shewas a child.
55. CareerThough Amrita Pritam started her career as a romantic poet, her career took an important turnas she was influenced by feminist movements. She played an active role in the ProgressiveWriters Movement, the influence of which could be seen in her works. Her work, Lok Peeth(Peoples Anguish) openly critisises the war torn economy after the Bengal famine of 1943.After independence, she was part of Guru Radha Kishans initiative to put together first Jantalibrary in Delhi which was inaugurated by Aruna Asaf Ali and Balraj Sahni.In 1947, following the partition of India, Amrita migrated to Delhi. While she was traveling fromDehradun to Delhi, she penned her anguish over the partition on a piece of paper which waslater immortalized into a poem. The poem Ajj akhaan Waris Shah nu (I ask Waris Shah Today)portrays the horrors that occurred during the partition of India. Till 1961, Amrita Pritam workedat the All India Radio in Delhi. In 1960, her marriage with Pritam Singh found itself on the rocks.This change in her life made her a feminist of sorts. Many of her stories and poems portrayedthe unhappy experiences of her married life. Her works including her autobiographies havebeen translated into English, French, Danish and Japanese from Urdu and Punjabi.Many of her stories were made into films. Her novel Pinjaar (The Skeleton, 1970) which wasmade into a film, was an award winning movie. She was also the editor of a Punjabi monthlyliterary magazine called Nagmani which she ran along with Imroz, the man who was herpartner at the time of her death. She started writing the introductions for several books ofOsho, one of them being Ek Omkar Satnam. She produced works on spiritual themes anddreams like Kaal Chethna (Time Consciousness) and Agyat ka Nimantran (Call of theUnknown). Amrita published autobiographies such as Black Rose (Kala Gulab in Punjabi,1968), Revenue Stamp (Raseedi Tikkat in Punjabi, 1976) and Aksharon ka Saayee (Shadowsof Words). Sunehray (Golden), can be considered her magnum opus. It fetched Amrita theSahitya academy award in 1956. Kagaz te Canvas (Paper and Canvas), yet anothermasterpiece of her, helped her qualify for the Jnanapit Award in 1982.Contributions to LiteratureIn a literary career which lasted for over six decades, Amrita Pritam authored one hundredbooks which included poems, essays, novels and autobiographies, thus enriching the Punjabilanguage.NovelsDoctor Dev, Kore Kagaz,
56. Unchas Din,Sagar aur Seepian,Rang ka Patta,Dilli ki Galiyan,Terahwan Suraj,Yaatri,Jilavatan (1968).AutobiographyKala Gulab, 1968, Rasidi Ticket (1976), Aksharon ka Saayee (2004).Short StoriesKahaniyan Jo Kahaniyan Nahi, Kahaniyon ke Angan mein, Stench of KerosenePoetry AnthologiesAmrit Lehran (Immortal Waves) (1936), Jiunda Jiwan (The Exuberant Life) (1939), Trel DhotePhul (1942), O Gitan Valia (1942), Badlam De Laali (1943), Sanjh de laali (1943), Lok Peera(The Peoples Anguish) (1944), Pathar Geetey (The Pebbles) (1946), Punjabi Di Aawaaz (1952),Sunehray (Messages) (1955), Ashoka Cheti (1957, Kasturi (1957), Nagmani (1964), Ik SiAnita (1964), Chak Nambar Chatti (1964),Uninja Din (49 Days) (1979), Kagaz Te Kanvas(1981), and Chuni Huyee Kavitayen.Literary JournalNagmaniDeathAmrita Pritam, after a long drawn illness, breathed her last in New Delhi on 31st October, 2005.LegacyIn 2007, noted lyricist Gulzar released an audio album titled Amrita recited by Gulzarwhich includes poems of Amrita Pritam recited by him.Awards and Accolades• Punjab Rattan Award• Sahitya Academy Award, 1956 (first woman to win this award)• Bharathiya Jnanapit Award, 1982
57. • Padmashree, 1969• Padma Vibhushan• Sahitya Academy Fellowship, 2004• D.Litt Honorary Degree from Delhi University (1973), Jabalpur University (1973)• Viswabharathi (1987)• Vapsarov award by Republic of Bulgaria, 1979• Degree of Officer dens by French government, 1987• Nominated to the Rajya SabhaTimeline1919: Born in Gujranwala, Punjab, British India.1930: Amrita Pritam moved to Lahore after her fathers death.1936: Published her first anthology of poems Amrit Lehren (Immortal Waves).1947: Amrita migrated to Delhi.1956: Won the Sahitya Academy Award.1960: Amrita Pritams ended her marriage with Pritam Singh.1969: Won the Padmashree.1982: Won the Bharathiya Jnanapit Award.1986: Was nominated to the Rajya Sabha.2005: Died on 31st October in New Delhi.
58. Aravind AdigaBorn: 23rd October, 1974 ChennaiBeing a person with flawless language and great writing skill, it isno wonder that Aravind Adiga bagged Britains most prestigiousliterary award - The Man Booker Award for his book The WhiteTiger. From a proven student to a journalist and then to afamous writer, success always accompanied him. He always kepthis eyes and ears open to the world around and derivedinspiration from the facts he come across in daily life.His award winning book "The White Tiger" was a critical view on"an India of light and an India of darkness while his latest novel"Last Man in Tower" describes the life and soul of one of Indias biggest cities, Mumbai, wherehe discovers that the city and its people are obsessed with real estate. He derives this fact fromthe common man who often talks about elusive square feet while journeying on suburbantrains. The book gives a different picture of the city which is always described as the"Bollywood City" or "Mafia City". Read on to learn more about this young talent, AravindAdiga.Early LifeAravind Adiga was born on the 23rd day of October, 1974 in Chennai. His parents Dr. K.Madhava Adiga and Usha Adiga hailed from Mangalore, Karnataka. His paternal grandfatherlate K. Suryanarayana Adiga served as the Chairman of Karnataka Bank. He was brought up inMangalore; he completed his schooling from Canara High School and St. Aloysius High School.He completed SSLC in 1990, ranking first in the state preceding his elder brother Anand Adigawho secured 2nd rank in the SSLC exams. He also got the first rank in PUC in the state.Rest ofhis studies continued in Sydney as his family migrated to Australia. Aravind studied at JamesRuse Agricultural High School in Australia and then pursued English literature from ColumbiaCollege, Columbia University in New York, where the famous British historian Simon Schamawas his fellow. He completed his graduation in 1997 and then moved to Magdalen College,Oxford, where he was taught by Hermione Lee, the current President of Wolfson College,Oxford.Career
59. Aravind Adiga started his career as a financial journalist intern at the Financial Times coveringstock market and investment protocols, interviewing luminaries like Donald Trump (Americanbusiness magnate and television personality). He also wrote literary reviews, a famous onebeing the one about "Oscar and Lucinda", written by the previous Booker Prize winner PeterCarey. He then moved to TIME magazine where he served as South Asia correspondent forthree years. He then quit TIME magazine and opted to work as a freelancer. It was during hisfreelance period that he wrote the Man Booker Prize winning book -The White Tiger, thusbecame the fourth Indian to achieve this. Thus, he turned into the field of writing and haspenned many books since then. He donated a part of the Man Booker Award prize money to St.Aloysius College where he did his schooling, as a token of gratitude.This amount will be utilizedto provide scholarships for underprivileged children staying in Aloysian Boys Home, Kotekar,Ullal. Aravind Adiga is now put up in Mumbai, India. Shortly after bagging the Man Booker Prize,he was accused of sacking his agent to secure his contract with Atlantic Books. His book TheWhite Tiger was a big hit and was popularized by many other Booker Prize winners and hisnovel was adopted into a film according to an announcement made in April 2009. The Indianhardcover edition of his award winning book "The White Tiger" has sold in excess of 2, 50,000copies. His second book, namely "Between the Assassinations" that depicts 12 interlinkedshort stories, was released in November 2008 in India while its release in the US and UK tookplace in 2009. The book features 12 interlinked short stories.ContributionsAravind Adigas contributions to literature include novels and short storiesNovels• The White Tiger: A Novel, 2008• Between the Assassinations, 2008• Last Man in Tower Due to be published, 2011Short Stories• "The Sultans Battery", 2008• "Smack",2008• "Last Christmas in Bandra",2008• "The Elephant" 2009Awards and Accolades• Man Booker Prize, 2008, for the debut Novel “The White Tiger”
60. Time Line1974: Born in Chennai.1990: Got the 1st rank in the SSLC examination.1997: Completed graduation.2008: Won the Man Booker Prize.2009: It was announced that The White Tiger would be adapted into a feature film.Kiran DesaiBorn: September 3, 1971 (age 41), New DelhiDaughter of a well known Indian author, she is the winner of the2006 Booker prize. Well, we are talking about the eminentIndian novelist Kiran Desai. She was born on the 3rd ofSeptember in the year 1971 in Chandigarh. She spent the earlyyears of her life in Pune and Mumbai. She studied in theCathedral and John Connon School. In this article, we willpresent you with the biography of Kiran Desai.Her novel “The Inheritance of Loss” won the 2006 Man BookerPrizeand the National Book Critics Circle Fiction Award.Life HistoryWhen she was around nine years old, her family shifted to Delhi. By the time, she turnedfourteen, the family moved to England. A year later, they shifted to the United States. Kirancompleted her schooling in Massachusetts. She did her graduation from Hollins University andColumbia University. Thereafter, she took a break of two years to write her first book"Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard".CareerHer maiden novel "Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard" was published in the year 1998. It was anamazing piece of work, for which Kiran received many accolades.Her second book "The Inheritance of Loss" was also well acclaimed. It won the 2006 ManBooker Prize, as well as the 2006 National Book Critics Circle Fiction Award.
61. Mahadevi VarmaBorn: May 26, 1907, FarrukhabadDied: September 11, 1987, AllahabadMahadevi Varma best known as an outstanding Hindi poet,was a freedom fighter, womans activist and educationistfrom India. She is widely regarded as the "ModernMeera".Early LifeMahadevi was born in Farrukhabad, United Provinces in afamily of lawyers. She was educated at Jabalpur- MadhyaPradesh. She was the eldest child of Govindprasad andHemrani and had two brothers and a sister, Shyama. She wasmarried in 1914, at the age of 7, to Dr Swarup Narain Varma inIndore. She stayed with her parents while her husband studied in Lucknow to complete hiseducation, during which time, she received her higher education at the AllahabadUniversity and passed her B.A. examination in 1929 and completed her Masters degree-M.A. inSanskrit in 1933. She later joined her husband in the princely state of Tamkoi around 1920 andlater moved to Allahabad to pursue her interest in poetry with agreement from her husband, asshe refused to accept her marriage with him in childhood. Mahadevi Varma and her husbandmostly lived separately pursuing their respective interests and used to meet occasionally.After the death of her husband in 1966, she moved permanently to Allahabad and lived thereuntil her death. Mahadevi Varma was deeply affected by Buddhism and also contributed tothe Indian freedom movement. She even tried to become a Buddhistbhikshuni.Mahadevi was appointed as the first headmistress of Allahabad (Prayag) Mahila Vidyapeeth,which was started with a view to imparting cultural and literary education to girls through Hindimedium. Later, she became the chancellor of the institute.In her childhood biography Mere Bachpan Ke Din (My Childhood Days), Mahadevi Verma haswritten that at a time when a girl child was considered a burden upon the family, she was veryfortunate to be born into a liberal family. Her grandfather had the ambition of making her ascholar; her mother was fluent in Sanskrit and Hindi, and very religious. Mahadevi credits hermother for inspiring her to write poems, and to take an interest in literature.Works
62. Mahadevi is considered to be one of the four major poets of the Chhayavaadi school of theHindi literature, others being Suryakant Tripathi Nirala, Jaishankar Prasad and SumitranandanPant. She was also a noted painter. She drew a number of illustrations for her poetic works likeHindi and Yama. Her other works include short stories such as Gillu ( ग लू) which talks abouther experience with a squirrel and Neelkanth which talks about her experience with apeacock. Mahadevi Varma is also known for her childhood memoir, Mere Bachpan Ke Din,which was inducted into the syllabus of Indias Central Board of Secondary Education for the9th grade.PoetryHer poems have been published under a number of other titles as well, but they contain thepoems from these collections only. They include:Neehar (1930)Rashmi (1932)Neeraja (1934)SandhyageetDeepshikha (1939)Agnirekha (1990, published after her death)Awards• Mahadevi Varmas creative talents and sharp intellect soon earned her a prominentplace in the Hindi Literary world. She is considered among the four pillars of theChaayavad movement. In 1934, she received Sekseriya Puraskar from the Hindi SahityaSammelan for her work, Niraja.• Her poetry collection (Yama, यामा-1936) received the Jnanpith Award, one of thehighest Indian literary awards.• She also Honored with “Proud Past Alumni" in the list of 42 members, from "AllahabadUniversity Alumni Association", NCR, Ghaziabad (Greater Noida) Chapter 2007-2008registered under society act 1860 with registration no. 407/2000.• She was the first woman to be awarded the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship, in 1979.• In 1988, Indian Government bestowed her with Padma Vibhushan, the second-highestcivilian award.
63. Khushwant SinghBorn: February 2, 1915 (age 97), Punjab regionKhushwant Singh is an Indian novelist and journalist. Singhs weeklycolumn, "With Malice towards One and All", carried byseveral Indiannewspapers, is among the most widely-read columnsin the country.Early LifeSingh was born in Hadali District Khushab, Punjab (which now liesin Pakistan), in a Sikh family. His father, Sir Sobha Singh, was aprominent builder in Lutyens Delhi.His uncle Sardar Ujjal Singh(1895–1983) was Ex. Governor of Punjab & Tamil Nadu.He was educated at Modern School, New Delhi, Government College, Lahore, St. StephensCollege in Delhi and Kings College, London, before reading for the Bar at the Inner Temple.Singh is also famous for his novel Train to Pakistan penned in the year 1956.Later LifeOnce while still practicing as a lawyer in the High Court of Lahore, Khushwant Singh was on hisway to his familys summer residence at Kasauli at the foothills of the Himalayas. It was justdays prior to the partition of India and Pakistan in August 1947. Singh was driving his car whenhe came across a jeep full of Sikhs on an unusually vacant road that day. The Sikh menpridefully narrated to him how they had just butchered away all residents of a Muslim village.All these instances found vivid description in the book Train to Pakistan Khushwant Singh laterwrote in 1956. In the time to come, Singh was appointed to edit Yojana, a journal published bythe Indian government. Other publications whose editing Singh was encharged with were theIllustrated Weekly of India, a newsweekly and two other major Indian dailies - The NationalHerald and the Hindustan Times. Under his leadership, The Illustrated Weekly came to behailed as Indias pre-eminent newsweekly.Theres many other kudos bagged by Khushwant Singh. For instance, Singh was a Rajya Sabhamember of the Indian parliament from 1980 to 1986. He was also honored with the PadmaBhushan award in the year 1974 for service to his country, but he returned the award in protestagainst the siege of the Golden Temple by the Indian Army in 1984. Undeterred, the Indian
64. government awarded Singh an even more prestigious honor, the Padma Vibhushan in the year2007.Personal LifeHe has a son, named Rahul Singh, and a daughter, named Mala. Actress Amrita Singh is thegranddaughter of his sister. He stays in "Sujan Singh Park", near Khan Market New Delhi, Delhisfirst apartment complex, built by his father in 1945, and named after his grandfather.AwardsRockfeller Grant,1966Padma Bhushan, Government of India (1974)[He returned the decoration in 1984 in protestagainst the Union governments siege of the Golden Temple, Amritsar)Honest Man of the Year, Sulabh International (2000)Punjab Rattan Award, The Government of Punjab (2006)Padma Vibhushan, Government of India (2007)Sahitya academy fellowship award by Sahitya academy of India (2010)BooksThe Mark of Vishnu and Other Stories, 1950The History of Sikhs, 1953Train to Pakistan, 1956The Voice of God and Other Stories, 1957I Shall Not Hear the Nightingale, 1959The Sikhs Today, 1959The Fall of the Kingdom of the Punjab, 1962A History of the Sikhs, 1963Ranjit Singh: The Maharajah of the Punjab, 1963Ghadar 1915: Indias first armed revolution, 1966A History of the Sikhs, 1966 (2nd edition)A Bride for the Sahib and Other Stories, 1967
65. Black Jasmine, 1971Tragedy of Punjab, 1984Delhi: A Novel, 1990Sex, Scotch and Scholarship: Selected Writings, 1992Not a Nice Man to Know: The Best of Khushwant Singh, 1993We Indians, 1993Women and Men in My Life, 1995Uncertain Liaisons; Sex, Strife and Togetherness in Urban India, 1995Declaring Love in Four Languages, by Khushwant Singh and Sharda Kaushik, 1997The Company of Women, 1999Truth, Love and a Little Malice (an autobiography), 2002With Malice towards One and AllThe End of India, 2003Burial at the Sea, 2004Paradise and Other Stories, 2004A History of the Sikhs: 1469-1838, 2004[Death at My Doorstep, 2005A History of the Sikhs: 1839-2004, 2005The Illustrated History of the Sikhs, 2006Why I Supported the Emergency: Essays and Profiles, 2009The Sunset Club, 2010Agnostic Khushwant Singh, There is no GOD, 2012
66. Nirad C. ChaudhuriBorn: November 23, 1897, MymensinghDied: August 1, 1999, OxfordshireNirad C. Chaudhuri was an eminent Bengali Indian writer andjournalist. He was appointed the political speaker for the Calcuttabranch of the All India Radio and has also edited several prestigiousmagazines. He will always be remembered for his phenomenalbiography The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian published inthe year 1951.He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award, in 1975 for hisbiography on Max Müller called Scholar Extraordinary, bythe Sahitya Akademi, Indias national academy of letters. In 1992, hewas honoured by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom with the title of Commander ofOrder of the British Empire (CBE).His 1965 work The Continent of Circe earned him the Duff Cooper Memorial Award, becomingthe first and only Indian to be selected for the prize.ProfileNirad C. Chaudhuri was a famous Bengali Indian writer. He was born on 23 November in 1897 atKishoreganj located in the Mymensingh district of East Bengal of those days or todaysBangladesh. He studied at Kishorganj and then in Kolkata city. As a student of history at theScottish Church College, Nirad C Chaudhuri topped the University of Calcutta, which was a raredistinction at that time.Nirad C Chaudhuri began his career as clerk in the accounting department of the Indian Armyand also started writing stories for popular magazines. His first article on Bengali poet, BharatChandra was published in Modern Review, a popular English magazine of those times. Afterthis, he entered the field of journalism and began editing various magazines. Nirad C Chaudhurialso temporarily introduced two highly esteemed Bengali magazines, Samasamayik and NotunPatrika.Finally in the year 1938, Nirad bagged a job as the secretary to the great Indian political leader,Sarat Chandra Bose. Due to this, he got ample opportunity to meet various renowned leadersof India like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and others. In the year 1932, Nirad C
67. Chaudhuri married Amiya Dhar who was herself a very prolific writer. Later on, Nirad CChaudhuri was elected as a political speaker for the Calcutta branch of the All India Radio.Writing was Nirad C Chaudhuris innate passion and he pursued this until the very end. His lastwork was published at the age of 99. Nirad will always be remembered for his phenomenalbiography The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian published in the year 1951. It put himdirectly on the short list of great Indian English writers of those days. The book traces theheight of the British Raj in India till its eventual dissolution. He died at Oxford in England twomonths short of his 102nd birthday in the year 1999.BooksChaudhuri wrote the following books in English:The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian (1951)A Passage to England (1959)The Continent of Circe (1965)The Intellectual in India (1967)To Live or Not to Live (1971)Scholar Extraordinary, The Life of Professor the Right Honourable Friedrich Max Muller,P.C. (1974)Culture in the Vanity Bag (1976)Clive of India (1975)Hinduism: A Religion to Live by (1979)Thy Hand, Great Anarch! (1987)Three Horsemen of the New Apocalypse (1997)The East is East and West is West (collection of pre-published essays)From the Archives of a Centenarian (collection of pre-published essays)Why I Mourn for England (collection of pre-published essays)He also wrote the following books in Bengali:
68. Bangali Jibane Ramani (Role of Woman in Bengali Life)Atmaghati Bangali (Suicidal Bengalee)Atmaghati Rabindranath (Suicidal Rabindranath)Amar Debottar Sampatti (My Bequeathed Property)Nirbachita Prabandha (Selected Essays)Aji Hote Satabarsha Age (Before a Hundred Years) (A Hundred years ago)
69. Subhadra Kumari ChauhanBorn: 1904, Allahabad DistrictDied: February 15, 1948Subhadra Kumari Chauhan was a distinguished Indian poetess,whose compositions used to be very emotionally charged. Hermost well-known composition is Jhansi Ki Rani narrating the lifeof the brave Jhansi Ki Rani, Lakshmi Bai. Of the entire Hindiliterature, it is this poem thats most recited and sung by thepeople of India. The government of India has named an Indiancoast guard ship in her remembrance.Subhadra Kumari Chauhan was a prominent poetess in India,whose writings used to be very emotionally charged. She wasborn in 1904 at the Nihalpur village in Allahabad district. Butafter her wedding to a Thakur Laxman Singh of Khandwa, Chauhan shifted to Jabalpur in theyear 1919. Here, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan joined the famous non-cooperation movementlaunched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1921 and became the very first woman Satyagrahi in thecountry to court arrest at Nagpur.Infact, she was put behind the bar twice because she dared to raise her voice against the Britishrule in India. Chauhan has also penned a plethora of works in Hindi poetry. Her most well-known composition is Jhansi Ki Rani narrating the life of the brave Jhansi Ki Rani, Lakshmi Bai.Of the entire Hindi literature, it is this poem thats most recited and sung by the people of India.Some of her other famous poems include Veeron Ka Kaisa Ho Basant, Rakhi Ki Chunauti andVida. These too explicitly talk about the freedom movement.The poems and songs written by Subhadra Kumari Chauhan have served as a source ofmotivation for so many Indian youths to take part in the Indian independence struggle. Shepredominantly used the simple and clear Khariboli dialect of Hindi in her writings. Other thanthese, Chauhan also used to write poems for children. She has penned many short storiesbased on the lifestyle of the middle-class Indians. However, she died suddenly in a car accidentin 1948. The government of India has named an Indian coast guard ship after her.Here is the opening stanza of Jhansi ki Rani:Original Hindi text:
70. संहासन हल उठे राजवंश ने भृकु ट तानी थी,बूढ़े भारत म आई फर से नयी जवानी थी,गुमी हुई आज़ाद क क मत सबने पहचानी थी,दूर फरंगी को करने क सबने मन म ठानी थी।चमक उठ सन स तावन म, वह तलवार पुरानी थी,बुंदेले हरबोल के मुँह हमने सुनी कहानी थी,खूब लड़ी मदानी वह तो झाँसी वाल रानी थी।।English translation:The thrones shook and royalties scowledOld India was re-invigorated with new youthPeople realised the value of lost freedomEverybody was determined to throw the foreigners outThe old sword glistened again in 1857This story we heard from the mouths of Bundel bardsLike a man she fought, she was the Queen of JhansiWorks:Collections of poems• Tridhara• Mukul (1930)• Yeh Kadamb Ka PedThese anthologies consist some of the well-known poems like Jhansi ki Raani, Veeron Ka KaisaHo Basant and Yeh Kadamb Ka Ped.• Seedhe-Saade Chitra (1946)• Seedhe-saade Chitra(1946)• Mera naya bachpan(1946)
71. Subramanya BharathiBorn: December 11, 1882, EttayapuramDied: September 11, 1921, ChennaiSubramanya Bharathi was a Tamil poet, reformer and freedomfighter during the pre-independence era. His used the adeptness atpoetry to the best of his ability to coax the masses in the south tojoin the great Indian struggle for independence. Bharathis name iscounted amongst the most celebrated bards of the country.Subramanya Bharathi was a Tamil poet, reformer and freedomfighter during the pre-independence era. Also referred to by thename of Mahakavi Bharathiyar meaning Great Poet of Tamil,Bharathis name is counted amongst the most celebrated bards ofthe country. He was an expert at both prose and poetry and used these to the best of his abilityto coax the masses in the south to join the great Indian struggle for independence. His time wasthe most eventful one in the history of India and his contemporaries included the likes ofMahatma Gandhi, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Sri Aurobindo and V.V.S. Aiyar.Read on to know more about Subramanya Bharathi, who got attracted to the Hindu spiritualityand nationalism during his stay at Varanasi. He attended the meeting of the All India NationalCongress in the year 1905 here and on his return also got the opportunity to meet SisterNivedita, the spiritual daughter of the great Indian philosopher and thinker, SwamiVivekananda. Subramanya Bharathi felt very impressed on meeting Sister Nivedita. This phaseproved to be a crucial turning point in the life history of Subramanya Bharathi.He now began to take active interest in the affairs of the outside. As such, Subramanya Bharathientered the sphere of journalism by joining as assistant editor of a Tamil daily Swadeshamitranin 1904. In the coming time, he became the editor of a Tamil weekly India and another Englishnewspaper Bala Bharatham in 1907. These newspapers not only helped to awaken the feelingof nationalism among the masses and inform about the daily affairs of the outside world, butalso served to bring out the creativity of Bharathi.Bharathi began to publish his poems regularly in these editions and the themes often delvedfrom complex religious hymns to rousing nationalist sentiments to songs on the Russian andFrench revolutions. He was simultaneously against social poverty, exploitation and abuse of the
72. downtrodden people and the British ruling over the country. Though he lived a life of utterpoverty, he was always positive in his thoughts and action.Dilip Purushottam ChitreBorn: September 17, 1938, VadodaraDied: December 10, 2009, PuneDilip Purushottam Chitre is often described in epitaphs with titlessuch as legendary, "the rarest of rare" and "all rounder", whichhad sat lightly on the unfazed shoulders of the man. And whenone reads the ideas and thoughts described in words that hadflown out of his pen, the experience can only be described asnothing short being impeccable. As an artist there are perhapsvery few who can equal him and it is hard to find someone withsuch an enormous body and diversity of work. From filmmakingto painting to poetry in which he had been considered as a master, Dilip Chitre had madeenormous contributions. When most writers found it tough to master even one language, DilipChitre had honed his art in both English and Marathi and emerged as the titan in both of theselanguages. It can safely be said that he had the Midas touch, no matter what he did whetherwriting, translating, composing, or making movies; he managed to wow critics and win awards.A multi-faceted personality, Dilip Chitre had left a mark as an artist and critic. He is consideredto be one of the foremost writers to have emerged after independence.Childhood & Early LifeDilip Chitre was born to Purushottam Chitre, in the year 1938 in Gujarat. His father was thepublisher of a critically-acclaimed periodical called Abhiruchi. In 1951, at the age of 12, hisfamily moved to Mumbai. Initially he studied at an English-medium school, but after three yearshe shifted to a Marathi-medium school. While in school, junior Chitre became fluent in Gujarati,Hindi and English and obviously Marathi which was his mother tongue. He then learned Bengaliand Urdu as well. From the age of sixteen, Chitre began to seriously write poetry. His literarycareer took a definite shape when he started writing for the Marathi magazine, Satyakatha,while as a student in Mumbai. In Mumbai, Chitre graduated in English honors and then workedas a journalist and a college tutor.
73. Middle YearsHe was the most important influences in the little magazine movement of the sixties inMarathi. Together with Ramesh Samarth and Arun Kolatkar, he started the magazine Shabdadevoted exclusively to poetry in 1954. In the year 1959, Dilip Chitre published his first book ofpoems in Marathi titled Kavita. A year later, in 1960, he bagged a contract to teach English ingovernment high schools in Ethiopia for 3 years. There he even learned the language Amharic.At the age of 25 with the expiration of the contract, Chitre returned to Mumbai and lived heretill the age of 37. During this time, he dabbled at various jobs ranging from stints at anadvertizing agency, a pharmaceutical company, a civil rights NGO to freelancing as a filmscriptwriter, translator and journalist. At the age of 37, the Indian Express group hired DilipChitre as a Creative Executive. During the emergency era of 1975 to 1977, he accepted aninvitation from the University of Iowa to join their International Writing Program as a Fellow.He stayed on in the US even after his fellowship tenure ended and returned only at the end of1977. In US, Chitre conducted creative writing workshops for school kids at Cedar Rapids.Interests & InfluencesSince the age of 10, Dilip Chitre had a passionate interest in drawing, painting, music andphotography. During his student years in Mumbai, he had the opportunity to meet and minglewith artists, musicians and photographers. At the age of 16, he met the vocalist PanditSharadchandra Arolkar, to whose house he would visit frequently. The maestro had a hugeinfluence on young Chitres ideas in life and art. The city of Mumbai also had a deep influenceon his early work, both in his Marathi and English poetry. Apart from these, Chitre was alsodeeply influenced by his maternal grandfather, as it was his grandfather who introduced him tothe 17th century saint-poet Tukaram.Later LifeIn the year 1985, Dilip Chitre was the convener of the Valmiki World Poetry Festival held at NewDelhi. He was also the director of Vagrant World Poetry Festival, held at Bharat Bhavan, Bhopal.From 1991 to 1992, he was the D.A.A.D (German Academic Exchange) Fellow and Writer-in-Residence at the Universities of Heidelberg and Bamberg in Germany. He was also a member ofthe International Jury at the literature festival in Berlin. Throughout his later career, Chitretraveled widely giving lectures, readings, participating in talks and seminars and conductingcreative writing workshops in both India and abroad.PoetryDilip Chitre has published poetry collections in both Marathi and English. His early poems havebeen described as stylish, metrical, and spontaneous as well as erotic and sensuous. In his later
74. works, various other big cities of the world figure prominently as he considered these cities to"connect with all the major themes of life and death". Though proficient in English, Chitresfirst collection of poems in this language was published only in 1980, about 20 years after thepublication of his Marathi collection. His most notable works include the Travelling in theCage, a collection of English poems and Ekun Kavita, the three volumes of collected poems inMarathi. One of his collections of poems even won the Sahitya Academy Award, Indias highestliterary award, in 1994.TranslationDilip Chitre was also recognized as an accomplished translator as he had translated both proseand poetry. His best known work was the English translation of the devotional poems of the17th century bhakti poet, Tukaram published as Says Tuka. This translation received theSahitya Academy Award in the same year as when he won for a collection of poems. He hadalso translated Anubhavamrut by the twelfth century bhakti poet, Dnyaneshwar.FilmsIn 1969, Dilip Chitre started his professional film career with documentaries and short films. Hehad made only a single movie called Godan, in 1984 which was in Hindi and won severalawards including the Prix Special du Jury in France in 1984. However, apart from that onemovie, Chitre made about twenty video documentary features, a dozen documentary films, anda few short films. He also wrote the scripts and sometimes, scored the music as well. WithHenning Stegmuller, Chitre produced the film Bombay: Geliebter Moloch for a German TVchannel.Personal Life and DeathDilip Chitre married his wife Viju when he was only 22 years old. Their only son was a victim ofthe Bhopal Gas Tradegy. He was suffering from cancer for five years and after a prolongedillness, succumbed to the disease on 10th December, 2009 at his home in Pune.Awards & Honors• Worked as an honorary editor of the quarterly journal New Quest, Mumbai.• Was honored with several Maharashtra State Awards.• Was facilitated with the Prix Special du Jury for his film Godam, at the Festival desTrois Continents at Nantes in France, in 1984
75. • Earned the Ministry of Human Resource Developments Emeritua Fellowship, theUniversity of Iowas International Writing Program Fellowship, the Indira GandhiFellowship, the Villa Waldberta Fellowship for residence given by the city of Munich,Bavaria, Germany• Held the position of Director of Vagarth, Bharat Bhavan Bhopal and the Convenor-Director of Valmiki World Poetry Festival (New Delhi, 1985) and InternationalSymposium of Poets (Bhopal, 1985)• He was D.A.A.D. (German Academic Exchange) Fellow and Writer-in-Residence at theUniversities of Heidelberg and Bamberg in Germany, from 1991 till 1992.• Won the Sahitya Academy Award, Indias highest literary award, twice in 1994.• Was a keynote speaker at the World Poetry Congress in Maebashi, Japan (1996) and atthe Ninth International Conference on Maharashtra at Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA in2001• Was a member of the International Jury at the recent Literature festival Berlin, 2001.Timeline1938: Dilip Chitre was born in a traditional Marathi family.1951: Moved with his family to Mumbai.1960: Published his first collection of poems.1969: Started his career in film industry.1975: Went to the University of Iowa for a writing program.1980: Published the first English collection of poems.1984: Won the Prix Special du Jury for the film Godan.1994: Won the Sahitya Academy Award once for his poetry collection and again for translation.2009: Passed away after a long bout of illness on December 10.
76. Sarat Chandra ChatterjiBorn: September 15, 1876, BandelDied: January 16, 1938, KolkataHis stories and novels speak for themselves. Povertyshowered through his materialistic situations while hispsychosomatic dimensions supported him. Sarat ChandraChatterji was one such eminent Bengali writer whoflourished throughout the country despite tasting povertysince birth. But his monetary conditions did not stop thislegendary writer from exploring his writing skills andemerging as one of the most recognized litterateurs the20th century had ever given to India. In fact, his inspiration,ingredients, and storylines were derived from his life-likecharacters that helped him create his own inimitable style. The distinctive features and essenceof purpose further added to his writing skills, displaying a more attractive and lucrativetechnique. It was for this reason that his several novels were translated into other languagesand even filmed.Early LifeSarat Chandra Chatterji was born in the village of Devanandpur in Hooghly district in the Indianstate of West Bengal. Born in an extremely deprived and poor family, he and his familymembers were financially supported by other members. Until his father was employed in Bihar,Sarat and the rest of the family resided with his paternal uncle in Bhagalpur. However, thefrequent changing financial conditions led to a number of school changes for Sarat. He receivedhis formal education in Bhagalpur before clearing the entrance exam and attaining admission inTejnarayan Jubilee College in 1894. It was here when he got in touch with English literature andread Charles Dickens novels "Tale of Two Cities" and "David Copperfield", and Lord Littons "MyLove".Literary CareerSarat Chandra Chatterji claimed that his fathers unfinished and unpublished literary workserved as his greatest inspiration for writing. Thus, with the creation of handwritten childrensmagazine called "Shisu" by Bhagalpur Shitya Sabha, his first two stories "Kakbasha" and"Kashinath" were published in 1894. But to his dismay, his mother passed away in 1895. As if
77. this was enough, Sarat had to drop out of college the following year due to financial instabilitywherein his father was forced to sell the Devanandpur house at a mere Rs. 225. The entirefamily shifted to Bhagalpur finally, where Sarat met a number of people who played animportant role in his writing career. Some amongst them include Anupama (later known asNirupama Devi, author of Annapurnaar Mandir), her brother Bibhutibhushan Bhatta, andRajendranath Majumdar, nicknamed as Raju. He started working in Goddas Banali Estate whichhe gave up to begin work at Santhal district settlement.However, he gave up this job as well and left home after a disagreement with his father. Afterwandering for days, he joined a party of Naga Monks and went to Muzaffarpur in 1902. Duringthis period, his father died and came back to Bhagalpur for a short period to complete his lastrites. From here, he traveled to Calcutta where he found a job offering him a meager salary ofRs. 30. A year later in 1903, he went to Rangoon, Burma in search of a better career prospect.However, on request from his Surendranath uncle, he sent his short story "Mandir" for acompetition and won the first prize. It was later published in 1904 in his uncles name. Besides,he wrote several stories in other peoples name, such as his elder sister, Anila Devi, andAnupama, in the Jamuna magazine. He wrote a long story titled "Bada Didi" which waspublished in two installments in the magazine Bharati in 1907. With this, began the journey of apoor struggling person who grew to become a noteworthy novelist. His other striking worksincluded Bindur Chele, Ramer Sumati, and Arakshaniya. Since he was highly influenced byBankim Chandra Chatterjee, his works resembled the latters style, some of them being Devdas,Parinita, Biraj Bau, and Palli Samaj.Later LifeAfter struggling with small jobs, he found permanent employment in the accounts departmentof Public Works, where he served until his return to Calcutta in 1916. In Calcutta, he continuedto write on a regular basis and his works were published in all magazines. It was during thisperiod that he gained enormous popularity. His "Viraj Bou" was staged for the first time in StarTheatre in 1918. Further, it was the first novel to be translated into Hindi by ChandrashekharPathak in 1919. This was followed by "Datta" into Marathi in 1920 and later in Gujarati in 1921.The first part of "Srikanto" was translated and published in English by Oxford University Pressin 1922. This was later converted into Italian in 1925. He was honored with the JaggattariniGold Medal in 1923, followed by worldwide recognition as one of the best novelists by RomainRolland in 1925. He was further conferred upon with a D. Litt. Degree by Dacca (now Dhaka)University in 1936.Bartaman Hindu-Mussalman Samasya
78. Apart from his literary and painting career, Sarat Chandra Chatterji took active participation inIndian freedom movement. As a result, he even became the president of Howrah DistrictCongress. He stood for the equality of Hindu-Muslim rites and essayed the issues of love andmarriage. To illustrate these problems, he penned an essay titled "Bartaman Hindu-MussalmanSamasya", meaning Contemporary Hindu-Muslim Problem, which was presented at BengalProvincial conference of 1926. He spoke for the Muslim behavior that was characterized asbrutal, barbaric, and fanatic. He supported the internal unity of the Hindu community.Personal LifeSarat Chandra Chatterji first married Shanti Devi in 1906 and had a son in 1907. However, bothhis wife and son succumbed to plague and died in 1908. To fill his disastrous and miserable life,he indulged himself into studying sociology, politics, philosophy, health sciences, psychology,and history from books borrowed from Barnerd Free Library. To add to his depression, he wasadvised to cut short his study hours due to health issues in 1909. As such, Sarat discovered anew interest in painting, his first being Ravan-Mandodori. His second marriage took place in1910 to an adolescent widow Mokshada, who was later renamed as Hiranmoyee.DeathSarat Chandra Chatterji, popularly known as the Immortal Wordsmith throughout Bengal, diedon January 16, 1938 in Park Nursing Home, Calcutta. He was suffering from liver cancer. Theentire Bengal mourned his death.Notable Works• Mandir, 1904• Baradidi (The Elder Sister), 1907• Bindur Chhele (Bindus Son), 1913• Parinita/Parineeta, 1914• Biraj Bou (Mrs. Biraj), 1914• Ramer Shumoti (Ram Returning to Sanity), 1914• Palli Shomaj (The Village Commune), 1916• Arakhsanya (The Girl Whose Marriage Is Overdue), 1916• Debdas/Devdas, 1917 (written in 1901)• Choritrohin (Characterless), 1917• Srikanto (4 parts, 1917, 1918, 1927, 1933)• Datta (The Girl Given Away), 1917-19• Grihodaho (Home Burnt), 1919
79. • Dena Paona (Debts and Demands), 1923• Pather Dabi (Demand for a Pathway), 1926• Ses Prasna (The Final Question), 1931• Bipradas, 1935AwardsKuntolin puraskar (For Mandir)D-Lit (Given by University of Dhaka, now in Bangladesh)Timeline1876: Sarat Chandra Chatterji was born in Devanandpur, Hooghly1894: Took admission in Tejnarayan Jubilee College1894: His first two stories Kakbasha and Kashinath were published1902: Joined Naga Monks in Muzaffarpur1903: Went to Rangoon, Burma1904: His short story Mandir won the first prize and got published1906: Married first wife Shanti Devi1907: His famous Bada Didi was published in two installments1908: Wife Shanti Devi and one-year old son die1910: Married second wife Mokshada, later renamed Hiranmoyee1916: Returned to Calcutta1923: Honored with Jaggattarini Gold Medal1926: Presented the essay Bartaman Hindu-Mussalman Samasya1936: Dacca (now Dhaka) University awarded the D. Litt. Degree1938: Died on January 16, at the age of 61 years.
80. Dharamvir BharatiBorn: December 25, 1926, AllahabadDied: September 4, 1997, MumbaiThe name Dharamvir Bharati brings to mind a collection of Hindipoems, plays and novels that are still used by the presentgeneration for organizing stage plays and making films. DharamvirBharati is the greatest author in the world of Hindi literature.However, his contribution does not end there. Dharamvir Bharatiwas also a social thinker who believed in extending a helping handtowards the society. During his lifetime, Dharamvir Bharati hadbeen the editor-in-chief of the famous Hindi magazine"Dharmayug". Some of his most famous writings "Gunahon KaDevta", "Andha Yug" and "Suraj Ka Satwan Ghoda" are referredto as classics today.Early LifeDharamvir Bharati was born on Christmas Day in the year 1926 in the city of Allahabad in UttarPradesh. His parents Chiranji Lal and Chanda Devi had two children, Dharamvir and his sisterVeerbala. His father died at a very early age after they were hit by an acute financial crisis.Dharamvir continued to secure good results in his studies despite his personal loss andcompleted his masters degree in Hindi from the Allahabad University in the year 1946. It was incollege itself that his talent in the Hindi language was identified by teachers who rewarded himwith the Chintamani Ghosh Award for scoring the top marks in Hindi during his session.Dharamvir started working immediately after completing college and it was only a few yearslater that he was able to complete his research work, thus getting the Ph. D degree.CareerAfter completing his masters in Hindi, Dharamvir joined the "Abhyudaya" and "Sangam"magazines as the sub editor. After working for more than five years, Dharamvir started workingon his thesis paper choosing to do a research work on Siddha Sahitya, under Dr DhirendraVerma. When he earned his Ph. D degree in the year 1954, Dharamvir Bharati secured aposition of lecturer in Hindi at the Allahabad University. While he continued to educatestudents in his alma mater, Dharamvir also utilized his free time to write his own poems, novelsand plays. Reports claim that it was during this time that Dharamvir Bharati wrote the
81. maximum part of his huge collection of poems and stories.In the year 1960, Dharamveer quit his position from Allahabad University to shift base toBombay where he became the chief editor of the popular Hindi magazine "Dharmayug"."Dharmayug" was the most widely selling Hindi language magazine in India during that point oftime. It was published by the Times India Group. Dharamvir Bharatis stint with "Dharmayug"took the magazine to greater heights of popularity in the field of Hindi journalism. DharamvirBharati served under the magazine from 1960 to 1987, during which he did not only do theediting work, but also parts of the reporting work for the magazine. The poet and playwrightpersonally covered the Indo-Pak war of 1965 for "Dharmayug".Collection of WritingPoetry"Thanda Loha", "Sapana Abhi Bhi", "Saat Geet Varsh" and "Kanupriya" are the most famouspoems that have been written by Dharamvir Bharati.Novels"Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda" was probably the most famous work of Dharamvir Bharati in thisgenre. The set of narrations written in this novel became so popular that it was later translatedto the Bengali language by eminent poet Malay Roy Choudhury and also won him the SahityaAcademy Award. The novel was also adapted to the big screen by filmmaker Shyam Benegal,for which he won the National Award. "Gunahon Ka Devta", "Prarambh Va Samapan" and"Giyara Sapno Ka Desh" are the popular novels written by Dharamvir Bharati.Plays"Andha Yug" was and will always remain one of the most popular plays ever written in Hindiliterature. It is still enacted on stage. This play, the dialogues for which have been written inpoetry-style, was inspired from the Mahabharata. Dharamvir Bharati based the story of "AndhaYug" on the last day of the famous Indian epic.EssaysApart from novels, poems and plays, Dharamvir Bharati also compiled a collection of essaysduring the 1950s. "Thele Par Himalayas", "The River Was Thirsty", "Apshynty Stories: Unkahi,Human Values and Literature", "Neil Lake" and "Cold Iron" were some of the essays thatDharamvir Bharati wrote.
82. Short StoriesDharamvir Bharati was an expert in all genre of writing in Hindi. He wrote a couple of shortstories to be published under a single heading. "Swarg Aur Prathvhi", "Band Gali Ka AakhkriMakhaan", "Chand Aur Tuthe Hue Log", "Samast Kahaniya Ek Saath" and "Saas Ki Kalam Se"are the collection of stories written by Dharamvir Bharati.Awards & RecognitionTo reward an illustrious career in Hindi writing spanning several decades, the government ofIndia conferred prestigious awards to Dharamvir Bharati at several stages of his life. A list of theawards that Dharamvir Bharati won has been listed below:• Padmashree Award in the year 1972• Rajendra Prasad Shikhar Samman• Kaudiya Nyas• Valley Turmeric Best Journalism Awards in 1984• Bharat Bharati Samman• Vyasa Samman• Maharana Mewar Foundation Award for best playwright in 1988• The Sangeet Natak Akademi award in the year 1989• Maharana Gaurav award in 1994• Dr Dharamvir Bharati was also remembered and honored through the screening of adocumentary feature film on his life and works. The film Dr Bharati’ was made andshowcased posthumously by storywriter Uday Prakash. This documentary was screenedin the year 1999 at the Sahitya Akademi in New Delhi.Personal LifeDharamvir Bharati was married twice and shares three children with his two wives. He marriedKanta Bharati in the year 1954 but the marriage ended in divorce. The couple had a daughternamed Parmita. Dharamvir Bharati tied the nuptial knot again this time to Pushpa Bharati. Thecouple was blessed with two children Kinshuk Bharati and Pragya Bharati.Death
83. Dharamvir Bharati died at the age of 70. He was suffering from a heart disease for severalyears, which became the cause of his sudden death on September 4, 1997. Dharamvir willalways be remembered as the greatest writer that Hindi literature has ever produced.Timeline1926: Dharamvir Bharati was born on December 25.1946: Completed his MA from Allahabad University.1954: Completed his PhD and joins Allahabad University as lecturer.1954: Married Kanta Bharati.1960: Became editor-in-chief of "Dharmayug" magazine.1972: Won Padmashree Award from Indian government.1984: Was bestowed with Valley Turmeric Best Journalism Award.1987: Retired from position in "Dharmayug" magazine.1988: Received Maharana Mewar Foundation Award for best playwright.1989: Won award from Sangeet Natak Akademi.1992: His novel "Suraj Ka Satwan Ghoda" was made into a film by Shyam Benegal.1994: Felicitated Maharashtra Gaurav award.1997: Died on September 4.1999: His life is recorded in a documentary film by Sahitya Akademi in New Delhi.
84. Harivansh Rai BachchanBorn: November 27, 1907, AllahabadDied: January 18, 2003, Mumbai"A body of clay, a mind full of play, a moments life - that isme". That is how one of the doyens of Hindi literature,Harivansh Rai Bachchan described himself. And indeed,reading his poems, one feels a sense of life and playfulness,the two aspects which would become the hallmark of hispoetry. In a career that spanned for about 60 years, he wasthe torch bearer of the Chhayavaad or Romantic upsurgeliterary movement, though later in life he came to be knownmore because of his famous son, Amitabh Bachchan, than hispoetry. But there was a time when thousands and thousandswould fill into theaters and auditoriums just to listen to himrecite his poems, a particular favorite being the epochal Madushala. His poetry is noted for itslyrical beauty and rebellious attitude with imagery that is unfettered and sensuous that placedhim in a different league from his contemporaries in the Chhayavaad movement. Harivansh RaiBachchan became the epitome of the romantic rebel. Through his poems he focused on thecommon mans urge for freedom and the sensuousness underlying in this quest, which madehim a literary star embraced by the public.ChildhoodHarivansh Rai Bachchan Srivastav was born in the year 1907 in the village Babupatti nearAllahabad in a Kayastha family to Pratap Narayan Shrivastav and Saraswati Devi. He was theireldest born. As a child, he was fondly called bachchan because of his child-like ways. Themoniker stuck with him, thus becoming one of the most recognizable names.Early LifeHarivansh Rai Bachchan started his education from a municipal school. It was the same timethat he also started learning Urdu from Kayasth Paathshaalas. Later, he pursued his highereducation from Allahabad University and Banaras Hindu University. In 1941 he joined theEnglish department of Allahabad University as a faculty and taught there till 1952. He then wentto Cambridge for two years to do his doctoral thesis on W.B Yeats and occultism, becoming thesecond Indian to get a Ph. D. in English Literature from this university. It was also during this
85. time that he dropped Srivastav from his name and used Bachchan as his last name. He thencame back to India and took up teaching, while at the same time, serving sometime at theAllahabad Station of All India Radio.Later LifeHarivansh Rai Bachchan later moved on to Delhi in 1955 to join the External Affairs Ministry asa Special Officer in the Hindi cell, translating official documents into Hindi. He served for aperiod of ten years. During this time, he also worked on promoting Hindi as the officiallanguage of India as well as translating some of the major works into Hindi like Macbeth,Othello, Bhagvad Gita, the works of W.B Yeats and the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.WorksHarivansh Rai Bachchan is best remembered for his 142 verse lyrical poem "Madhushala" (TheHouse of Wine), which was published in 1935. This work catapulted him as the foremost Hindipoet and was subsequently, translated into English and a number of Indian languages. Thepoem became a craze and was even performed on stage. "Madhushala" was a part of his poetictrilogy, the other two being Madhubaala and Madhukalash. It is on this trilogy that his famerests. In 1969, he published the first of his four part autobiography Kya bhooloon kya yaadkaroon. The second part Need ka nirmaan fir was published in 1970, the third Basere sedoor in 1977 and the last part Dashdwaar se sopaan tak in 1985. The series was well receivedand an abridged English translation by Rupert Snell, In the Afternoon of Time, was publishedin 1998. It is now considered to be a landmark in Hindi literature. Throughout his teachingcareer and while working in the External Affairs ministry and later, Bachchan published about30 poetry collections as well as other works in Hindi like essays, travelogues and a few songs forthe Hindi film industry. He also read his poems to large audiences. His last poem Ek November1984 based on Indira Gandhis assassination was written in November 1984.Bachchan used to introduce himself as“ Mitti ka tan, masti ka man, kshan-bhar jivan– mera parichay.( म ी का तन, म ती का मन, ण भर जीवन, मेरा प रचय)(A body of clay, a mind full of play, a moment’s life - thats me) ”Awards and RecognitionIn 1966, Harivansh Rai Bachchan was nominated to the Rajya Sabha and in 1969 he receivedthe Sahitya Akademi Award. Seven years later the Government of India bestowed on him the
86. Padma Bhushan in recognition for his contribution to Hindi literature. In addition he was alsoawarded the Sovietland Nehru Award, the Lotus Award of the Afro-Asian writers conferenceand the Saraswati Samman. The Uttar Pradesh government conferred him the "Yash Bharati"Samman in 1994. A postage stamp was released in 2003 in his memory.Personal LifeBachchan first married in the year 1926 when he was just 19 years old and his wife, Shyama,was 14 years old. In 1936, she passed away succumbing to TB. Five years later, Bachchanmarried Teji Suri with whom he had two children Amitabh and Ajitabh.DeathAt the age of 95, in 2003, Harivansh Rai Bachchan breathed his last. He was suffering fromrespiratory ailments. Four years later his wife passed away at the age of 93.List of PoemsPoems (का य)(तेरा हार) (1932)Madhushala (मधुशाला) (1935)Madhubala (मधुबाला) (1936)Madhukalash (मधुकलश) (1937)Nisha Nimantran ( नशा नमं ण) (1938)Ekaant Sangeet (एकांत संगीत) (1939)Aakul Antar (आकु ल अंतर) (1943)Satarangini (सतरं गनी) (1945)Halaahal (हलाहल) (1946)Bengal ka Kaavya (बंगाल का का य) (1946)Kaadi ke Phool (खाद के फू ल) (1948)
87. Soot ki Maala (सूत क माला) (1948)Milan Yamini ( मलन या मनी) (1950)Pranay Patrika ( णय प का) (1955)Dhaar ke idhar udhar (धार के इधर उधर) (1957)Aarti aur Angaare (आरती और अंगारे) (1958)Buddha aur Naachghar (बु और नाचघर) (1958)Tribhangima ( भं गमा) (1961)Chaar kheme Chaunsath khoonte (चार खेमे च सठ खूंटे) (1962)Do Chattane (दो च ान) (1965)Bahut din beete (बहुत दन बीते) (1967)Kat-ti pratimaaon ki awaaz (कटती तमाओं क आवाज़) (1968)Ubharte pratimaano ke roop (उभरते तमान के प) (1969)Jaal sameta (जाल समेटा) (1973)NirmanTimeline1907: Harivansh Rai Bachchan was born in a Kayastha family in Uttar Pradesh.1926: Married his first wife.1935: Madhushala, his seminal work, was published.1941: Became a faculty of the English department in Allahabad University and marries a secondtime.1953: Went to Cambridge to pursue his doctoral thesis.1955: Joined the Hindi Cell of the External Affairs ministry.1984: Published his last poem.1966: Nominated to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian parliament.1969: Received the Sahitya Academi Award.2003: Harivansh Rai Bachchan breathed his last.
88. Kaka HathrasiBorn: 18th September, 1906, Hatharas, Uttar PradeshDied: 18th September, 1995This renowned poet was known for his humorous and satirical poems. The basic intention of hisliterature was to make people aware of the social and religious evils that were prevalent duringhis time. Kaka Hathrasi also wrote sharp satires based on corruption and greed that engulfedIndia during his time. His unique style and sarcasm found its way into the hearts of peoplewhich gave him one of his biggest achievements of being named the Jan Kavi or the peoplespoet. He had inspired the rise of satire through his writing and poetry so much so that severalother aspiring writers still do the same. One of his famous sayings included - "Eat until you arehalf full, drink twice the amount of water, work three times that much and laugh four times asmuch. Then you will live to be a hundred and twenty five".Early LifeNot much is known about the early life of this prominent poet except that his actual name wasPrabhulal Garg and he was born in the Hathras village of Uttar Pradesh in North India and hewrote under the pen name of Kaka Hathrasi. The name of his parents and his background arenot yet known, but Ashok Chakradhar, another renowned Hindi poet, is his relative by virtue ofmarriage to Kaka Hathrasis niece. Kaka was also a musicologist and a fine painter in his days.CareerAs a poet, Kaka Hathrasi wrote in simple and fluent language that appealed to the masses andhence the title peoples poet. He had about 42 verses of humorous poetry under his belt.In 1932, he established the Sangeet Karyalaya at Hathras, his hometown, which was originallyunder the name of Garg & Co. It was at this time that he decided to revive and bring Indianclassical music back into the temples and palaces. He realized that the best way to do this wasby analyzing old literature, translating and reworking on them to appeal to the layman. Toachieve this objective, Kaka Hathrasi did extensive research on the same.In 1935, he started a magazine called Sangeet which showed people the various forms andnuances of classical music. This magazine showcased various forms of classical music such astaraana, thumri, dhamaar and dhrupad etc. along with folk music and other popular forms ofmusic like geet, ghazal, qawwali and so on. He worked relentlessly to promote this magazineand it still continues to be one of the best and longest monthly magazines of India.
89. During his time, Kaka Hathrasi was also featured on the radio program called Meethi MeethiHasaivan that was on air for 11 years. A total of 786 shows were broadcast during those 11years, which again created the record for longest running program in India. This was supposedlymentioned in the Limca Book Of Records as well!In the year 1985, he was honored with the prestigious Padmashri award by the President ofIndia, for his contributions in the field of versatile poetry.The Kaka Hathrasi Puraskaar is an award that is given to humourous poets every year and theKaka Hathrasi Sangeet Sammaan is awarded to the most distinguished musician/musicologist.ContributionsStri-ling Pul-ling or feminine-masculine was a poem that depicted, in a very unique style, thedifferences between the two genders. He was one of the best known hasya kavi or funnypoet of all times and Teli ka Byah was an apt representation of his humour in the form of astory. In Naam Bada Aur Darshan Chota, he made fun at how peoples personalities were notin tune with their names. Other poems include:Kuch Toh Standard Badao,Jalebee,Aiyi Mein Aaa Gayi,Murghi Aur Neta and so on.Some of his famous works also include:Kaka Ke Kartoos,Kakadoot,Kaka Ke Kehkahe andKake Ke Prehsan.Kaka Tarang,Kaka Ki Pati,Kaka Ki Fuljhariya,Kaka Ke Cuthkule,Kaka Ke Vyangye Ban etc.DeathIt is said that Kaka Hathrasi attained nirvana before death. He died on his birthday on the 18thof September, 1995 at the age of 89. In memory of this great poet, this day was declared as
90. Hasya Divas (Humor Day) and a park called Kaka Hathrasi Udyaan was also opened in hisname in New Delhi.LegacyJaipurs Sangeet Sankalp has highlighted Kaka Hathrasis work and a number of publicationsabout the theory and history of classical music are still remnant due to his legacy. There areinquisitive practitioners and followers of classical, semi-classical and rich folk music of India,who have been inspired by his contributions. Several blogs still discuss his poetry and theirmeanings.Awards and AccoladesEntered Limca Book Of Records for his radio show "Meethi Meethi Hasivan" (notconfirmed)Padmashri Award in 1985Timeline1906: Born in Hatharas in UP as Prabhulal Garg.1932: Established the Sangeet Karyalaya that was a centre for Indian classical music.1935: Started a magazine called Sangeet which promoted different forms of music.1935 - 1985: A period of great accomplishments like featuring in a radio program and writingseveral works which are still treasured.1985: Awarded the Padmashri Award by the President of India1995: Died on his birthday on 18th September at the age of 89.
91. Pandit Makhanlal ChaturvediBorn: April 4, 1889, Hoshangabad District, Madhya PradeshDied: January 30th, 1968Pandit Makhanlal Chaturvedi was a prominent freedom fighter, anacclaimed poet and such a meticulous journalist that Asias firstUniversity of its kind dedicated to journalism and communicationis named after him. It is called the Makhanlal Chaturvedi NationalUniversity of Journalism and Communication and is situated inBhopal, Madhya Pradesh. He is particularly remembered for hiscontribution to the freedom movements like Non-CooperationMovement and Quit India Movement during the British Raj.He was the first person to receive the Sahitya Akademi Award in the year 1955 for hisexceptional contribution to the Neo Romanticism Movement in Hindi literature.His work Him Taringini remains popular among the literary circles even today. He was alsohonoured by the Sagar University with a D.Lit. (Doctorate of Literature) honorary in the year1959. Makhanlal was the editor of nationalistic journals, "Prabha" and later "Karmaveer". Hewas also repeatedly imprisoned during the British raj and was one of those few freedomfighters who refrained from seeking a position in the government after the Indianindependence. He continued to speak and write against social evils and supported anexploitation-free, equitable society as dreamt by Mahatma Gandhi. Even in his poems thisunconditional love and respect towards his country can be clearly seen and that is why he wasalso referred to as "a true indian spirit".Early LifePanditji was born on 4th April, 1889 in a village located in Madhya Pradesh called Bavai. Thiswas a time when the British reigned over India and the freedom struggle was gaining impetus.He pursued a career of a school teacher during the period 1906-1910 but soon found his realcalling in the freedom fight for his motherland. He participated in the Non-CooperationMovement and the Quit India Movement among the many others during that time. He waseven imprisoned countless number of times during the British rule but that did not bend hisdaunting spirits.Career
92. After 1910, he became the editor of various nationalistic journals such as Prabha and later,Karmaveer. Possessing a great patriotic fervour, he had the spark to instigate the masses withhis dynamic speeches and writings. He presided over the All India Hindi Sahitya Sammelan heldat Hardar in 1943. Makhanlal Chaturvedi was a son of India whose true Indian spirit infusedhope and anticipation in the masses. His sensitive portrayal of the common mans plight inworks such as Him Kirtini, Him Tarangini, Kaisa Chhand Banaa Deti hei, Amar Rashtra andPushp ki Abhilaasa find an audience even till date. With notable contribution to the Hindiliterature, he earned an honorary D.Lit. from Sagar University and was the first individual towin the prestigious Sahitya Akademi Award in the year 1955.Contribution to LiteratureThe collection of his poems include:Him Tarangini,Samarpan,Him Kirtini,Yug Charan,Sahitya Devta,Dip Se Dip Jale,Kaisa Chhand Banaa Deti hei andPushp ki Abhilaasa.Other noteworthy poems written by Pandit Makhanlal Chaturvedi are:• Amar Rashtra• Anjali Ke Fool Gire Jate Hai• Aaj Nayan Ke Bangle Mein• Is Tarah Dhakkan Lagaya Raat Ne• Uss Prabhat Tu Baat Na Mane• Kirno Ki Shaala Bandh Ho Gayi Chup-Chup• Kunj Kutire Yamuna Teere• Gaali Mein Garima Ghol-Ghol• Bhai, Chero Nahi, Mujhe• Madhur-Madhur Kuch Ga Do Malik• Sandhya Ke Bas Do Bol Suhane Lagte HaiDeath
93. The literary society of India lost one of its key visionary and crown jewels on 30th January, 1968when Panditji passed away at the age of 79 years.LegacyMany universities have been built and awards created to commemorate this maestrosexcellence and to honour his countless contributions. The Madhya Pradesh Sahitya Akademi,which is the Madhya Pradesh Cultural Council, organises the annual Makhanlal ChaturvediSamaroh that bestows the Makhanlal Chaturvedi Puraskar to deserving Indians for excellencein poetry in any Indian language. This prestigious honour was created in 1987, nineteen yearsafter Panditjis death.The Makhanlal Chaturvedi Rashtriya Patrakarita University, situated in Bhopal, MadhyaPradeh, was the first of its kind in the whole of Asia. This university was established in the year1991 and was named after Panditji to honour his exceptional involvement in the freedomstruggle through his journalism and writings.The Posts and the Telegraphs Department of India has also brought out a commemorativepostage stamp of Pandit Makhanlal Chaturvedi to honour this brave son of India. This stampwas issued way back on the 4th of April, 1977 to mark Panditjis 88th birth anniversary.Awards & Accolades• In 1955, Makhanlal Chaturvedi won the Sahitya Akademy Award for his work HimTaringini (Hindi: हम तरं गणी), becoming the first recipient of this Award in Hindiliterature.• He was also conferred the honorary degree of D.Litt. by Sagar University in 1959.Timeline1889: Born on April 4th in Bavai village, Madhya Pradesh1906-1910: Pursued a career as a school teacher1935: Inaugurated the Conference for the Raipur District Council in December of this year.1943: President of All India Hindi Sahitya Sammelan held at Hardar1955: Won the prestigious Sahitya Akademi Award for his work Him Tarangini1959: Conferred the D.Lit. honorary by Sagar University1968: Passed away on 30th January at the age of 79 years.
94. Manik BandopadhyayBorn: May 19, 1908, DumkaDied: 1956, KolkataProducing forty two novels and more than two hundred shortstories, Manik Bandopadhyay or Manki Banerjee, is rightlynamed Manik which means a jewel in Bengali. He is alsoknown as the father of modern Bengali fiction.His notable works like:Divaratrir Kavya (A Poem of the Day and the Night),Padma Nadir Majhi (The Boatman of Padma River),Putul Nacher Etikatha (The Tale of Puppet Dance),Chatushkone (Quadrilateral),Janani (Mother),Atasi mami (Aunt Atasi),Pragaitihasik (Pre-historical),Mihi O Mota Kahini (Stories of thin and thick), etc. are fondly remembered even till dateand the number of readers increases even as we speak.Early LifeBorn in a small town called Dumka, in Santal Paragona district of Bihar, Manik Bandopadhyaywas the fifth of the fourteen children born to Harihar Bandopadhyay and Niroda Devi. He wasnamed Prabodh Kumar Bandopadhyay at birth which he later gave up to write under the penname of Manik. Being born to a father who was a government official, young Manik had thechance to experience different lifestyles and meet different people of Bengal. Theseexperiences were later reflected in his novels and short stories.On 28th May 1924, at a tender age of sixteen, he lost his mother and this unfortunate incidentleft a deep and permanent mark in the mind of Manik Bandopadhyay. It ultimately led him tobecome a recluse and he cut off ties with his immediate family. In 1926, Manik Bandopadhyaypassed the entrance examination from Midnapore Zilla School with a first division and adistinction in optional and compulsory Mathematics. He then joined Welleslyvan MissionCollege at Bankura and came in contact with a professor named Jackson. This professor highlyinfluenced Manik Bandhopadhyay to read the Bible and cultivate a broader outlook towardsreligion in general. In 1928, Bandopadhyay cleared the Indian School Certficate exam or the
95. 12th boards exam with first division. It was not difficult for this illustrious student to gainadmission in the prestigious Presidency College, Calcutta for a Bachelor of Science degree inMathematics. This degree, however, he couldnt complete on account of lack of funds. Withdegrees in the field of Mathematics, it was poverty that propelled Manik Bandopadhyay towrite. He joined the Mymensingh Teachers Training School as its headmaster. He marriedKamala Devi in Dhaka, Bangladesh and had two sons and two daughters.CareerManik Bandopadhyay was one of the most important and influential novelists in Bengaliliterature. He had his own unique way of presenting the rich and culturally vibrant rural life onBengal. Unlike his contemporary authors, who only wrote about the scenic beauty and thesimplicity of village life, Manik Bandopadhyay delved deep into the complicated human psycheand the truth of existence in the villages of India. His works also dealt with complicated humanpsychology and even today, the simplest of his novels leave the readers spell bound as they findthemselves into an identifiable position with the characters. He edited the famous magazineNabarun for a few months in 1934 and worked as an assistant editor for the same in 1937-1938. He established a printing and publishing house in 1939 and worked as a PublicityAssistant for the Government of India in 1943. Manik Bandopadhyay tried to enhance hisearnings through these various involvements but writing was his main source of income. It issaid that he languished in poverty throughout his life.Atasi Mami or Aunt Atasi in 1935 was the first story that he wrote for a magazine called,Bichitra. He became an active Marxist after joining the Communist Party of India in 1944.However, it is said that he regretted this decision and thought of the Communist Party as anincreasingly hollow and tyrannical organization.Contribution to LiteratureWith a collection of thirty-four novels and approximately two hundred short stories in a span oftwenty seven years, Manik bandopadhyay was a prolific writer throughout his lifetime. Over theyears, his works have been published in many different magazines and journals which includeBichitra, Bangasree, Purbasha, Ananda Bazaar Patrika, Jugantor, Satyajug and Swarajetc. The novels he wrote established him as the most notable novelist in Bengali literature sinceBankimchandra Chattopadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore and Saratchandra Chatterji. These novelsinclude Diba-Ratrir Kabya (A Poem of the Day and the Night), Padma Nadir Majhi (TheBoatman of Padma River) and Putul Nacher Itikotha (The Tale of Puppet Dance). Histreatment of human sexuality in Chatushkone (Quadrilateral), 1948 was path-breaking in thattime and age.
96. DeathManik Bandopadhyay passed away in 1956, at the age of 48. He had struggled hard withpoverty and epilepsy from an early age. On 3rd December 1956, this highly talented writercollapsed and fell into a coma. He was admitted to the Nilratan Government Hospital, Calcuttaon 2nd December where he breathed his last the next day. Following his death, there was agathering held on 7th December which was attended by a huge crowd of mourners.LegacyPutul Nacher Itikotha (The Tale of Puppet Dance) which was written by Manik Bandopadhyayin 1936 and was published in Bharatbarsha. A movie was also produced based on this novel in1949. Almost four decades after Maniks death, West Bengal Government published a book onhis lifetime contribution to Bengali literature.Timeline1908: Born on 19th May1924: Maniks mother passed away on the 28th of May1934: Editor of Nabarun for a few months1935: Wrote his first short story, Atasi Mami1936: Wrote Putul Nacher Itikotha (The Tale of Puppet Dance) which was later made into amovie.1936-37: Co-edited Nabarun.1943: Publicity Assistant for the Government of India1944: Joined the Communist party1956: Passed away at an early age of 48
97. Manohar Shyam JoshiBorn: August 9, 1933, AlmoraDied: 2006, DelhiThe Father of Soap Operas was the title bestowed on ManoharShyam Joshi for his pioneering work in this field. Manohar enjoyed areputation for creating works of value that managed to influenceentire generations. His first creation was Humlog that instantlybecame a huge success due to its ability to draw the attention ofIndian households. Apart from television, he was also noted for hisnovels and political satires. His works were written in modern Hindiwhich made him one of the first authors of modern literature. If at allyou said Manohar Shyam Joshi was versatile you would only besaying too less! He tried his hand at journalism, broadcasting andprint media editing for local newspapers. The Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, oncecalled him one of the most influential writers and commentators in Hindi.Early LifeManohar Shyam Joshi led an extremely private life and not much is known of his early days. Hewas born in Rajasthan to a Kumaoni Brahmin family from the Almora district in Uttarkhand. Hisfather was a noted educationist and musicologist.CareerHe started his career of writing dialogues for shows in 1982, with serials such as Humlog, thatwere targeted at middle-class Indians who could easily identify with the situations presented inthe show. After tasting success, Joshi created the famous Buniyad between 1987 and 1988which was directed by veteran director, Ramesh Sippy. Again, this turned out to be a hugelypopular show, mostly because it dealt with the Partition of India and the conditions prevalent in1947. Following this, he scripted a few more shows such as Hamrahi and Zameen Aasmaan.Next, Joshi turned to conceptualizing and penning down novels. His topics ranged from love topolitical issues in the form of sharp and funny satires. Kasap written during this period wasconsidered one of the greatest love stories of all times. Satires like Netaji Kahin were inscribedon paper to garner the attention of the people and the problems in the politics. Manohar Joshiwas also instrumental with his works in cult novels like Kuru Kuru Swaahaa.
98. Films were Joshis forte and he loved exploring various genres such as comedy, romance andsatire. Not many people know this about him but he was a dubbing expert as well! His dubbingsinclude mainstream movies like Hey Ram, Appu Raja, Papa Kehte Hain and Brastachar.The last part of Joshis career orbited around journalism where he did exceptionally well. Beinga part of the All India Radio and the Films Division in Mumbai had given him immense exposureto both broadcast and print media. Here, he wrote scripts for many documentaries. Not longafter this, he interviewed the masses and added the outcome into the Sarika magazine. AHindi news magazine Dinmaan was released by the Times Group with Joshi as the assistanteditor. Several projects came to him after this stint. He played another editing role in SaptahikHindustan, English Weekend Review and even the prestigious Morning Echo which wasbrought out by the Hindustan Times. He wrote for Outlook Indias column Outlook Saptahik.In the field of journalism, Joshi was known to experiment with different subjects like politics,science and even travel journals.He is often called "the Father of Indian Soap Operas" being the writer of Indias first televisionsoap opera, Hum Log. Made in 1982Literary ContributionsKasap was Joshis biggest literary publication and made for one of the greatest love stories ofall time. A political drama called Netaji Kahin was so popular with other authors that it wasconverted into a TV series called Kakkaji Kahin. He had also written short stories, namelyPrabhu Tum Kaise Kissago and Mandir Ghaat Ki Pauriyaan. As part of his success, his storyHariya Hercules Ki Hairani was translated into The Perplexity of Haria Hercules by RobertHueckstedt while Kuru Kuru Swaahaa turned out to be a famous cult novel. Joshi also notedhis memoirs from his college days into a book called Lucknow Mera Lucknow. Before hisdeath, he wrote Vadhasthal and Kapeeshji with the former being about the killings inCambodia and the latter based on the evolution of a self-made God-man.TelevisionHumlog in 1982 was the first and best impression that Joshi left on the small screen. In theyear 1987, he helped in the making of Buniyaad by crafting some beautiful dialogues. Otherserials he contributed to include Kakaji Kahin, Mungeri Lal Ke Haseen Sapne, Hamrahi,Zameen Aasman and Gatha.FilmsOnce Joshi stepped into the world of movies, there was no turning back for him. He startedwith a screenplay in Bhrastachar in the late 1980s and then moved on to script writing. Hey
99. Ram, Papa Kehte Hain and Appu Raja serve as examples for the kind of work Shyam Joshiproduced.DeathIt is said that Manohar Shyam Joshi died a sudden death owing to acute respiratory failure atthe age of 79. He breathed his last in New Delhi on 30th March 2006. His demise shocked theentire film fraternity and myriad Hindi authors who were inspired by him. He was cremated atthe Nigambodh Ghat.Awards And AccoladesManohar Shyam Joshi, during his lifetime, was no stranger to awards. He was honoured withthe MP Sahitya Parishad Samman Award, Shard Joshi Samman Award, Shikhar Award, DelhiHindi Academy Award, Onida and Uptron Award for TV Writing and, just before his death, theSahitya Akademi Award for Kyap in 2005.Timeline1933: Born in Ajmer.1982: Started his career with Humlog, Indias first soap opera.1987: Continued with Buniyaad, a television show about the Partition of India.1997: Gatha, his last small screen attempt.2000: Penned dialogues for the movie Hey Ram.2005: Won the prestigious Sahitya Award for his book, Kyap2006: Died on 30th March at the age of 73.
100. Maithili Sharan GuptBorn: August 3, 1886 Chirgaon, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaDied: December 12, 1964Maithili Sharan Gupt is one of the most recognizable names inthe world of modern Hindi poetry. Maithili Sharan Gupt not onlyenriched Hindi literature through his writings which consisted ofpoems, dramas and translations from other languages, but hewas also the first person to use the Khari Boli script as againstBrajbhasha that was rampantly used in Hindi writing during histimes. Before Maithili Sharan Gupt, every writer in Hindipreferred the Brajbhasha or the Hindi dialect heard in Centraland North India. Maithili Sharan Gupt was the first person to usethe Khari Boli or the Hindi dialect of the rurals living in Western India, a style which is popularin Hindi writing till today.ChildhoodMaithili Sharan Gupt was born on August 3, 1886 in a Gahoi family in the small city of Chirgaonin the Jhansi district of Uttar Pradesh. Gahoi is the term that was used to describe a merchantfamily residing in various cities across Central India in British-ruled India. Hence, Maithili SharanGupts father Seth Ramcharan Gupta was a merchant or a trader by profession. It is said thatMaithili Sharan Gupt hated school and studies so much as a child that his father had no otheroption left in front of him other than to tutor his son at home. Seth Ramcharan Gupta invitedteachers at his home in Chirgaon to teach Maithili Sharan Gupt languages such as Hindi,Sanskrit and Bengali. Maithili Sharan Gupts deep knowledge of the Hindi language may becredited to Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, his home Hindi tutor. Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi was alsoone of the most important writers that modern Hindi literature has ever seen. Maithili SharanGupt got married very early in life, when he was a small child of nine years. The wedding tookplace in the year 1895.CareerThough Maithili Sharan Gupt did not have a formal schooling, he did enjoy a flourishing careerin Hindi literature, largely because of his profound knowledge of the Hindi language. MaithiliSharan Gupts literary career started with writing poems for popular Hindi magazines likeSaraswati. In the year 1910, Maithili Sharan Gupt experienced the first taste of success among
101. masses after Rang Mein Bhang was published by the Indian Press. The chief subject of hispoems and the plots for most of his plays were inspired from mythological plots from theRamayana and the Mahabharata. He also liked dealing with the lives of religious leaders fromacross the world and stories revolving around Lord Buddha. While Saket deals with the storyof Urmila, Lakshmanas wife from Ramayana, his other famous work Yashodhara hasYashodhara, the wife of Gautama Buddha as its central plot. Bharat Bharati was one of themost popular collection of poems written by Maithili Sharan Gupt. The nationalistic spiritportrayed through Bharat Bharati was widely circulated in British dominated India serving asan inspiration for freedom fighters. Apart from drama and poetry, Maithili Sharan Gupt alsotranslated a couple of popular Sanskrit works to the Hindi language, Hindi translations ofRubaiyat and Swapnavaasavdatta being the most popular among them.Career in PoliticsMaithili Sharan Gupt also had a brief career in the politics of India after independence. Shortlyafter India acquired independence in August 1947, Maithili Sharan Gupt was appointed anhonorary member of the Rajya Sabha in the Indian Parliament. Even during his stint at theRajya Sabha, Maithili Sharan Gupt did not stop writing. In fact he was known to use lines fromhis poetry while putting forward his opinions in the upper house of the parliament. Heremained a Rajya Sabha member till his death in the year 1965.DeathMaithili Sharan Gupt breathed his last on December 12, 1964. He was 78 years of age at thetime of death.Famous WorksPoetry• Rang Mein Bhang• Bharat Bharati• Plassey Ka Yuddha• Saket• Kaaba KarbalaDrama• Chandrahaas
102. • Tilottama• Anagh• Vijay ParwaTranslations• Swapnavaasavdatta from Sanskrit to Hindi• Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam from English to HindiTimeline1886: Maithili Sharan Gupt was born on August 3.1910: Rang Mein Bhang, one of his most popular collections of poetry was published.1947: He assumed office as a member of Rajya Sabha.1965: Maithili Sharan Gupt died on December 12.
103. Ramdhari Singh DinkarBorn: September 23, 1908, Begusarai DistrictDied: April 24, 1974, Begusarai DistrictHis passion and enthusiasm for poetry and writing bestowed himwith the title Rashtrakavi which means "national poet". RamdhariSingh Dinkar gained recognition and popularity in the pre-independence period through his eminent and notable nationalistpoetry. With an initial interest in composition, he gradually foundhimself drawing closer towards the Indian freedom strugglemovement, thereby becoming a Gandhian later on and working inclose relations with Rajendra Prasad, Anugrah Narayan Sinha, andBraj Kishore Prasad.Being a renowned and prominent poet, his poetry "Singhasan Khaali Karo Ke Janata Aaati Hai"was recited at Ramlila Ground in New Delhi during the Emergency. Such was his respect andhonor that his portrait was unveiled by the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh in2008 in the Central Hall of Parliament of India.Early LifeRamdhari Singh Dinkar was born in a poor Bhumihar Brahmin family in the village of Simariya inBegusarai district of Indian state of Bihar. Since childhood, Dinkar showed immense interest instudies, his favorite subjects being history, philosophy, and politics. In his later years, he evenlearned several other languages, such as Hindi, Sanskrit, Maithili, English, Bengali, and Urdu.Iqbal, Rabindranath Tagore, Keats, and Milton were some famous celebrities that influencedDinkar to a large extent. Such was the influence that he went ahead with translating the worksof Rabindranath Tagore from Bangla to Hindi.Literary CareerDinkar worked on the concept of "veer rasa", or "brave mode", although he did give someworks that proved to be exception to this concept. Due to his high talent and knowledge ofvarious Indian languages, Dinkar was more popular amongst people whose mother tongue wasnot Hindi. In addition to writing on anti-imperialism, nationalism, humanism, history, and socialand political satires, he even touched the themes of love, passion, and relationships of a manand woman. This was evident from his "Urvashi" poem that talked about the spirituality and adifferent platform of earthly relationships. His "Kurukshetra" was a dedication in the memory
104. of all dead and sacrificed in Second World War. It relied on the Santi Parva of Mahabharata.Another poem that was inspired by the events leading to Kurukshetra war in Mahabharata was"Krishna ki Chetavani". His "Sanskriti ke Chaar Adhyaay" depicts his love for India anddescribes the different cultures, languages, and topography despite which, India stands unitedand one.Political CareerDinkar entered politics supporting the revolutionary movement during Indias struggle forfreedom. However, he became a Gandhian later on, though he regarded himself as a badGandhian simply because he lent his support for indignation and revenge amongst youth whichwas against Gandhis Satyagraha movement. In his 1946 poem "Kurukshetra", he mentionedabout how destructive war is but, at the same time, also emphasized on its importance for theprotection of freedom.After independence, Dinkar was nominated and elected to Rajya Sabha on three occasions. Heattained the position of a member in the house from April 3, 1952 to January 26, 1964.Notable HonorsDinkars "Kurukshetra" received several awards from the Kashi Nagri Pracharini Sabha,Uttar Pradesh Government, and Government of India. Further in 1959, he was bestowedupon with the Sahitya Akademi Award for "Sanskriti ke Char Adhyaay".He was later honored with Padma Bhushan Award in 1959 and LLD degree fromBhagalpur University.Gurukul Mahavidyalaya appointed him as Vidyavachaspati and was selected as Sahitya-Chudamani by Rajasthan Vidyapeeth in Udaipur on November 8, 1968.This was not all for Dinkar as he was honored with Jnanpith Award in 1972 for his workon "Urvashi".Posthumous RecognitionsWith numerous accolades and awards during his lifetime, Dinkar was not left behind even afterhis death. To mark his 79th birth anniversary on 30 September, 1987, the then President ofIndia, Shankar Dayal Sharma paid a tribute to him. Dinkar was paid high respect with a postalstamp being released by Government of India in 1999 featuring him as one of the Hindi writerson the celebration of "Linguistic Harmony of India". With this, India completed 50 years ofIndian Union accepting Hindi as its official language. To complete 100 years of Dinkars birthanniversary, the government released a book in 2008 that was authored by Khagendra Thakur.During the same period, his statue was unveiled at Dinkar Chowk in Patna and a two-dayseminar was held in Calicut University.
105. DeathRamdhari Singh Dinkar passed away on April 24, 1974 at the age of 65.Timeline1908: Was born on September 23 in Simariya, Begusarai, Bihar1928: His first poetical work "Vijay Sandesh" was published1946: Penned the distinguished poem "Kurukshetra"1952: Elected as a member of Rajya Sabha1959: Was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award for "Sanskriti ke Char Adhyay"1959: Received the Padma Bhushan Award1968: Was appointed as Sahitya-Chudamani by Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Udaipur1972: Conferred upon with Jnanpith Award for "Urvashi"1974: Died on April 24 in Begusarai aged 651987: Honored with a tribute by former President Shankar Dayal Sharma1999: Featured on a postage stamp to mark 50 years of Hindi as official language on IndianUnion2008: Portrait revealed in the Central Hall of parliament of India on his centenary year
106. Chetan BhagatBorn: 22nd April, 1974 New Delhi, IndiaChetan Bhagat is a famous Indian author who penned down novelsthat hit the market with great success. All of them were bestsellerssince their release and have been filmed by famous Bollywooddirectors. Chetan Bhagat is considered a youth icon rather than asjust an author. With his vivid and humorous way of depictingstories, he has inspired reading habits in many young Indians. He isalso a good columnist and writes columns for many leadingnewspapers. According to him, novels are entertainment toolsthrough which he expresses his views and opinion about societyand the youth. Development issues and national issues areaddressed through columns. Chetans columns are written in a way that directly points out theissues within our country and in many times it has even triggered discussions in the parliament.He is not only a good writer but also a motivational speaker and has given many motivationalspeeches at many colleges, organizations and companies.Personal LifeChetan Bhagat was born in New Delhi in a middle class Punjabi Family on the 22nd day of April,1974. His father was an Army man and his mother, a government employee. The major part ofhis education was done at Delhi. He studied in the Army Public School, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhiduring the years 1978 to 199 after which he chose to do Mechanical Engineering at the IndianInstitute of Technology (IIT), Delhi. After pursuing engineering he took up a managementprogram offered at the Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad. Being anoutstanding student, it was no wonder when he was recognized as the "Best Outgoing Student"of his batch by IIM Ahmadabad. He later got married to Anusha Suryanarayanan in 1998; shewas his fellow student at IIM-A. Chetan then went to Hong Kong along with his family andworked as an investment banker with Goldman Sachs. He worked in Hong Kong for eleven yearsand then shifted to Mumbai and started writing. It was his passion. He has four novels againsthis name: Five Point Someone (2004), One Night @ The Call Center (2005), The ThreeMistakes Of My Life (2008), Two States (2009) & Revolution 2020: Love, Corruption, Ambition.By chance or by choice, titles of all his novels had numbers associated with them. He now leadsa happy life with his wife and twin sons Ishaan and Shyam. Chetan loves to live a simple lifewatching cartoons with his children who wish to become super heroes. He is a health consciousperson and practices yoga regularly.
107. CareerChetan Bhagat published his first novel first novel Five Point Someone in 2004 and this veryfirst venture took him to the peaks of fame and popularity. The book depicted the story of anIIT student who considers himself to be below average than all the other students in IIT. Thisbook won the Society Young Achievers Award and Publishers Recognition Award. The storywas adopted into a film directed by Rajkumar Hirani and starred famous Bollywood stars likeAamir Khan, Madhavan, Sharman Joshi and Kareena Kapoor, titled “3 Idiots”.His second book was One Night At A Call Center and this too was a great success. This bookwas made into a movie and was named Hello and Chetan himself wrote the script. The moviewas noted by the special appearance of Bollywood star Salman Khan and was an average hit.His next novel has cricket as the major theme. It is named Three Mistakes of My Life. Hisfourth book is named Two States.ContributionChetan Bhagats contribution to the field of entertainment is noticeable. He never confined hisliterary talents to just writing novels. As a responsible social person, he also writes columns innewspapers, citing and dwelling on various social and national issues. Many of his columnswere noticed by parliamentarians and triggered serious discussions in the Indian Parliament. Hehas addressed issues like corruption by sending an opening letter to Sonia Gandhi and also hasspoken about the political issues that revolved around Baba Ramdev.Awards and AccoladesHe won the Society Young Achievers Award in 2000 and the Publishers Recognition Award in2005. Chetan Bhagat also a found himself place in the Time magazines list of "Worlds 100Most Influential People" in the year 2010.BooksTitle Year GenreFive Point Someone 2004 FictionOne Night @ the Call Center 2005 DramaThe 3 Mistakes of My Life 2008 Sports, Drama2 States: The Story of My Marriage 2009 RomanceRevolution 2020: Love, Corruption, Ambition 2011 Romance, PoliticsWhat Young India Wants 2012 Non-fiction
108. Movie AdaptationsRelease year Title of book Film adaptation Language Director2008 One Night @ the CallCenterHello Hindi Atul Agnihotri2009 Five Point Someone 3 Idiots Hindi Rajkumar Hirani2012 Five Point Someone Nanban Tamil Shankar2012 Five Point Someone Snehithudu Telugu Shankar2013 The 3 Mistakes of MyLifeKai Po Che! Hindi Abhishek Kapoor2013 2 States: The Story ofMy Marriage2 States Hindi Karan JoharTimeline1974: Chetan Bhagat was Born in Delhi1991: Enrolled in IIT1995: Enrolled in IIM Ahmadabad1997: recognized by IIM Ahmadabad as "The best outgoing student"1998: Got married to AnushaSuryanarayanan2004: published his first book "Five Point Someone - What not to do at IIT!"2005: Published his second book "One Night @ the Call Center"2008: Published his third book "The 3 Mistakes of My Life"2009: Published his fourth book "2 States: The Story of My Marriage"
109. Ramachandra GuhaBorn In: April 29, 1958, DehradunRamachandra Guha is a prominent Indian writer who haswritten on different topics such as social, political, historical,and environmental, also on the history of cricket. Besides this,he is a well-known columnist who writes for The Telegraph,The Hindu and The Hindustan Times and is also an Indianhistorian. His books and essays have been translated in aroundtwenty different languages. He has been described as the bestamong Indian non-fiction writers by the New York Times andIndian Democracys Pre-eminent Chronicler by the TimeMagazine. Mr. Guha received the inspiration for writing fromvarious Indian and foreign writers including the essayistsGeorge Orwell and H. L. Mencken, the historians Marc Bloch and E. P. Thompson and thenature writer M. Krishnan. According to him, universities that promote advanced research andteaching all together in the field of sciences, social sciences, humanities and in professionalstudies such as medicine and law help in creating a nation with flourishing intellectuals.Early LifeRamachandra Guha was born in Dehradun, in 1958. Ramachandra Guha is the grandson ofMysores S. Ramaswamy Iyer, the first Advocate-General of Mysore. He completed his primaryeducation at The Doon School, Dehradun. He pursued his graduation in Economics at the St.Stephens College, New Delhi, in 1977 and Masters from the Delhi School of Economics. Lateron, he practiced a fellowship on the social history of forestry of Uttaranchal from the ndianInstitute of Management, Kolkata, which laid emphasis on the Chipko Movement. He gotmarried to Sujata Keshavan, a graphic designer. The couple have two children named Keshavaand Iravati.CareerIn the time span of 1985-2000, Ramachandra Guha delivered lectures at several universitiessuch as University of California, Berkeley, Yale University, Stanford University and OsloUniversity, afterwards at the Indian Institute of Science. From 1994-95, he was a researcher atWissenschaftskollegzu Berlin in Germany. He later on shifted to Bangalore and devoted himselfto writing. It was in 2000, when he wrote an essay criticizing an article of Arundhati Roy,opposing the Narmada Dam.
110. In 2007, he penned the book India after Gandhi: The History of the Worlds LargestDemocracy. It was published by Macmillan and Ecco. In 2009, he united with various famoushistorians for signing a petition criticizing the working of the Nehru Memorial Museum andLibrary (NMML), Delhi which is very significant. He wrote the biography of Verrier Elwin, whowas a famous anthropologist, ethnologist and a tribal activist. It was by going through theworks of Verrier Elwin, that Ramachandra Guha moved to Sociology from Economics. He wasvery impressed by Elwins ethnographies of people living in the forest of Central India and thusdecided to write his biography. Ramachandra Guha is a management trustee of the New IndiaFoundation, a nonprofit organization that sponsors researches on modern Indian history.Awards and AccoladesIn 2001, Guhas essay on the Prehistory of Community Forestry in India received theLeopold-Hidy Prize of the American Society for Environmental History.In 2002, his book A Corner of a Foreign Field won the Daily Telegraph Cricket SocietyBook of the Year prize. He also received the Malcolm Adiseshiah Award for excellence insocial science research, the Ramnath Goenka Prize for excellence in Journalism and MacArthur Research and Writing Award.In 2003, Ramachandra Guha was honored with the R. K. Narayan Prize at the ChennaiBook Fair.India after Gandhi : The History of the Worlds Largest Democracy (2007) was selectedas a book of the year by the Economist, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal,the San Francisco Chronicle, Time Out and Outlook and along with this, as a book of anera in the Times of India, the Times of London, and The Hindu.In May 2008, he was entitled as one of the top 100 public intellectuals in the world bythe Prospect and Foreign Policy magazines.It was in 2009, when Mr. Guha was honored with the Padma Bhushan.2011 Sahitya Akademi Award for India after Gandhi.ContributionRamachandra Guha has contributed a lot by writing on environment, history and other aspectssuch as cricket, social and political conditions of the country. He has written a lot on Indiasdemocracy, Indian society and also about the past and present of India in his books and essays.Timeline1958: Born in Dehradun.1977: Completed his graduation from St. Stephens College, New Delhi.1985-2000: Worked as a professor in several universities of California, Oslo, Berkley, Stanford
111. and then in Indian Institute of Science.1994-95: Researcher at Wissenschaftskollegzu, Berlin in Germany.2000: Wrote an essay criticizing an article of Arundhati Roy.2001: Essay on the Prehistory of Community Forestry in India received the Leopold-Hidy Prizeof the American Society for Environmental History.2002: A Corner of a Foreign Field won the Daily Telegraph Cricket Society Book of the Yearprize.2003: Worked as a Visiting Lecturer of Humanities at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.2007: Wrote the book India after Gandhi: The History of the Worlds Largest Democracy andwas honored with the R. K. Narayan Prize at the Chennai Book Fair.2008: Entitled as one of the top 100 public intellectuals in the world by the Prospect andForeign Policy magazine.2009: Honored with the Padma Bhushan.
112. Rohinton MistryBorn: 1952 Mumbai, IndiaRohinton Mistry is a famous Canadian writer with roots in India.Famous American writer and broadcaster Rick Gekoski once said:Mistry has a great eye and a huge heart, and if the world hedescribes is often cruel and capricious, his characters have aremarkable capacity to survive". Rohinton Mistry has a rareachievement to his credit - he is the only author, all of whosenovels have been shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize.His works slowly starts from a family, proceeding graduallyoutwards along with the development of the characters andgradually widens into the social, cultural, and political backdrop. Hehas an unusual talent to grab the attention of the readers. Rohinto Mistry is a great writer withhas an observable eye and a creative mind. The marked specialty of his work is that, thus far,his books depict the diverse facets of Indian socioeconomic life and culture as well as the life,customs, and religion of the Parsis. Read on!Early LifeRohinton Mistry was born to a Parsi couple Behram Mistry and Freny Mistry in 1952 in Bombay,India. He was born to a middle-class family. He grew up in this city and finished his graduationin Mathematics and Economics from the St. Xaviers College, Mumbai. His father was intoadvertising and his mother was a housewife. He migrated to Canada after marrying Freny Elaviawho worked as a teacher and settled in Toronto. He worked in a bank there to support hisstudies and finished a degree in Philosophy and English. During his life at the Toronto Universityhe published some stories for which he won two Hart House Literary Prizes and also theCanadian Fiction Magazines Annual Contributors Prize. Two years later, Penguin Books Canadapublished his collection of eleven short stories, Tales from Firozsha Baag. It was later publishedin the United States of America as "Swimming Lessons and Other Stories from Firozsha Baag".The book consists of eleven short stories, all set within one apartment complex in modern-dayMumbai. This volume contains the oft-anthologized story, "Swimming Lessons."CareerRohinton Mistry got into writing after reaching Canada and some of his early works werepublished in many Canadian magazines. His short-story collection "Tales from Firozsha Baag"
113. was published in Canada in the year 1987 and then in UK as "Swimming Lessons and OtherStories from Firozsha Baag" in the year 1992. He wrote three novels and many short stories.His novel "Such a Long Journey" is written with Mumbai as the background. The novel depictsthe story of a bank clerk who, though unwillingly, becomes a part of a fraud committed by thegovernment. Rohinton Mistry bagged the Commonwealth Writers Prize for this book."A Fine Balance", another novel published in the year 1996 depicts the State of Emergency inIndia and "Family Matters" which was published in 2002, again has Mumbai as its background.The novel narrates the story of an elderly Parsi widower who lives in Mumbai with his step-children. Both his works "Such a Long Journey" and "A Fine Balance" were shortlisted for theBooker Prize for Fiction and the third one Family Matters" was shortlisted for the Man BookerPrize for Fiction (renamed version of Booker Prize) in 2002. Many of his literary papers are apart of the Clara Thomas Archives.He and his family were targeted by security agents because they thought that he is a Muslimand because of this very reason he cancelled his book tour to the United States of America in2002.He was checked by security agents in every single airport and the humiliation wasunbearable to him. Another controversy related to Rohinton Mistry is that his novel "Such aLong Journey" was allegedly against the Mumbai University. The Shiv Senas student winglodged complaint against this book to the Vice-Chancellor of Mumbai University and burntcopies of this book at the university gate. The book was eventually withdrawn by the MumbaiUniversity owing to the vigorous protest. His latest work is a story called "The Scream".Bibliography• Tales from Firozsha Baag (1987), also published as Swimming Lessons and Other Storiesfrom Firozsha Baag (1989)• Such a Long Journey (1991)• A Fine Balance (1995)• Family Matters (2002)• The Scream (2006)Awards and AccoladesFirst Prize, Hart House Literary Contest, 1983First Prize, Hart House Literary Contest, 1984Annual Contributors Prize, Canadian Fiction Magazine, 1985Shortlisted for Booker Prize for Fiction, 1991Governor Generals Literary Award for Fiction, 1991
114. Commonwealth Writers Prize, 1992Books in Canada First Novel Award, 1992Giller Prize, 1995Shortlisted for Booker Prize for Fiction, 1996Commonwealth Writers Prize,1996Shortlisted for Irish Times International Fiction Prize, 1997James Tait Black Memorial Prize, 2002Kiriyama Pacific Rim Book Prize, 2002Shortlisted for Booker Prize for Fiction, 2002Timeline1952: Born in Mumbai.1975: Completed his graduation at the St. Xaviers College, Mumbai.1987: Published his short-story collection.1991: Shortlisted for Booker Prize.1992: Published the same short-story collection in USA under the name "Swimming Lessons andOther Stories from Firozsha Baag".1996: Shortlisted for Booker Prize.2002: Shortlisted for Man Booker Prize.
115. Upamanyu ChatterjeeBorn: 19 December, 1959 Patna, BiharUpamanyu Chatterjee, best remembered for his debut novelEnglish, August: An Indian Story is one of the powerful andemerging voices amongst Indias post colonial literarystalwarts. His novels are written in a humorous style and areintended to go beyond the basic concept of comedy. He defiedconventional traditions and created a niche for himself.Through his works, one can see his protests against theaustere world of the Indian Administrative System. Most of hisnovels focus on the life of a young westernized diplomat whois posted in a non-descript town. The characteristics of hisnovels have a wry sense of humour, amazing language and aneye to portray the life of middle-class India. The satiricalaspect of his novels sometimes shocks readers. However, there are critics who are of the viewthat he has not achieved the success which was promised by with the launch of his debut novel.Early LifeUpamanyu Chatterjee was born on 19th, December 1959 in Patna, Bihar. He was the son ofSudhir Ranjan Chatterjee. He received his education from St. Xaviers School and St. StephensCollege in Delhi. While studying in high School, Chatterjee penned a play, the story which headopted from a Hitchcock drama, Dilemma. The drama was not published, but won the schooldrama competition in spite of it caricaturing the school rules and regulations. After finishing hisMasters in English Literature from the Delhi University, Chatterjee joined the IndianAdministrative Service in 1983. His professional career not only marked the beginning of hisliterary career, but also was the source from which he created his characters. In 1990,Chatterjee lived as Writer in Residence at the University of Kent, U.K. In 1998, he was appointedas the Director (Languages) in the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government ofIndia.CareerUpamanyu Chatterjee has written a few short stories of which The Assassination of IndiraGandhi and Watching Them are worth mentioning. Since then, he has written five novels, ofwhich all of them have received critical and political support in spite of the fact that the novelspicture the legal systems in a satirical manner.
116. In 1988, his first and bestselling novel, English, August: An Indian Story was published. It wasan extremely well-written novel which tells the story of Agastya Sen, a westernized Indianwhose thoughts are dominated by women, literature and soft drugs. Through the novel, heportrays some serious issues that revolve around the urban educated youth and pictures aclass of westernized people who are otherwise unnoticed in regional and English fictionalwork. Since the publication of the novel, it has been reprinted several times and the novel is anapt choice for those who are keen on knowing more about modern India. The story was madeinto a film with the same name in 1994.In 1993, his second novel, The Last Burden was published which portrays life in an Indianfamily at the end of twentieth century. The novel is written in a rich and powerful language andprovides a stunning and accurate depiction of the overwhelming burden of family ties. In 2000,The Mammaries of the Welfare State was published as an apt sequel to English August. Thenovel is described by many as a master work of satire by a prominent writer at the pinnacle ofhis powers. Chatterjee takes the reader through the corridors of Indian bureaucracy with gorysarcasm and leaves no opportunity to mock the entire system. The novel won the SahityaAcademy Award in 2004. In 2006, Chatterjees fourth novel Weight Loss which is a darkcomedy was published. The novel is about the strange life of Bhola who is a sexual deviant andwhose attitude to people around him depends upon their lust worthiness.His genius for dark humor is really convincing in this novel. In 2010, his latest novel Way to Gowas published as a sequel to The Last Burden. The novel is accepted as well written and is apleasure to read. It is suitable for anyone who wants to broaden their perspective on life andenjoy themselves in the procedure.Contribution to LiteratureA bureaucrat by profession, Upamanyu Chatterjee penned two short stories and five novels.The short stories include:• The Assassination of Indira Gandhi• Watching ThemNovels include:Name NotesEnglish, August : An Indian story Hailed as the definitive urban Indiancoming-of-agenovelThe Last BurdenThe Mammaries of the WelfareStateSequel to English August
117. Weight LossWay to Go Sequel to The Last BurdenLegacyUpamanyu Chatterjee based his novels on the Indian Administrative System, which he depictedwith hilarious sarcasm. The humour, sometimes, placed the reader in a state of shock as thewriter went to an extent which his Indian contemporaries did not dare to go to. Through hisworks, he dared to match the sensibility which one uncovers only in modern European novels.Awards and AccoladesSahitya Academy Award, 2004Order of Officier des Arts et des Lettres, French Government, 2008Timeline1959: Born in Patna, Bihar.1983: Joined the Indian Administrative Service.1988: First novel, English, August: An Indian Story was published.1990: Lived as Writer in Residence at University of Kent, U.K.1993: Second novel, The Last Burden was published.1998: Appointed as the Director (Languages) in the Ministry of Human Resource Development,Government of India.2000: Third novel The Mammaries of the Welfare State was published as a sequel to his firstnovel English, August: An Indian Story.2004: Was honoured with the Sahitya Academy Award for the novel The Mammaries of theWelfare State.2006: Chatterjees fourth novel Weight Loss was published.2008: Was conferred Order of Officier des Arts et des Lettres by French Government for hiscontribution to modern literature.2010: Latest novel Way to Go was published as a sequel to The Last Burden.
118. Sumitranandan PantBorn: May 20, 1900, KausaniDied: December 28, 1977At the age of seven, when majority of children learn how to read andwrite; a little child from the hills wrote poetries, and grew up tobecome one of Indias finest and renowned poet cum writer. Thisboy was Sumitranandan Pant, also known as Gosain Dutt. Born inthe hills of Kumaon, Pant was raised by his old grandmother, for hismother had passed away shortly after conceiving him. He haddeveloped an early knack for writing poetry. But he didnt restricthimself with just poetry and even ventured into writing essays andverse plays. During his career as a poet cum writer, Pant won many accolades like SahityaAcademy Award, Padma Bhushan Award, Jnanpith Award, and Nehru Peace Price from theSoviet Union. Inspired by nature and beauty during the early phase of his career, Pants worksreflected the same. But gradually he learned to adapt and touched many themes likephilosophy and humanity and by the end of it all, he came to be recognized as a towering Hindipoet and one of the leaders of the Chhayavaad School of Poetry.Early LifeSumitranandan Pant was born on 20th May, 1900 at Kausani village of Bhageshwar, in the hillsof Kumaon, Uttrakhand, as Gosain Dutt. Unfortunately, his mother died within few hours ofgiving birth to him. He was raised by his grandmother and was the smallest of all his sevensiblings. He completed his early schooling from Almora and at the age of 18, he moved to Kashiwith his brother and finished his matriculation there. Not too fond of his name, Dutt changed itto Sumitranandan Pant. Post matriculation, Pant went to Allahabad to pursue graduation fromAllahabad University, but left it midway and joined the Satyagraha Movement to supportMahatma Gandhi. However, he continued his education by reading English, Sanskrit, andBengali literature at home.CareerSumitranandan Pant took to poetry when he was just seven, and happened to be studying inthe 4th grade. Having spent his childhood surrounded by natural beauty of the mountains andflora and fauna; it was only natural that it was from here that he got his inspiration; for hisearlier works reflected a sublime touch of the scenic serenity. The period from 1907-1918 has
119. even been admitted by Sumitranandan himself, as the first phase of his notable writing career.The poems that he wrote in this phase have been compiled together and published in "Veena"(1927). Although dropped out of graduation to support Mahatma Gandhis SatyagrahaMovement, Pant didnt compromise on his education and continued to study English, Sanskrit,and Bengali literature at home. This propelled his passion for writing even further.It was shortly after the Satyagraha Movement that Pant went to Sri Aurobindos Ashram inPondicherry. It was from there onwards that he expanded his horizon and started writing inbroader contexts. There was an undeniable influence after the visit to Sri Aurobindos and theresult was evident in the poems that he was writing then. The inspiration from Aurobindosphilosophy, however, was uncanny. Pant had taken a shift from mysticism to Marxism andstarted to include a more humane theme in his writings. Gradually, he included progressive,philosophical, socialist, and humanistic poems in his repertoire.In the year 1960, Pant received a Sahitya Academy Award for "Kala and Burha Chand" (acompilation of all the poems written by him in 1958).In 1961, he received a Padma Bhushan Award and a Jnanpith Award in 1968 for his mostfamous poems "Chidambara". He even received the Nehru Peace Prize by Soviet Union for"Lokayatan".Sumitra Nandan Pant also composed the Kulgeet of IIT Roorkee, "Jayati Jayati Vidya Sansthan".He was the first Hindi poet to be awarded Jnanpith award in 1968.Amitabh Bachchan on 25 November 2010 in an episode of Kaun Banega Crorepati, stated thatShri Pant was a friend of Harivansh Rai Bachchan and was present at the time of his birth. Onseeing the baby he said - "He is Amitabh".DeathSumitranandan passed away in 1977. The house that he grew up in Kausani has been turnedinto a museum and displays original manuscripts, poems, photographs, letters, his awards etc.Timeline1900: Sumitranandan Pant was born.1907: Started writing poetry at the age of 7.1918: Moved to Kashi with his brother and completed his matriculation.1922: His work "Uchchhavaas" got published.1926: His work "Pallav" got published.
120. 1927: His work "Veena" got published, which contains poems during the early part of hiscareer.1929: His work "Granthi" got published.1932: His work "Gunjan" got published.1960: Received Sahitya Academy Award1961: Was honored with Padma Bhushan Award.1968: Received Jnanpith award for his most famous poems Chidambara.1977: Died at the age of 77.
121. Suryakant Tripathi NiralaBorn: February 21, 1899, MidnaporeDied: October 15, 1961, AllahabadSuryakant Tripathi Nirala is one of the key figures in thehistory of Hindi literature. Though he hailed from Bengal andacquired his basic education in the Bengali medium, SuryakantTripathi chose Hindi language when it came to writing downhis thoughts through essays, novels, poems and stories.Suryakanth Tripathi Niralas life was tragic and lonely and atevery stage he had to come across misfortunes in life.However that did not deter Suryakant Tripathi Nirala frompursuing his interest in studying various Indian languages. At avery early age, Nirala became an expert in the Hindi, Bengali,Sanskrit and English languages, most of which he had to master sitting at home. Apart frompenning down poems, essays and stories in Hindi, he was also known for his skills as a painter.Early LifeSuryakant Tripathi Nirala was born on February 21, 1896 in an orthodox Brahmin family settledin the Midnapore district of Bengal. Suryakant Tripathis parents were originally from the Unnaoregion of Uttar Pradesh but were settled in Bengal for a fairly long time. Suryakant Tripathisfather Pandit Ramasahaya Tripathi was a very strict person by nature and liked to keep hisentire family under his own control. He was a government servant by profession and the moneyhe earned would often be less than what was required for the existence of the entire family.Therefore, it will not be unfair to say that Suryakant Tripathi also knew the meaning of povertyduring his lifetime. It was on the insistence of Pandit Ramasahaya Tripathi that Tripathi gotenrolled in a Bengali medium school. But it was the Sanskrit language which interested him themost and he would often read books in Sanskrit, Hindi and English. Suryakanth Tripathismother died when he was still very young, leaving him to tackle his tyrannical father alone.Later LifeSuryakant Tripathi Nirala passed his matriculation examinations after the death of his mother,after which he had to remain at home and continue further studies as his father would notallow further education. Since he had already mastered the Bengali language at school, heconcentrated on Hindi, Sanskrit and English literature after his matriculation. After a few years
122. Suryakant Tripathi Nirala shifted from Bengal to his forefathers native Uttar Pradesh tocontinue studies and work. Nirala first settled in Lucknow and then in the Gadhakola village ofthe Unnao district in UP. Reports claim that Suryakanth Tripathi Nirala was rebellious innature. He did not accept the set pattern of society and always ventured into new spheres oflearning and practice. It was for this reason that Suryakant Tripathi had to bear the brunt ofcriticism from the society that he lived in.Nirala tied the knot with Anohar Devi during his stay at the Gadhakola village and spent somegood and peaceful years of his life with her. Suryakant Tripathi Nirala was a mere kid at thetime of his marriage and he found the much needed solace in the company of his wife AnoharDevi. He also had a daughter with her. Nirala had already begun writing in Bengali at the time ofhis marriage, but noticing his love for the Hindi language, his wife insisted him into writing inHindi and it was after his marriage that Suryakant Tripathi Nirala started penning essays,stories and poems in Hindi. However, like most of his life, misfortune seemed to be waitinground the corner, as his wife Anohar Devi died of illness. Suryakant Tripathi Nirala was only 20years of age at the time of her death. His daughter who had also got married and was already awidow by this time also died an unfortunate death, leaving him all alone.Suryakant Tripathi Nirala went through am emotional and financial loss after the death of twoof the closest people to his heart. In order to earn money, Nirala found a job with Samanvaya,while also working as an editor and proof-reader for several publishers in and around UttarPradesh. The contents of Suryakant Tripathi Niralas writings were not mere figments ofimagination, but true incidents from the society he lived in. He used his writings to speak outagainst the injustice that was prevalent in the early twentieth society. However, he was able tobring little change in the society through his penned down thoughts because nobody wasprepared to lend support to his rebellious ways in an orthodox society. All he received in returnof speaking out against wrong and evil were ridicule and mockery.WorksSuryakant Tripathi Nirala was an important member of the Chhayavaad era of Hindi literatureor the Neo-Romantic period of Hindi literature. Most of his writings were unconventional anddiffered from the styles of his contemporaries. As stated earlier, he liked to voice his ill feelingsabout the society through his writings and this led to various publishers dismissing his work andnot publishing them. Therefore, even though he was a writer of high standards, his talent anddepth of knowledge of the Hindi language were recognized only after his death. Thoughnationalism and revolution were the chief contents of his writing, he also liked to deal with thehistory of languages, mythology and religion and nature. His writings often reflected histhorough study of the Puranas. In fact, it was because of the fact that his style of writing was
123. totally different from his contemporaries that Suryakant Tripathi received the title of Niralawhich means unique in the Hindi tongue.Apart from writing and contributing to Hindi literature, Suryakant Tripathi Nirala was also anoccasional painter. He was responsible for introducing the concept of free verse in the world ofHindi poems and prose. He is best remembered for his poem Saroj Smriti, which wasdedicated to his deceased daughter. Suryakant Tripathi Nirala was a firm believer in the lifeand ideologies of stalwarts like Swami Vivekananda, Sri Ramkrishna Paramahansa andRabindranath Tagore. It was their writings which helped him to improve his own style andcontent over the years. Suryakant Tripathi Nirala was one of the imminent members of theHindi Kavi Sammelan, a gathering which encompassed some of the great poets of Hindiliterature during the early twentieth century.DeathAll the misfortunes that Suryakant Tripathi Nirala had faced during his lifetime certainlybothered him much even after they were past, culminating into a deadly disease which wouldultimately lead to his death in the year 1961. Suryakant Tripathi was a victim of schizophreniaduring the later stages of his life and died on October 15, 1961. He left behind a collection ofwork in Hindi literature which are still celebrated and admired by the present generation.Important WorksPoetry• Saroj Smriti• Parimal• Anaamika• Geetika• KukurmuttaProse• Billesur Bakriha• KullibhatCollection of Stories• Lily• Devi• Sukul ki Biwi• Sakhi• Chhaturi Chamar
124. Essay Collection• Ravindra Kavita Kannan• Prabandha Pratibha• Prabandha Parichaya• Bangbhasha ka Uchcharan• ChayanNovels• Prabhavati• Choti ki Pakar• Kale Karname• Nirupama• UchchhrankhaltaTranslation• Devi Chaudharani• Chandrasekhar• Vish Vriksh• Sri Ramkrishna Vachnamrit• RajyogNirala Poetry in Indian CinemaNiralas poem Himmat Karne Walon Ki Har Nahi Hoti (Those who have courage never fail) wasdepicted as the favorite poem of the main character in Hindi film, Maine Gandhi Ko NahinMara (2005) played and produced by Anupam Kher
125. Anand BakshiBorn: July 21, 1920, RawalpindiDied: March 30, 2002, MumbaiThe name, Anand Bakshi is familiar to Hindi film lovers both youngand old. In a career spanning several decades, Anand Bakshipenned some of the most memorable songs that has ever beenproduced by the Hindi film industry. With dreams of becoming asinger, a young man landed in Bombay to acquire a foothold inBollywood - little did he know then that destiny had different plansfor him. With over 600 films to his credit and having worked withthe best people in the Hindi film industry, Anand Bakshi earned himself a reputation of arespectable man in Bollywood. All actors wanted to be part of films which had lyrics penned bythe legendary Anand Bakshi. And this factor came into play when several actors opted to workwith only Anand Bakshi when they inaugurated their respective production houses. Bollywoodactors from Rajesh Khanna and Jeetendra to Amitabh Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan, and musicdirectors from Laxmikant Pyarelal to R D Burman loved and respected the powerhouse calledAnand Bakshi.Early LifeAnand Bakshi was born on July 21, 1920 in the city of Rawalpindi now situated in Pakistan. Thelyricist’s forefathers were from the Kuri village situated close to Rawalpindi and some of themalso lived in Kashmir. Anand Bakshi’s mother Sumitra died when he was a mere five-year oldkid. Hence, it was under the care of his father that Anand Bakshi completed his school andcollege education. After completing his elementary schooling, Anand Bakshi joined theCambridge College in Rawalpindi, only to leave his studies midway on March 6 1943, when hewas selected to join the Royal Indian Navy as a post boy in 1944.Anand Bakshi had aspired to become a singer since he was a child and this was precisely why heboarded the H M I S Dilawar and H M I S Bahadur Ship after his appointment in the Indian Navy,thinking that the ship would halt in Bombay, the land of his film ambitions. Unfortunately, theship did not reach the Bombay docks, leaving Anand Bakshi to work with the Navy for two yearsfollowed by a six year stint in the Indian Army before he could finally fulfill his dreams ofpenning Hindi film songs. On April 5, 1946, Anand Bakshi was expelled from his position in theIndian Navy after he was caught participating in a naval mutiny against the British from theBombay harbor.
126. Years of TrystAfter being expelled from the Indian Navy, Bakshi joined the Indian Army the following year. Heserved the Indian Army for a period of six years, in between which he went to Bombay to try hisluck in Hindi films. Reports claim that during his stay with the Army, Anand Bakshi used toentertain the other soldiers by singing to them his own composed songs. All his friends in theIndian Army always encouraged Anand Bakshi to shift to Bombay and seek employment as aHindi film writer, singer or actor. Meanwhile, after India got its independence, the family leftRawalpindi and settled at Lucknow in the October of 1947. Four years later, in the year 1951,Bakshi left the Corps of Signals and arrived in Bombay for the first time looking for work. But hisefforts went in vain forcing him to return to his home and his job with the Army with the E.M.E.(The Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers).Meanwhile, Anand Bakshi settled down with Kamla Mohan, a girl who had been his childhoodneighbor in Rawalpindi, in the year 1954. Anand Bakshi quit his position in the Indian Army onAugust 27, 1956 and in the month of October of the same year, traveled to Bombay again in thehope of work. His luck did not favor him the second time too, leaving Anand Bakshi jobless andmoneyless on the platforms of local Bombay stations. But not the one to be disillusioned ordisheartened, he continued to pen songs, though by then, he already had a collection of morethan 60 songs all written by himself. His first poem, which Anand Bakshi had composed as asong, was published in the Sainik Samachar magazine brought out by the Indian Army. This gaveBakshi the impetus to go ahead and try harder to bring to life his dreams.Living The DreamsThe big break in Anand Bakshi’s life came towards the end of the year 1956. Though AnandBakshi had planned to enter Bollywood as a singer or a scriptwriter for Hindi films, he waschosen to write the lyrics for the Hindi film Bhala Aadmi’. Anand Bakshi penned four songs forthe Brij Mohan film and his first written song Dharti Ke Laal Na Kar Itna Malaal’ was recordedon November 9, 1956. Nine years later in the year 1965, Anand Bakshi was an establishedlyricist of Bollywood with films like Himalay Ki God Mein’, Jab Jab Phool Khile’ and Milan’ inhis kitty. The latter two endured that Anand Bakshi would further get work with only the bestmusic composers and producers in the world of Hindi cinema.But the first film that made Anand Bakshi popular among the masses was the 1972 Hindi filmMome Ki Gudiya’.Mome Ki Gudiya’ was also the beginning of the success story between lyricist Anand Bakshiand music director Laxmikant Pyarelal. They went on to work together in a number of filmslater on, making some of the best songs that Bollywood has ever heard. 1972 also saw the
127. release of popular Hindi film track Dum Maro Dum’ from the film Hare Rama Hare Krishna’, atrack which brought to light the versatility of Anand Bakshi as a lyricist. While he had alreadymade a mark as a Bollywood lyricist, Anand Bakshi got his first opportunity to sing for aBollywood production in a duet with Lata Mangeshkar. The song Baaghon Mein Bahaar Aayee’was accepted well and Anand Bakshi went on to sing other songs for films like Sholay, MahaChor, Charas and Balika Badhu. Anand Bakshi loved quawwalis and he wrote as well as sang anumber of quawwalis during this part of his career.His WorkIn the span of a very successful career, Anand Bakshi worked in at least 300 films withLaxmikant Pyarelal, almost a 100 films with R D Burman, more than 30 films with Kalyanji &Anandji and a couple of films with new age music composers Anu Malik and Rajesh Roshan.Trivia• Anand Bakshi was the lyricist of the first recorded songs of popular Bollywood singersKumar Sanu, Kavita Krisnamurthy, Udit Narayan and Shailendra Singh.• Anand Bakshi worked with such composers who were the sons of popular erstwhilemusicians with whom he had also worked. The most popular pairs are S D & R DBurman and Roshan & Rajesh Roshan. In addition, Anand Bakshi also worked withfather - son duo film directors Yash Chopra & Aditya Chopra and Manmohan Desai &Ketan Desai.• Such was the popularity of Anand Bakshi that Rajesh Khanna, Dharmendra, Jeetendra,Shashi Kapoor, Sunil Dutt, Amitabh Bachchan and also Sunny Deol, Ajay Devgn and ShahRukh Khan chose him as their first production’s lyricist.• Anand Bakshi penned the lyrics for the debut films of several Bollywood actors like RishiKapoor, Sunny Deol, Jackie Shroff, Amrita Singh, Shah Rukh Khan and Akshay Kumar.• Anand Bakshi’s lyrics have been used and reused in Bollywood and Hollywood. Forinstance, the song Aaj Mausam Bada Beimaan Hai’ was used by Mira Nair for her 2001Hollywood production Monsoon Wedding’. Similarly, the Bollywood hit Choli KePeeche Kya Hai’ was used in the 2009 release Slumdog Millionaire’.AwardsAnand Bakshi received a record breaking 40 nominations for lyrics written for Hindi films. Hehas a total of four Filmfare Awards for the best lyricist to his name:
128. • Aadmi Musafir Hai’ for Apnapan in the year 1977• Tere Mere Beech’ for Ek Duuje Ke Liye in 1981• Tujhe Dekha’ for Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge in the year 1995• Ishq Bina’ for Taal in 1999In addition to Filmfare Awards, Anand Bakshi also won the best lyricist awards at differentevents like the Screen and Zee Awards, the Stardust Hero Honda Awards, the Ruby FilmAwards, the Aashirwad Film Awards and the Sushma Shama Awards.DeathAnand Bakshi was a patient of heart and lung ailments in the later stages of life. He was asmoker throughout his life and this had an ill effect on his system. He underwent a heartsurgery at Nanavati Hospital in Bombay after being admitted under a condition of bacterialinfection in 2001. Anand Bakshi succumbed to multiple organ failure and breathed his last onMarch 30, 2002 in the same hospital. Anand Bakshi was 81 years of age at the time of hisdeath.PosthumouslyAnand Bakshi’s lyrics continued to be used in films released after his death. His last writing wasfor the film Mehbooba’ released in the year 2008.Anand Bakshi’s songs remixed and released in foreign films:In 2001, Anand Bakshi’s song, "Aaj mausam bada beimaan hai", was included in MonsoonWedding.In 2009, Anand Bakshi’s song "Choli ke peeche kya hai", was included in SlumdogMillionaire.Timeline1920: Anand Bakshi was born on July 21.1925: His mother Sumitra died.1943: left College to join the Indian Navy on March 6.1944: Joined the Indian Navy on July 12.1946: Was expelled from the Navy for taking part in a mutiny against the British Empire on April5.
129. 1947: Joined the Indian Army on April 12.1947: Migrated from Rawalpindi to Lucknow after independence on October 2.1951: Came to Bombay in search of work in Bollywood.1954: Married kamla Mohan on October 2.1956: Quit his position with the Indian Army on August 27.1956: Came to Bombay the second time in the month of October to look for work as singer andwriter in Bollywood.1956: Recorded his first song for Bollywood on November 9.1962: Wrote his first quawwali for Kaala Samundar’.1972: Sung his first song for a film with Lata Mangeshkar.1977: Received the first Filmfare Award for best lyricist for the film Apnapan’.1981: Received the second Filmfare Award for Ek Duje Ke Liye’.1995: Won his third Filmfare Award for Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge’.1999: Won his final Filmfare Award for Taal.2001: Was hospitalized with bacterial infection.2002: Died in hospital on March 30.2008: His last movie as lyricist Mehbooba’ was released.
130. Mehr Lal SoniBorn: February 9, 1913 Kapurthala, PunjabDied: August 19, 1986Fame came to Mehr Lal Soni very early in life, even before hewent to college. His knack for composing poems in Urdu wasrecognized and celebrated in Urdu poetic circles long before hefound fame throughout the subcontinent. His talent and lovefor Urdu poetry blossomed during his childhood and grew into alarge tree as he went from strength to strength composing hismelodious poems. His poems, or ghazals and nazams, werecharacterized by their ability to touch the heart and mindbecause of their soft and sweet melody and powerful themes.At the same time, his hand was quite good at prose and thedifferent formats of poetry. He was also quite at ease in molding himself to the changing trendsin Urdu literature and this reflected in his ghazals, sonnets, rubiaats and nazms. His voluminouswork in Urdu language shows his enormous command and mastery over the language. His workin over six decades had ensured that he is counted as one of the foremost exponent of the Urdulanguage, rubbing shoulders with the likes of Kaifi Azmi and Nida Fazli. It can safely be said thatMehr Lal added simplicity to colorful Urdu poetry.He used the takhallus (nom de plume) of Zia meaning "Light" on the suggestion of his teacher,Ghulaam Qadir Farkh Amritsari.Childhood & Early LifeBorn in 1913 in Kapurthala, Punjab, Mehr Lal Soni Fatehabadi was the eldest born of a CivilEngineer, Munshi Ram Soni and Shankari Devi. Later in life he adopted the name Zia meaninglight as his pen name on the suggestion of his teacher Ghulaam Qadir Farkh Amritsari. He wasborn into a family whose pedigree can be traced to the Mogul era, when his forefathersmigrated to Punjab from Rajasthan. Written records from his family priests show that his great-great-great grandfather was Tansukh Rai Soni. Mehr Lal started his education from the KhalsaMiddle School, in Peshawar in 1920 but in 1923 shifted to Maharaja High School, in Rajasthanand completed his schooling in 1929. Mehr Lal went to Lahore in 1930 and received his B.A
131. degree in Persian in 1933 and Masters in English in 1935 from Forman Christian College.Mehr Lal was an exceptional student and edited the Urdu section of the college magazinepublishing what is considered to be the first ever Urdu short story in 1932 called “Sadhu”written by Krishan Chander. At college, he also became infatuated with a Bengali girl calledMeera Sen who studied in his college. She would become his friend and muse and was theinspiration for his love poems, which were dedicated to her. Her name also figured prominentlyin many of his works. During his college days, his literary life was shaped and influenced byShabbir Hussain Josh Malihabadi and Samdayaar Khan Saghar Nizami with whom he haddeveloped a close friendship. After completing his Master’s, Mehr Lal joined the Reserve Bankof India in 1936, in Delhi, and after 35 years of service, he retired in July 1971. During thecourse of his service, he was posted to Madras, Bombay and Kanpur.His WorksThe earliest instance of Mehr Lal’s bend towards poetry can be traced back to the year 1925,when he, as a 12-year old, was taught Urdu by Moulvi Asghar Ali Haya Jaipuri, who alsoimparted him knowledge of Urdu poetry. He also credited his interest in poetry to his mother’ssupervision. By the age of sixteen, he had become a familiar name in the Urdu literary circles. In1930, Mehr Lal became a disciple of Syed Aashiq Hussain Siddiqui Seemab Akbarabadi (1882-1951).Three years later his first book, “Tullu” meaning Dawn was published, while he was still atcollege. The book received critical comments, due to which he got so disillusioned that hethought of giving up writing as a whole. However, with encouragement from his friends andelders he continued to write. By the time he completed his college education, Mehr Lal hadestablished a name for himself as a respected poet in Urdu.With a career spanning 60 years, Mehr Lal produced eighteen works of Urdu literatureconsisting of one volume each of short stories:“Suraj Doob Gayaa” (1981),Essays Zaaviyaa Hai Nigaah (1984),Presidential addresses “Masnad-e-Sadaarat Se” (1985) andBiography “Seemab Akbarabadi- Zikr-e-Seemab” (1985).Apart from that, he penned three volumes of letters and eleven collections of poetry.Additionally, there are numerous works which have remained unpublished. There are also afew works that have been influenced by English poets. They include:“Noor e Mashriq" published in 1937,
132. "Gard e Raah” published in 1963 and“Meri Tasveer" published in 2011 in which he even composed Urdu sonnets.Some of Mehr Lal’s other poetic works that were instrumental in giving him fame and renownare:“Nai Subah” (1952),“Husn-e-Ghazal” (1964),“Dhoop Aur Chaandni” (1977),“Rang-o-Noor” (1980),“Soch Kaa Safar” (1982) and“Naram Garam Hawaain” (1987).StyleMehr Lal wrote rubiaats, qatehs, geets, ghazals, nazms and sonnets, but it is the mastery andcommand over nazams and ghazals that he is best remembered for. While strictly not underany particular literary group, his compositions seemed to have the traces of many groups. Hisworks have been known for their lyrical beauty, and lucid phrases, which addressed his deepestthoughts and feelings in a delicate and soulful manner. However, the compositions remainrooted in their classical style.Personal LifeHe married Raj Kumari, the daughter of Murli Ram Berera in the year 1942. They had six sons ofwhich the eldest and the youngest followed in his footsteps albeit in English poetry and prose.DeathIn 1986, after a prolonged illness, Mehr Lal Zia Fatehabadi passed away.Zia Fatehabadi died on 19 August 1986 after a prolonged and painful bout with illness. But then,he had once said:" Kyaa gham agar qraar–o–sukun kii kamii rahii "" Khush hoon ke kaamyaab merii zindagii rahii "(I grieve not for the lack of unrest or for the lack of peace (in my life).I am (gratefully) happy to have led (a contented and) a successful life.)Biography• Budha Darakhat (The Old Tree) – Biography of Zia Fatehabadi written by Zarina Sani.
133. Timeline1913: Mehr Lal was born in Kapurtala.1929: Completed his schooling from Maharaja High School in Rajasthan.1930: Became a disciple of Syed Aashiq Hussain Siddiqui Seemab Akbarabadi.1933: First book “Tullu” was published; Completed his B.A in Persian.1935: Completed his M.A in English.1936: Joined the Reserve Bank of India.1942: Got married to Raj Kumari.1971: Retired from the Reserve Bank of India.1986: Mehr Lal passed away after a prolonged illness.
134. Rahul SankrityayanBorn: April 9, 1893, PandahaDied: 1963, DarjeelingKedarnath Pandey, who later changed his name to RahulSankrityayan, after Gautam Buddha’s son, Rahul and Sankrityayan,meaning Assimilator; did perfect justice in giving himself this newname, for he went on to become a renowned Buddhist scholar.Popularly recalled as the Father of Hindi Travel Literature, hiscollection of knowledge had begun at an early age of nine, when heran away from home in order to explore the unexplored. His journeytook him to many parts of India and abroad. Even though he had a limited formal education,Sankrityayan learnt many languages all by himself and wrote around 150 books. His writingsincluded an array of subjects. He traveled all around, participated in the Indian FreedomMovement and got jailed thrice for creating anti-British writings and speeches. Sankrityayanbecame a Buddhist monk and eventually, took up Marxist Socialism. He is often referred to as a“Mahapandit” (greatest scholar), polymath and polyglot.LifeRahul Sankrityayan aka Kedarnath Pandey was born on 9th April, 1893 in Azamgarh District ofUttar Pradesh, India to an orthodox Brahmin family. His father, Govardhan Pandey was a farmerby profession, while his mother, Kulawanti stayed with her parents. Sankrityayan receivedformal education only up to 8th grade in Urdu medium. However, this didn’t deter him fromeducating himself as he went on to master many languages by reading and frequently travelingacross India and abroad. After the death of both his parents, mother at the age of twenty eightand father at the age of forty five, he was brought up by his grandmother. It was when Rahulwas nine that he first ran away from home to explore the world. He visited many pilgrimcenters of India and mainly survived on alms. In 1919, the Jallianwala Holocaust impacted himto such a level that he turned into a nationalist, participated actively in Indian freedom forindependence, and even went to jail three times in his life.Career
135. A writer, a scholar, a socialist, a nationalist, a traveler, a polymath, and a polyglot - with acareer as broad as that, it’s highly unlikely that India or any other country for that matter willcome across such a figure in a very long time. Even though Sankrityayan’s formal education hadended by 8th grade, he climbed the mountain of paramount knowledge that many educatedpeople across the world failed to. It was as much as theoretical education as it was practical:involving a lot a travel that took him to many parts of India including Ladakh, Kashmir, Kinnauretc and countries like Nepal, Sri Lanka, Tibet, China, Iran, and Soviet Union. It wasSankrityayan’s urge to learn and search for prestigious artifacts including manuscripts of Paliand Sanskrit, paintings, and even books. Such was his glory that the Patna Museum in Patna,Bihar has dedicated a special section to a number of items brought back by Rahul.His WritingsRahul Sankrityayan’s writing and scholarly career had begun when he was in his twenties. Overthe years, he had written around 150 books covering a variety of subjects such as sociology,history, philosophy, Buddhism, science, drama, folklore, politics, tibetology, lexicography,biographies, autobiography, essays, and pamphlets in as many as five languages: Hindi,Sanskrit, Bhojpuri, Pali, and Tibetan.His book “Volga se Ganga” translating to “A journey from Volga to Ganga”, a 7500-years ofhistorical accounts woven with fiction and then published, is one of his major accomplishments.The book begins in 6000 BC and ends in 1942 AD and presents a fictional account of migrationof Aryans from the steppes of the Eurasia to regions around the Volga river; then theirmovements across the Hindukush and the Himalayas and the sub-Himalayan regions; and theirspread to the Indo-Gangetic plains of the subcontinent of India. The book got translated inTamil, Telegu, and Malayalam and remains hugely popular among youth intellectuals in Keralatill date.His book “Madhya Asia ka Itihaas” even won him the Sahitya Academy Award in 1958 and aPadmabhushan Award in 1963. If this wasn’t all, Sankrityayan was made the professor ofIndology by the University of Leningrad, twice.Personal LifeSince Sankrityayan got married at a very young age, he never came to know who his child-wifewas. It was on his second visit to Soviet Union where he went to teach about Buddhism in theUniversity of Leningrad, when he met Ellena Narvertovna Kozerovskaya aka Lola, a Mongolianscholar. The two got married and had a son named Igor. However, both mother and child werenot allowed to travel to India when Rahul went back after completing his teaching assignment.
136. It is said that later in his life he married a Nepali lady and had a daughter named Jaya and a sonnamed Jeta.DeathDuring his teaching stint at the Sri Lankan University, a combination of diabetes, high bloodpressure, a stroke had left Sankrtiyayan seriously ill. It was in Darjeeling that he breathed hislast breath and passed away on 14th April, 1963.Awards in His HonorRahul Sankrityayan National Award - Awarded to those who have contributed to Hindi travelLiterature (also called Travel Litterateurs Honour) by the Kendriya Hindi Sansthan, Governmentof IndiaMahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan Paryatan Puraskar - Awarded for contributing significantly inthe field of travelogue and Discovery and Research in Hindi, for books written originally in Hindion Tourism related subjects by the Ministry Of Tourism, Government of IndiaTimeline1893: Rahul Sankrityayan was born.1937-38: Was appointed as the Professor of Indology by the University of Leningrad.1947-48: Was appointed as the Professor of Indology by the University of Leningrad, for thesecond time.1958: Received Sahitya Academy Award for his book Madhya Asia ka Itihas.1963: Received a Padmabhushan Award.1963: Died at the age of 70.
137. Michael Madhusudan DuttBorn: January 25, 1824, Jessore DistrictDied: 1873, KolkataMichael Madhusudan Dutt, was a man most famous for beingassociated with the Bengali renaissance movement. He was bornon the 25th of January, 1824 in Sagardari, Jessore district, nowin Bangladesh. He was the pioneer of Bengali dramas and wellknown for his poems as well.Meghnadh Badh Kabya, his most famous work, was a tragicepic that comprised of nine cantos. Influenced by the Englishstyle of living and European literature, Madhusudan was a giftedlinguist who mastered several oriental and occidental languages.He is credited for his poetic innovations that were created by merging Bengali language andstories with western styles and forms. This helped mark the beginning of modern Bengaliliterature, as we know it! Not many people may know this, but Madhusudan is known as thefather of the Bangla sonnet. He also pioneered amitrakshar chhanda (blank verse), which is aunique style of composing or writing poems. Madhusudan was an intellectual rebel who,through his writings and compositions, challenged the value systems encoded in traditionalliterature. Read on to learn more about the profile, childhood, life and timeline of this veryprolific writer.ChildhoodMichael Madhusudan Dutt was born into an aristocratic family on the 25th of January, 1824, inJessore, Bangladesh. He was the only son of a wealthy Kayastha family and his father was alaw practitioner in Kolkata. Madhusudan received his early education at home under theguidance of his mother, Jahnabi Devi and he later joined the Sagardari Primary School.Madhusudan also learnt Persian in an old mosque in his neighbouring village. He was a giftedstudent with exceptional literary expression. Madhusudans family moved to Kolkata when hewas only 7 years old. There he attended the Hindu college of Kolkata in 1843 and studiedSanskrit and Persian along with Bengali.
138. Early LifeMadhusudan became a self proclaimed ambassador of English mannerisms and intellect, due tohis early exposure to English education and European literature. Inspired by his thoughts and toescape a marriage arranged by his father, Madhusudan left home on the 9th of February 1843and soon became a Christian. On the day of his baptism, Madhusudan adopted his first nameMichael. He was forced to leave the Hindu college on becoming a Christian, since Christianswere not allowed to study in the college. He then got himself a seat at the Bishops college in1844 and studied there till 1847. Due to lack of funds, Madhusudan left for Madras (nowChennai) in 1848 and taught at the Madras Orphan Asylum School from 1848-1852 and then atthe Madras University High School from 1852-1856.Career and WorkApart from teaching, Madhusudan also worked as a journalist and a translator, however, hewas most noted for his drama compositions and poetry writing skills. Some of his early works inthe field of literature helped him earn a reputation of a talented writer. In 1849, he wrote andpublished his first poem Captive Lady and Visions of the Past in English. Madhusudan, after abrief stint in Madras, returned to Kolkata in 1856 and realized the dearth of good literary worksin Bengali. He translated Ramnnarayan Tarkaratnas play Ratnavali into English in 1858.Realizing his ability to fill up the vacuum in Bengali literature, he associated himself with theBelgachhiya theatre in Kolkata where he came up with his first play Sarmistha in 1859. His playwas followed by two farces and a drama namely, The Bristles of the Neck of the AgedSparrow, Is This What You Call Civilization and Padmavati respectively, all of this in the year1860. Madhusudan, for the first time, used blank verses in Padmavati in 1860 and becamethe first ever person to use such verses. The success of these compositions inspired him to pendown his first Bengali poem Tilottama Sambhava in the same year.Madhusudan was at the peak of his career from 1861-62, when he published "Meghnad-Badh","Krishna-Kumari", "Vrajangana" and "Virangana-Kavya". He also worked for a brief period asan editor of the Hindu Patriot, before he left for England on 9th of June 1862 to study law. FromEngland he travelled to Versailles in France in the year 1863 where he stayed for two years. Itwas here in France that Madhusudan overcame his craving for the English way of living that hadinspired most of his works in the early stages and realised the importance of his mother tongue.He returned to England in 1865 and in 1866 became a barrister. On the 5th of January hereturned to Kolkata to practice law, but he was not well accepted as a barrister and in 1870 hewas obliged to give up the practice. Thankfully, Madhusudan never gave up writing and in 1871he penned down Hectarbadh and his last composition Mayakanan came in the year 1873.
139. Marriage and RelationshipsIn his lifetime, Madhusudan lived with two different ladies. When in Madras, he marriedRebecca Mactavys with whom he had four children. However this marriage didnt work out welland in 1856, Madhusudan started living with another woman named Henrietta Sophia White.From his second relationship he had one son and one daughter.DeathMichael Madhusudan Dutt, the greatest poet of the Bengali renaissance movement, left for hisheavenly abode on the 27th of June, 1873. He died at the Calcutta General Hospital.Timeline1824 - Madhusudan Dutt was born on January 25th.1843 - He was admitted into the Hindu College, Kolkata1843 - He left home, became a Christian.1844 - Started attending the Bishops College1848 - Left for Madras1848 - Married Rebecca Mactavys1848-52 - Taught at the Madras Orphan Asylum School1849 - Wrote and published his first poem Captive Lady and Visions of the Past in English1852-56 - Taught at the Madras University High School1856 - Returned to Kolkata from Madras1856 - Started living with Henrietta Sophia White1858 - Translated Ramnnarayan Tarkaratnas play Ratnavali into English1859 - Wrote his first play Sarmistha1860 - Wrote two farces The Bristles of the Neck of the Aged Sparrow, Is This What You CallCivilization and a drama Padmavati1862 - Published Meghnad-Badh, Krishna-Kumari, Vrajangana and Virangana-Kavya1862 - Left for England on 9th June to study law1863 - Left to Versailles, France1865 - Returned to England1866 - Became a barrister1873 - His last composition Mayakanan was published1873 - Passed away on 27th June at the Calcutta General Hospital.
140. Nirmal VermaBorn: April 3, 1929, ShimlaDied: October 25, 2005, New DelhiNirmal Verma, a famous name in Indian Literature, is popularlyknown for his famous fictional works that reflected both thesharpness of his thoughts and his expertise as a world renownedwriter. He was a famous Hindi writer, novelist, activist andtranslator born in Shimla on the 3rd of April 1929. Call him arevolutionary writer, a guiding light of the Hindi prose, or avisionary, Nirmal Verma brought about a revolution with hiscontributions to Nayi Kahani - the literary movement of Hindiliterature, along with the likes of Mohan Rakesh, Bhisma Sahini,Kamleshwar and Amarkant. In his career of five decades, Verma set examples of the modernIndian tradition and thinking through his five novels, eight short story collections and nine non-fictionals and travelogues. Verma used to set his plot in cities, hill stations or even foreign landsin order to teach people the meaning and way of life through his themes of love, separation,alienation and nostalgia. In order to learn more about the profile, childhood, life and timeline ofNirmal Verma, scroll down.ChildhoodNirmal Verma was born on the 3rd of April, 1929 in Shimla into an educated family. His fatherused to work in the defence department of the British Indian Government. He was the fifthchild among the eight siblings and went to a prestigious school in Shimla followed by Mastersin History from St. Stephens College, Delhi. Nirmal Verma was introduced to the field ofliterature by his mother and sister who helped make him a voracious reader. Back then he wasmost interested in European literature.Early LifeNirmal took up teaching after completing his Masters in Delhi, but his love for literature kepthim writing for various literary magazines. His first short story got published in a studentsmagazine in the early 1950s, bringing along some recognition. He then published his first bookof stories called Parinde in 1959 which was considered the first signature of the New Story(or "Nayi Kahani") movement of Hindi Literature. This was the first step Nirmal Verma took
141. towards the unmatched and glorious path he travelled. He was an activist from a very youngage and a card holder in the Communist Party of India. He, however, resigned in 1956 after theSoviet invasion of Hungary. Nirmal was invited by the Oriental Institute in Prague to initiate aprogram of translation. There, he studied Czech which helped him translate nine of the worldclassics to Hindi. He returned to India in 1968 after staying in Prague for around ten years.Career and WorkDuring the ten year stay at Prague, Nirmal Verma travelled extensively across Europe. It was aninterest in learning about and penning down socio-cultural situations in European nations thatinitiated his need to travel. The outcome of this travel came in the form of seven travelogueswhich also included Cheeron Par Chandni in 1962, Har Barish Mein in 1970, Dhund Se UthiDhun and also his first novel which was based on his days in Prague as a student, named VeDin in 1964. On his return from Prague Nirmal Vermas writings reflected his view on Indiantraditions, which were modern. His activist nature made him stand strong against theemergency called by Indira Gandhi in 1975-1977 and also made him an advocate of the Tibetanindependence movement. Verma also served as the chairperson of the "Nirala" creative writingchair in Bharat Bhavan, Bhopal from 1980-83. He was also the director of the Yashpal creativewriting chair located in Shimla from 1988-90.Nirmal Verma has to his name, five novels, eight short story collections and nine essays andtravelogue books that were translated to several European languages like English, Russian,German, Italian and French. Some of his renowned pieces include:Parinde (1959),Jalti Jhari (1965),Pichli Garmiyon Mein (1968),Beech Bahas Mein (1973),Meri Priya Kahanian (1973),Pratinidhi Kahaniyan (1988),Kavve aur Kala Pani (1983) andSookha aur Anya Kahaniyan (1995).Awards and MilestonesKavve Aur Kala Pani, Nirmal Vermas short story, won him the Sahitya Academy awardin 1985.He was also nominated for the Neustadt Award of the University of Oklahoma in theyear 1996.Maya Darpan, a film based on the life of Nirmal Verma, directed by Kumar Shahani in1972 won the Filmfare Critics Award for the Best Film.His book The Worlds Elsewhere was published by the Readers International in Londonin 1988, also where BBCs Channel Four telecasted a film on his life. Due to thecontributions of Verma to Indian Literature, he was awarded with the highest literaryaward of India, the Bharatiya Jnanpith Award in 1999. He was also awarded the
142. Padma Bhushan in the year 2002 and the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship in 2005 which isa lifetime achievement award.DeathThe world of Indian literature lost one of its most celebrated and renowned fiction writers,Nirmal Verma, at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi on 25th October, 2005 tonatural causes.Timeline1929 - Nirmal Verma was born.1950s - His first short story was published.1956 - He resigned from the Communist Party of India as a protest against Hungarys invasionby Russia.1959 - Parinde, his first book of stories was published.1959 - He was invited by the Oriental Institute, Prague.1959-1970 - Verma travelled extensively throughout Europe to study the continents socio-cultural setup.1962 - He wrote Cheeron Par Chandni.1964 - Ve Din was written by Verma.1970 - He wrote Har Barish Mein.1968 - He returned to India from Prague.1980-83 - Verma served as the Chairperson of the Nirala creative writing chair in Bhopal.1988-90 - He was made the Director of the Yashpal creative writing chair located in Shimla.1985 - He won the Sahitya Academy Award.1996 - He was nominated for the Neustadt Award.1999 - He was awarded the Bharatiya Jnanpith Award.2002 - He was awarded the Padma Bhushan.2005 - He was given the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship.2005 - Breathed his last in October at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences
143. Raghuvir SahayBorn: December 9, 1929, LucknowDied: 1990, DelhiRaghuvir Sahay was not only a famous poet of his time and agebut also a notable journalist, short story writer, editor,translator and social commentator whose works andachievements capture his quintessential spirit and commitmentto living life to its fullest.He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in the year 1984for his Hindi poetry collection, Log Bhool Gaye Hain (PeopleHave Forgotten - 1982). His other noted works are AtmahatyaKe Viruddh, Hanso Hanso Jaldi Hanso and Seedhiyon Par DhoopMein. He was also the chief editor of the prominent weeklyHindi newsletter Dinaman.Early LifeBorn in 1929, Raghuvir Sahay grew up during the period when India was struggling to freeherself from the reigns of the British Empire. The writers who inspired him in his formativeyears include Charles Dickens and other prominent Hindi writers like Munshi Premchand etc.His commitment to the society and his desire to bring about a change in the world around himinstigated Sahay to pick up the pen as his weapon of choice.CareerSahays commitment to reality and his loyalty to the literary world made him choose journalismas his profession. From being the sub-editor in the news division of the All India Radio to beinga special correspondent for Navabharat times and finally, as the chief editor of the Hindinewsweekly called Dinman for four decades, he made invaluable contribution to journalism.Believing in ideals and concepts such as poetry should be rooted in reality and be fully alert tothe social reality (Dusra Saptak, 1996), his political journalism, literary criticism, philosophicalshort stories, essays and poems carry a common thread that uncovers the magic of a commonmans everyday life. His vast and priceless contribution as a freedom writer, during 1972-90,continues to be appreciated till date.Contribution to Literature
144. Compassion and irony are the two words that describe Sahays poems and their emotionalspectrum overwhelms the readers. His verses are short but they encapsulate the oppressionand the reality of the common mans world. The ugliness of these hardships are not scentedor shown to the reader through rose-tainted glasses, rather the desire to live and the faith inlife as a whole, is the basic undercurrent flowing through all his works. His collection namedHanso hanso jaldi hanso (Laugh, Laugh, Laugh quickly) is a social mimicry and falls under thegenre of satire. We see the progress of Sahay from his lyrical couplets on love and nature tochronicles on pain and sufferings in his later works. A simple everyday vocabulary andstraightforward communicative tone are unique to all his poems - they help the common manunderstand the poets ideas. The colloquial and easy to understand language is chiselled to aperfection that only expert craftsmen like Raghuvir Sahay could have accomplished.With over ten books of poetries, essays, short stories, journalistic articles and translationalpieces written over a span of less than twenty years by the man, the compliment of an epochmaking poet or yugantarkari kavi is certainly not a misplaced one.Raghuvir Sahay was an active campaigner of the Hindustani language - a Hindi-Urdu synthesis -that preserved the heritage of the country. His 1982 poetry collection Log Bhool Gaye Hain(People Have Forgotten), which won him the Sahitya Akademi Award in the year 1984, focussedon the importance of this language.During 1988-1990, he chaired a committee of the Press Council of India to analyze the role ofthe press in the context of Mr. Advanis rath yatra - this yatra was one of the first steps that ledto the destruction of Babri Masjid and the ensuing anti-Muslim riots.LegacyTogether with Mohan Rakesh, Bhisham Sahni, Kamleshwar, Amarkant and others, RaghavirSahay was the co-founder of the Nayi Kahani (New short story) Movement in Hindi literature.He pioneered this movement and was thereby responsible for the revival of Hindi literature.A List of All His Works• Dusra Saptak (Collection Of Poems)• Siriyon Par Dhoop Mein (On The Sunlit Stairs)• Atmahatya ke virudh (Against Suicide)• Hanso Hanso Jaldi Hanso (Laugh, Laugh, Quickly Laugh)• Kuch Pattiyan Kuch chitthiyan (Some Letters)
145. • Ek Samaye Tha (Once Upon A Time)• Hindi• Cycle Rickshaw• Mera Ghar My Home (My House My Home)• Aanewala Khatra (Upcoming Danger)• Pool Ka Itihaas (History Of The Bridge)• Mujhe Kuch Aur Karna Tha (I Ought To Do Much)• Bache Raho (Survive)• Buddhijivi ka Vaktavya (Intellectual’s Statement)• A Sitar Concert• Kaimare Mein Apahij (The Handicapped on Camera)• Yathanh (Reality)• Your Thoughts• Aaj Fir (Today Anew)• Paani ke Sansmaran (Memories of Water)• Vasanth (Spring)• Maidan Mein (In The Field)• Seb Bechna (Selling apples)• Akeli Aurat (Woman Alone)• Manushya-Machli Yudh (War between men and fish)• Vyabharik Log (Practical People)• Foot (Rift)Collection of Short Stories• Rasta Idhar Se Hai (The Road Begins Here)• Jo Admi Hum Bana Rahe Hai (The Man We Are Giving Birth To)Collection of Essays
146. • Dilli Mera Pardes (Delhi Is My Foreign Land)• Likhne ka Karan (The Reason To Write)• Ube Hue Sukhi (Evaporated Happiness)• Ve Aur Nahin Honge Jo Mare Jayenge (Those Who Will Be Killed Will Be No More)• Bhavr Lehren Aur Tarang (Whirlpool, Currents And Waves)• Arthat (Meaning)TranslationsRaghuvir Sahay also translated various fictional stories, poetries and dramas from the localliteratures of Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia and England.Timeline1929: Born On December 9th in Lucknow.1950s: Co-founded the Nayi Kahani movement.1982: Wrote award winning Log Bhool Gaye.1984: Received the Sahitya Akademi Award for Log Bhool gaye.1988: From September 28th he chaired the Press Council of India till the time he passed away.1989: His works in Hindi were translated to English for a bigger audience.1990: He died on 30th December in Delhi.
147. Tarashankar BandopadhyayBorn: July 24, 1898, LabhpurDied: September 14, 1971, KolkataTarashankar Bandopadhyays name features in the famous trio ofBandopadhyays along with Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay andManik Bandopadhya. He is a universal favourite among Bengalireaders. There is a famous television series called ByomkeshBakshi based on a sleuths character created by TarashankarBandopadhyay and his murder mysteries are a favourite amongthe younger generation. Tarashankar was awarded the RabindraPuraskar, Sahitya Akademi Award, Jnanpith Award and thePadma Bhushan for his celebrated novels like Arogyaniketan,Dhatridebta, Kalindi, Panchagram, Ganadebata, Kabi, Raskali andHansulibaker Upakatha. One of the most important aspects of his writings was hisexperimentation of human relationships which brought out the truth restricted by theconservatism and hypocrisy of the then society.Early LifeTarashankar Bandopadhyay was born at Labpur, Birbhum district, West Bengal to HaridasBandyopadhyay and Prabhabati Debi. He cleared the Matriculation examination in 1916 andtook admission in the intermediate class at the prestigious St. Xaviers College, Calcutta. Whilestudying there, he joined the non-cooperation movement. He was jailed for a year in 1930, andafter his release in 1931, he devoted himself to literature and social work. He worked diligentlyamong the people of his village during natural calamities and epidemics. His love for the poorand the helpless is reflected in his short stories and novels. He defied social norms of thosetimes and mixed freely with the so-called lower classes of dom, bagdi, sadgop, and bauri. Hemarried Uma Shashi Debi and they had two sons Sanat and Sarit and two daughters who werenamed Ganga and Bani.CareerLike a whiff of fresh air, Tarashankar Bandopadhyay broke the poetic tradition in novels andwrote prose touching upon the lives of ordinary people and the relationships that they have.This shattered the indifference that surrounded the conservative society which believed inhypocrisy and covering up reality. The realism in Literature was substituted by indulging in
148. romance and unbiased writing became the norm of the time only during the third decade of thetwentieth century. Tarashankar Bandopadhyays works are like whiffs of fresh air as they do notreject the reality but look at the world with a new angle. From the rich and powerful Zamindarsto the lowest of them all, i.e. the pauper, Tarashanker Bandopadhyays protagonists are asvaried as his characterisations. Some of his works like Radha were scandalous mainly becauseof that age and time during which it was written. His thoughts were progressive and hebelieved that the physical relationship between a man and a woman can dominate, to anextent, the existing law and order that a society follows. He produced an enormous amount ofwork which is popular even today and much loved by his ardent fans and followers. Thistalented soul ventured into all the walks of Bengali life and reflected the vast panorama of lifein the backdrop of the socio-political milieu of that age. His works are remembered by hisdevoted readers because if his ability to portray a non-judgemental reflection of life, in general,with care and leaving the readers to form their own impressions.Contribution to LiteratureTarashankar was a versatile writer whose works include:Ganadevata,Jalsaghar,Abhijan,Raj Kamal,Bicharak,Kavi,Byomkesh Bakshi etc.His historical novel Ganna Begum is an attempt worth mentioning for its traditional values.The Jnanpith Award that Tarashankar Bandopadhyay won in 1967 was because of his novelGanadevata which revolves around the role of a schoolmaster trying to remove the tyranniesfrom his village.His novel Jalsaghar, immortalized in celluloid by Satyajit Ray, experiments with the naturaldecay of the feudal system and values which surround a Zamindari family that has fallen on badtimes. His masterpiece would be Abhijan which chronicles the exploits of a cab driver in asociety filled with hypocrites. Bicharak portrays the dilemma of a judge in passing his verdictfor a murder case and Kavi talks about the life of a gypsy poet who wanders around with agroup of dancers and prostitutes. Tarashanker Bandopadhyay also went onto lead the Indiandelegation of writers at the Asian Writers Conference in Tashkent in 1957. In 1970, he waselected the president of the Bangiya Sahitya Parishad. He was a member of the West BengalVidhan Parishad during the time 1952-60 and the Rajya Sabha for six years from 1960-66.
149. DeathTarashanker Bandopadhyay passed away on 14th September, 1981 at Ghatsila, West Bengal.LegacyHis detective story Byomkesh Bakshi is a popular Hindi television series which has a fanfollowing even till date. His book called Jalsaghar has been immortalised by the eminent filmmaker Satyajit Ray into an exceptional movie.Awards & AccoladesFor his novel Arogya Niketan, Tarashankar received the Rabindra Puraskar in 1955 andthe Sahitya Akademi Award in 1956.In 1966, he received the Jnanpith Award for his novel Ganadebata.He was honoured with the Padma Shri in 1962 and the Padma Bhushan in 1969.He also received the Sharat Smriti Puraskar and the Jagattarini Gold Medal from theCalcutta University.Timeline1898: Born on April 23th1916: Cleared Matriculation exam1952-1960: Member of Vidhan Parishad, West Bengal1955: Recieved the Rabindra Puraskar1956: Recieved the Sahitya Akademi Award1957: Led the delegation of Indian writers at Asian Writers Conference in Tashkent1960-1966: Member of the Rajya Sabha1962: Honoured with the Padma Shri by the Government of India1966: Recieved the Jnanpith Award1969: Honoured with the Padma Bhushan1970: Elected the president of the Bangiya Sahitya Parishad1981: Passed away on 14th September at Ghatsila, West Bengal.
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