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Great Personalities of India

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  • As I mentioned on an earlier slideshare PPT, the name of Vivek Pereira is conspicuous by its absence on these lists of great Indian writers. Is it because he writes from the heart and his works are thought provoking. Clearly, a prophet is not recognised in his own place and time. The greatness of Vivek s works can be gauged from the novel 'Indians in Pakistan.'
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  • 1. Maulana Abul Kalam AzadBorn: November 11, 1888, MeccaDied: February 22, 1958, DelhiMaulana Abul Kalam Azads real name was Abul Kalam GhulamMuhiyuddin. He was popularly known as Maulana Azad.Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was one of the foremost leaders ofIndian freedom struggle. He was also a renowned scholar, andpoet. Maulana Azad was well versed in many languages viz. Arabic,English, Urdu, Hindi, Persian and Bengali. Maulana Azad was abrilliant debater, as indicated by his name, Abul Kalam, whichliterally means "lord of dialogue".He adopted the pen name Azad as a mark of his mentalemancipation from a narrow view of religion and life.Following Indias independence, he became the first Minister of Education in the Indian government.Early Life:Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was born on November 11, 1888 in Mecca. His forefathers came from Herat(a city in Afghanistan) in Babars days. Azad was a descendent of a lineage of learned Muslim scholars, ormaulanas. His mother was an Arab and the daughter of Sheikh Mohammad Zaher Watri and his father,Maulana Khairuddin, was a Bengali Muslim of Afghan origins. Khairuddin left India during the SepoyMutiny and proceeded to Mecca and settled there. He came back to Calcutta with his family in 1890.Because of his orthodox family background Azad had to pursue traditional Islamic education. He wastaught at home, first by his father and later by appointed teachers who were eminent in their respectivefields. Azad learned Arabic and Persian first and then philosophy, geometry, mathematics and algebra.He also learnt English, world history, and politics through self study.An avid and determined student, the precocious Azad was running a library, a reading room, a debatingsociety before he was twelve, wanted to write on the life of Ghazali at twelve, was contributing learnedarticles to Makhzan (the best known literary magazine of the day) at fourteen,In fact, in the field of journalism, he was publishing a poetical journal (Nairang-e-Aalam) and wasalready an editor of a weekly (Al-Misbah), in 1900, at the age of twelve and, in 1903, brought out amonthly journal, Lissan-us-Sidq, which soon gained popularity.At the age of thirteen, he was married to a young Muslim girl, Zuleikha Begum.First Education Minister ofIndia
  • 2. Revolutionary & Journalist:On his return from abroad, Azad met two leading revolutionaries of Bengal- Aurobindo Ghosh and SriShyam Shundar Chakravarty,-and joined the revolutionary movement against British rule. Azad foundthat the revolutionary activities were restricted to Bengal and Bihar. Within two years Maulana AbulKalam Azad helped setup secret revolutionary centers all over north India and Bombay. During that timemost of his revolutionaries were anti-Muslim because they felt that the British Government was usingthe Muslim community against Indias freedom struggle. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad tried to convince hiscolleagues to shed their hostility towards Muslims.In 1912, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad started a weekly journal in Urdu called Al Hilal to increase therevolutionary recruits amongst the Muslims. Al-Hilal played an important role in forging Hindu-Muslimunity after the bad blood created between the two communities in the aftermath of Morley-Mintoreforms. Al Hilal became a revolutionary mouthpiece ventilating extremist views. The governmentregarded Al Hilal as propogator of secessionist views and banned it in 1914 under the Press Act.Maulana Azad then started another weekly called Al-Balagh with the same mission of propagatingIndian nationalism and revolutionary ideas based on Hindu-Muslim unity. In 1916, the governmentbanned this paper too under the Defence of India Regulations Act and expelled Maulana Abul KalamAzad from Calcutta and interned him at Ranchi from where he was released after the First World War in1920.Azad Decided the name of Muslim political party Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam. He was also a friend of SyedAta Ullah Shah Bukhari founder of All India Majlis-e-Ahrar. When Gandhi embarked on the Dandi SaltMarch that inaugurated the Salt Satyagraha in 1930, Azad organised and led the nationalist raid, albeitnon-violent on the Dharasana salt works in order to protest the salt tax and restriction of its productionand sale.After his release, Azad roused the Muslim community through the Khilafat Movement. The aim of themovement was to re-instate the Khalifa as the head of British captured Turkey. Maulana Azad supportedNon-Cooperation Movement started by Gandhiji and entered Indian National Congress in 1920.He was elected as the president of the special session of the Congress in Delhi (1923).In 1923, at an age of 35, he became the youngest person to serve as the President of the IndianNational Congress.Maulana Azad was again arrested in 1930 for violation of the salt laws as part of Gandhijis SaltSatyagraha. He was put in Meerut jail for a year and a half.As the Muslim League adopted a resolution calling for a separate Muslim state in its session in Lahore in1940, Azad was elected Congress President in its session in Ramgarh and remained in the post till 1946.Azad occupied the time playing bridge and acting as the referee in tennis matches played by hiscolleagues. In the afternoons, Azad began working on his classic Urdu work, the Ghubhar-i-Khatir.
  • 3. Partition of India:With the end of the war, the British agreed to transfer power to Indian hands. All political prisonerswere released in 1946 and Azad led the Congress in the elections for the new Constituent Assembly ofIndia, which would draft Indias constitution. He headed the delegation to negotiate with the BritishCabinet Mission, in his sixth year as Congress President. While attacking Jinnahs demandfor Pakistan and the missions proposal of 16 June 1946 that envisaged the partition of India, Azadbecame a strong proponent of the missions earlier proposal of 16 May.Jawaharlal Nehru replaced Azad as Congress President and led the Congress into the interimgovernment. Azad was appointed to head the Department of Education.However, Jinnahs Direct Action Day agitation for Pakistan, launched on 16 August sparked communalviolence across India. Thousands of people were killed as Azad travelled across Bengal and Bihar to calmthe tensions and heal relations between Muslims and Hindus. Despite Azads call for Hindu-Muslimunity, Jinnahs popularity amongst Muslims soared and the League entered a coalition with the Congressin December, but continued to boycott the constituent assembly.Azad had grown increasingly hostile to Jinnah, who had described him as the "Muslim Lord Haw-Haw"and a "Congress Show boy."Post Independence:Indias partition and independence on 15 August 1947 brought with it a scourge of violence that sweptthe Punjab, Bengal, Bihar, Delhi and many other parts of India. Millions of Hindus and Sikhs fled thenewly created Pakistan for India, and millions of Muslims fled forWest Pakistan and East Pakistan,created out of East Bengal. Violence claimed the lives of an estimated one million people.Focusing on bringing the capital of Delhi back to peace, Azad organised security and relief efforts, butwas drawn into a dispute with the Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patelwhen he demanded the dismissal of Delhis police commissioner, who was a Sikh accused by Muslims ofoverlooking attacks and neglecting their safety.Elected to the lower house of the Indian Parliament, the Lok Sabha in 1952 and again in 1957Azad supported Nehrus socialist economic and industrial policies, as well as the advancing social rightsand economic opportunities for women and underprivileged Indians.In 1956, he served as president of the UNESCO General Conference held in Delhi.Azad spent the final years of his life focusing on writing his book India Wins Freedom, an exhaustiveaccount of Indias freedom struggle and its leaders, which was published in 1957.Maulana Abul Kalam Azad served as the Minister of Education in Pandit Jawaharlal Nehrus cabinetfrom 1947 to 1958.
  • 4. He oversaw the setting up of the Central Institute of Education, Delhi which later became theDepartment of Education of the University of Delhi as “a research centre for solving new educationalproblems of the country”.Under his leadership, the Ministry of Education established the first Indian Institute of Technology in1951 and the University Grants Commission in 1953., He also laid emphasis on the development ofthe Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and the Faculty of Technology of the Delhi University. Heforesaw a great future in the IITs for India:Jawaharlal Nehru referred to him as:Mir-i- Karawan (the caravan leader), “a very brave and gallant gentleman,a finished product of the culture that, in these days, pertains to few”Mahatma Gandhi remarked him as:“The Emperor of Learning”Counting him as:“A person of the caliber of Plato, Aristotle and Pythagoras”His Birthday, 11 November is celebrated as National Education Day in India.He died of a stroke on February 22, 1958.For his invaluable contribution to the nation, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was posthumously awardedIndias highest civilian honour, Bharat Ratna in 1992.
  • 5. Mahatma GandhijiBorn: October 2, 1869, PorbandarAssassinated: January 30, 1948, Birla HouseAchievements: Known as Father of Nation; played a key role inwinning freedom for India; introduced the concept of Ahimsa andSatyagraha.He was born in his ancestral home, now known as Kirti Mandir. Hisfather, Karamchand Gandhi (1822–1885), who belonged tothe HinduModh community, served as the diwan (chief minister)of Porbander state, a small princely state in the KathiawarAgency of British India.His mother, Putlibai, who came from the Pranami Vaishnava community, was Karamchands fourth wife,the first three wives having apparently died in childbirth.He was the Youngest of the three sons and was the last child of Putlibai and Karamchand Gandhi.The Names of the two elder brothers of Mahatma Gandhi are: Laxmidas & Karsandas.In May 1883, the 13-year-old Mohandas was married to 14-year-old Kasturbai Makhanji (her first namewas usually shortened to "Kasturba", and affectionately to "Baa") in an arranged child marriage,according to the custom of the region.In 1885, when Gandhi was 15, the couples first child was born, but survived only a few days. Gandhisfather, Karamchand Gandhi, had also died earlier that year.Mohandas and Kasturba had four more children, all sons: Harilal, born in 1888; Manilal, born in1892; Ramdas, born in 1897; and Devdas, born in 1900.After completing his college education, at his familys insistence Gandhi left for England on September 4,1888 to study law at University College, London. During his tenure in London, Mohandas Gandhi strictlyobserved abstinence from meat and alcohol as per his mothers wishes.Gandhiji completed his Law degree in 1891 and returned to India. He decided to set up legal practice inBombay but couldnt establish himself. Gandhiji returned to Rajkot but here also he could not makemuch headway. At this time Gandhiji received an offer from Dada Abdulla & Co. to proceed to SouthAfrica on their behalf to instruct their counsel in a lawsuit. Gandhiji jumped at the idea and sailed forSouth Africa in April 1893.Father of the Nation
  • 6. Civil Rights Movements In South Africa (1893 - 1914):Gandhi spent 21 years in South Africa, where he developedhis political views, ethics and political leadership skills.It was in South Africa that Gandhijis transformation fromMohandas to Mahatma took place. Gandhiji landed atDurban and soon he realized the oppressive atmosphere ofracial snobbishness against Indians who were settled inSouth Africa in large numbers.After about a week stay in Durban Gandhiji left for Pretoria, the capital of the Transvaal, in connectionwith a lawsuit. When the train reached Pietermaritzburg, the capital of Natal, at about 9 p.m. a whitepassenger who boarded the train objected to the presence of a "coloured" man in the compartment andGandhiji was ordered by a railway official to shift to a third class. When he refused to do so, a constablepushed him out and his luggage was taken away by the railway authorities.It was winter and bitterly cold. This incident changed Gandhijis life forever. He decided to fight for therights of Indians. Gandhiji organised the Indian community in South Africa and asked them to forget alldistinctions of religion and caste.He helped found the Natal Indian Congress in 1894, and through this organisation, he moulded theIndian community of South Africa into a unified political force. In January 1897, when Gandhi landed inDurban, a mob of white settlers attacked him and he escaped only through the efforts of the wife of thepolice superintendent. He, however, refused to press charges against any member of the mob, stating itwas one of his principles not to seek redress for a personal wrong in a court of law.Satyagraha:In 1906, the Transvaal government promulgated a new Act compelling registration of the colonysIndian population. At a mass protest meeting held in Johannesburg on 11 September that year, Gandhiadopted his still evolving methodology of Satyagraha (holding fast to truth or firmness in a righteouscause), or non-violent protest, for the first time. He urged Indians to defy the new law and to suffer thepunishments for doing so.The community adopted this plan, and during the ensuing seven-year struggle, thousands of Indianswere jailed, flogged, or shot for striking, refusing to register, for burning their registration cards orengaging in other forms of non-violent resistance. The government successfully repressed the Indianprotesters, but the public outcry over the harsh treatment of peaceful Indian protesters by the SouthAfrican government forced South African leader Jan Christiaan Smuts, himself a philosopher, tonegotiate a compromise with Gandhi. Gandhis ideas took shape and the concept of Satyagraha maturedduring this struggle.
  • 7. Struggle for Indian Independence (1915 - 1947):In 1915, Gandhi returned to India permanently.He joined the Indian National Congress and and on the advice of his political guru Gopal KrishnaGokhale, spent the first year touring throughout the country to know the real India.After a year of wandering, Gandhiji settled down on the bank of the river Sabarmati, on the outskirts ofAhmedabad, where he founded an ashram called Satyagraha Ashram.Gandhijis first satyagraha in India was in Champaran, in Bihar, where he went in 1917 at the request ofa poor peasants to inquire into the grievances of the much exploited peasants of that district, who werecompelled by British indigo planters to grow indigo on 15 percent of their land and part with the wholecrop for rent. Gandhijis Satyagraha forced British government to set up a inquiry into the condition oftenant farmers. The report of the committee of which Gandhi was a member went in favor of the tenantfarmers. The success of his first experiment in Satyagraha in India greatly enhanced Gandhijisreputation in the country.In 1918, Kheda (It is a town in the kheda district of Gujarat) was hit by floods and famine and thepeasantry was demanding relief from taxes. Gandhi moved his headquarters to Nadiad, organisingscores of supporters and fresh volunteers from the region, the most notable being Vallabhbhai Patel.For five months, the administration refused but finally in end-May 1918, the Government gave way onimportant provisions and relaxed the conditions of payment of revenue tax until the famine ended.Non-cooperation movement:In 1921, Gandhiji gave the call for Non-cooperation movement against the ills (Jallianwala BaghMassacre Incident) of British rule. Gandhijis call roused the sleeping nation. Many Indians renouncedtheir titles and honours, lawyers gave up their practice, and students left colleges and schools. Non-cooperation movement also brought women into the domain of freedom struggle for the first time.Non-cooperation movement severely jolted the British government.But the movement ended in an anti-climax in February 1922. An outbreak of mob violence in ChauriChaura so shocked and pained Gandhi that he refused to continue the campaign and undertook a fastfor five days to atone for a crime committed by others in a state of mob hysteria.Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years imprisonment. Hebegan his sentence on 18 March 1922. He was released in February 1924 for an appendicitis operation,having served only 2 years.He became the president of INC in the year in Belgaum session 1924.For the next five years Gandhi seemingly retired from active agitational politics and devoted himself tothe propagation of what he regarded as the basic national needs, namely, Hindu-Muslim unity, removal
  • 8. of untouchability, equality of women, popularization of hand-spinning and the reconstruction of villageeconomy.Salt Satyagraha / Dandhi March:On March 12, 1930 Gandhiji started the historic Dandi March to break the law which had deprived thepoor man of his right to make his own salt and to protest against the salt tax.This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April, where he marched388 kilometres (241 mi) from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself.On April 6, 1930 Gandhiji broke the Salt law at the sea beach at Dandi. This simple act was immediatelyfollowed by a nation-wide defiance of the law. This movement galvanized the whole nation and came tobe known as "Civil Disobedience Movement". Within a few weeks about a hundred thousand men andwomen were in jail, throwing mighty machinery of the British Government out of gear. This forced thethen Viceroy Lord Irwin to call Gandhiji for talks.On March 5, 1931 Gandhi Irwin Pact was signed. Soon after signing the pact Gandhiji went to England toattend the First Round Table Conference. Soon after his return from England Gandhiji was arrestedwithout trial.Gandhi Irwin Pact:The Gandhi–Irwin Pact was a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and thethen Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5 March 1931 before the second Round TableConference in London.As per the pact, the British Government agreed to free all political prisoners, in return for thesuspension of the civil disobedience movement and INC was also invited in the Round TableConference.Lord Irwins successor, Lord Willingdon, taking a hard line against nationalism, began a newcampaign of controlling and subduing the nationalist movement. Gandhi was again arrested, andthe government tried and failed to negate his influence by completely isolating him from hisfollowers.Gandhi returned to active politics again in 1936, with the Nehru presidency and the Lucknow session ofthe Congress.Gandhi had a clash with Subhas Chandra Bose, who had been elected president in 1938, and who hadpreviously expressed a lack of faith in non-violence as a means of protest. Despite Gandhis opposition,Bose won a second term as Congress President, against Gandhis nominee, Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya.Gandhi declared that Sitaramayyas defeat was his defeat.
  • 9. Quit India Movement:As the Second World War progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling forthe British to Quit India in a speech at Gowalia Tank Maidan on August 8, 1942.It was a call for immediate independence of India and the slogan of "Do or Die" was adopted forthe same.Soon the British Government arrested Gandhiji and other top leaders of Congress. Disorders brokeout immediately all over India and many violent demonstrations took place. While Gandhiji was injail his wife Kasturbai passed away. Gandhiji too had a severe attack of Malaria. In view of hisdeteriorating health he was released from the jail in May 1944.Second World War ended in 1945 and Britain emerged victorious.In the general elections held in Britain in 1945, Labour Party came to power, and Atlee became thePrime Minister. He promised an early realization of self Government in India.A Cabinet Mission arrived from England to discuss with Indian leaders the future shape of a free andunited India, but failed to bring the Congress and Muslims together. India attained independence butJinnahs intransigence resulted in the partition of the country. Communal riots between Hindus andMuslims broke out in the country in the aftermath of partition. Tales of atrocities on Hindus in Pakistanprovoked Hindus in India and they targeted Muslims.This angered some Hindu fundamentalists and on January 30, 1948 Gandhiji was shot dead by one suchfundamentalist Nathu Ram Godse while he was going for his evening prayers. The last words uttered byGandhiji were “Hey Ram”.The eminent writer and Nobel Laureate “George Bernard Shaw” remarked on Gandhi’s assassinationwith the comment:“It shows how dangerous it is to be too good”He always referred “Ahimsa and Truth” as his two lungs.The Oscar winner CHARLIE CHAPLIN for best score for “Limelight” had a memorable meeting withMahatma Gandhi In 1931.The farm gifted by the German Jew Hermann Kallenbach is named after the author LEO TOLSTOY ByGandhiji as “LEO TOLSTOY farm”Mahatma Gandhi adopted his Iconic loin cloth attire in the Madurai city.Most of the Ashes of Gandhiji were immersed at the Sangam at Allahabad on 12 February 1948, butsome were secretly taken away.He adopted the moderate Gokhale as his political guru.
  • 10. The date of the Mahatma return to India in Jan 9, 1915, is now observed as “PRAVASI BHARATIYADIVAS” (NRI DAY)His chief political enemy in Britain was Winston Churchill,who ridiculed him as a "half-naked fakir."His Birthday October 2 is commemorated as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and world-wide asthe International Day of Non-Violence.Gandhis date of death, 30 January, is commemorated as a Martyrs Day in India.In India he was also called Bapu ("Father").He is known in India as the Father of the Nation, which is first referred to him as such by famousfreedom fighter “Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose”There are two temples in India dedicated to Gandhi. One is located at Sambalpur in Orissa and the otherat Nidaghatta village near Kadur in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka.Literary Works:Gandhi was a prolific writer. One of Gandhis earliest publications, Hind Swaraj, published in Gujarati in1909, is recognized as the intellectual blueprint of Indias freedom movement. The book was translatedinto English the next year, with a copyright legend that read "No Rights Reserved".News Papers:For decades he edited several newspapers including Harijan in Gujarati, in Hindi and in the Englishlanguage; Indian Opinion while in South Africa.Young India, a weekly journal published in English by Mahatma Gandhi from 1919 to 1932.Navajivan, a Gujarati monthly, on his return to India. Later, Navajivan was also published in Hindi.Books by Mahatma:1. The Story of My Experiments with Truth (His autobiography)2. Satyagraha in South Africa (about his struggle there)3. Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule, a political pamphlet4. Gandhi translated "Unto This Last" (a book by John Ruskin) into Gujarati in 1908 under the titleof "Sarvodaya" ("well being of all"). Valji Govindji Desai translated it back to English in 1951under the title of "Unto This Last: A Paraphrase".Gandhis complete works were published by the Indian government under the name The CollectedWorks of Mahatma Gandhi in the 1960s. The writings comprise about 50,000 pages published in abouta hundred volumes. In 2000, a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as itconstituted large number of errors and omissions. The Indian government later withdrew the revisededition.
  • 11. The word Mahatma, while often mistaken for Gandhis given name in the West, is taken fromthe Sanskrit words maha (meaning Great) and atma (meaning Soul).Rabindranath Tagore is said to have accorded the title “Mahatma” to Gandhi. In his autobiography,Gandhi nevertheless explains that he never valued the title, and was often pained by it.In Europe, Romain Rolland was the first to discuss Gandhi in his 1924 book Mahatma Gandhi, andBrazilian anarchist and feminist Maria Lacerda de Moura wrote about Gandhi in her work on pacifism.In 1931, notable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and calledhim:“A role model for the generations to come”in a later writing about himAlbert Einstein commented on Gandhi’s assassination:“Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as (Gandhi) ever in fleshand blood walked upon this earth”Lanza del Vasto went to India in 1936 intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe tospread Gandhis philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in 1948 (modeled after Gandhisashrams).Madeleine Slade (known as "Mirabehn") was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of heradult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi.Time Magazine named The 14th Dalai Lama, Lech Wałęsa, Martin Luther King, Cesar Chavez, Aung SanSuu Kyi, Benigno Aquino, Jr.Desmond Tutu, and Nelson Mandela as Children of Gandhi and his spiritualheirs to non-violence.The Mahatma Gandhi District in Houston, Texas, United States, an ethnic Indian enclave, is officiallynamed after Gandhi.Jamnalal Bajaj, the Industrialist is known to be the adopted son of Mahatma Gandhi.Global Holidays:In 2007, the United Nations General Assembly declared Gandhis birthday 2 October as“the International Day of Non-Violence”."First proposed by UNESCO in 1948, as the School Day of Non-violence and Peace (DENIP in Spanish), 30January of every year is observed the School Day of Non-violence and Peace in schools of manycountries, In countries with a Southern Hemisphere school calendar, it is observed on 30 March.
  • 12. Awards:1. Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in 1930.2. He was awarded the “Kaiser-i-Hind Gold Medal” for his contribution to ambulance services inSouth Africa in 1915.3. Gandhi was also the runner-up to Albert Einstein as "Person of the Century” at the end of 1999.4. The Government of India awards the annual Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers,world leaders and citizens. Nelson Mandela, the leader of South Africas struggle to eradicateracial discrimination and segregation, is a prominent non-Indian recipient.5. In 2011, Time magazine named Gandhi as one of the top 25 political icons of all time for theDANDHI MARCH.6. Gandhi did not receive the Nobel Peace Prize, although he was nominated five times between1937 and 1948, including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee,though he made the short list only twice, in 1937 and 1947.7. Gandhi was nominated in 1948 but was assassinated before nominations closed. That year, thecommittee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable livingcandidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously toGandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi.8. When the 14th Dalai Lama was awarded the Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee saidthat this was:"In part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi"Film & Literature:1. Ben Kingsley portrayed Gandhi in the 1982 film Gandhi, which won the Academy Award forBest Picture.Directed by Richard AttenboroughTag line His Triumph changed the world foreverProduced by Richard AttenboroughScreen play John BrileyStarring (Role of Gandhi) Bens KingsleyMusic by Ravi Shankar & George FentonCinematography Billy Williams & Ronnie TaylorEditing by John BloomStudio Goldcrest FilmsDistributed by Colombia PicturesRunning time 191 MinutesTotal Academy Awards & nominated for 8, 3 moreBest Costume Design Award Bhanu Athaiya
  • 13. 2. The 1996 film, The Making of the Mahatma, documents Gandhis time in South Africa and histransformation from an inexperienced barrister to recognised political leader. The film is basedupon the book, The Apprenticeship of a Mahatma, by Fatima Meer (who also wrote thescreenplay).Directed by Shyam BenegalWritten by Fatima MeerStarring Rajit KapurRunning time 144 minNational film Awards1. Best Actor2. Best Feature Film In English2Rajit Kapur as GandhiRole of Gandhi Rajit Kapur3. Gandhi is also a central figure in the 2006 Bollywood comedy Lage Raho Munna Bhai.Directed by Rajkumar HiraniProduced by Vidhu Vinod ChopraMusic by Shantanu MoitraCinematography C.K.MuraleedharanEditing by Rajkumar HiraniRunning time 144 minScreenplayby Rajkumar Hirani, Abhijat JoshiStory by Rajkumar Hirani, Vidhu Vinod ChopraNOTE Lage Raho Munna Bhai is the first Hindi film to be shown at the United NationsThe Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, praised the film, stating that it "capturesBapus message about the power of truth and humanism."Role of Gandhi Dilip Prabhavalkar4. The 2007 film, Gandhi, My Father explores the relationship between Gandhi and his son Harilal.Directed & Written by Feroz Abbas Khan (Chandulal dalal book & Neelamben Parikh book)Produced by Anil KapoorMusic by Piyush KanojiaCinematography David McDonaldEditing by A. Sreekar PrasadRunning time 136 minStarring (Role of Gandhi) Darshan JariwalaRole of Kasturba Gandhi Shefali shahRole of Gulab Gandhi Bhumika ChawlaRole of Kasturba Gandhi Rohini HattangadiRole of Nathuram Godse Harsh NayyarRole of Moulana Azad Virendra RazdanRole of Acharya Kripalani Anang Desai
  • 14. Role of Harilal Gandhi Akshaye KhannaRole of Kanti Gandhi Vinay jainNational Film Awards1. Special Jury Award2. Best Supporting Actor3. Best Screenplay3Feroz Abbas Khan & Anil KapoorDarshan JariwalaFeroz Abbas Khan5. The 2000 film, Hey ram explores India’s Partition and His Assassination. The film was chosenas Indias official entry to the Oscars to be considered for nomination in the Best ForeignFilm category for the year 2000.Directed by Kamal HaasanProduced by Kamal HaasanMusic by IlaiyaraajaCinematography TirruEditing by Renu SalujaRunning time 202 min (Tamil version), 199 min (Hindi ver)ScreenplaybyStory by Kamal Haasan, Manohar Shyam JoshiRole of Gandhi Naseeruddin ShahRole of Amjad Ali Khan Shahrukh khanRole of Saket Ram Kamal HaasanSeveral biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhis life.Among them are: D. G. Tendulkar with his Mahatma, Life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in eightvolumes, Pyarelal and Sushila Nayyar with their Mahatma Gandhi in 10 volumes.There is also another documentary, titled Mahatma: Life of Gandhi, 1869–1948, which are 14 chaptersand 6 hours long.The April 2010 biography, Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle with India by JosephLelyveld contained controversial material speculating about Gandhis sexual life. Because of thismaterial, the book was banned in the Indian state of Gujarat, Gandhis birthplace. Lelyveld, however,stated that the press coverage "grossly distort[s]" the overall message of the book."An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind."– Mahatma Gandhi
  • 15. Pandit Jawaharlal NehruBorn: November 14, 1889, AllahabadDied: May 27, 1964, New DelhiJawaharlal Nehru often referred to as Panditji is the first PrimeMinister of independent India.Nehru was elected by the Indian National Congress to assumeoffice as independent Indias first Prime Minister in 1947, and re-elected when the Congress party won Indias first general electionin 1951.He became Congress President under the mentorship of MohandasKaramchand Gandhi.He was the father of Indira Gandhi and the maternal grandfatherof Rajiv Gandhi, who were to later serve as the third and sixth PrimeMinisters of India, respectively.He is said to be the architect, the maker of modern India.His birthday, November 14, is celebrated in India as Baal Divas ("Childrens Day") in recognition of hislifelong passion and work on behalf of children and young people.Early Life & Career:Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India.His father, Motilal Nehru (1861-1931), a wealthy barrister served twice as President of the IndianNational Congress during the Independence Struggle.His mother, Swaruprani Thussu (1868-1938), who came from a well–known Kashmiri Brahmin familysettled in Lahore,was Motilals second wife, the first having died in child birth.Jawaharlal was the eldest of three children, two of whom were girls. The elder sister, Vijaya Lakshmi,later became the first female president of the United Nations General Assembly. The youngestsister, Krishna Hutheesing, became a noted writer and authored several books on her brother.He grew up in a wealthy atmosphere at an estate called the “Anand Bhavan (Now Swaraj Bhavan)” wasowned by the Indian leader Motilal Nehru where the future prime minister of India Indira Gandhi wasborn there… but Pandit Nehru was not born there.First Prime Minister ofIndia
  • 16. Swaraj Bhawan originally belonged to Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, the 19th century Muslim leader andeducationist.It was donated by Motilal Nehru to the Indian National Congress in 1930, to serve as the partys officialheadquarters in the region.The Nehrus built another house next to the old one and named that Anand Bhavan (lit. Abode ofhappiness); the old house was renamed Swaraj Bhavan (lit. Abode of freedom).Some sources claim that the name Anand Bhawan was coined by the poet Akbar Allahabadi translationof Sir Syeds house “Ishrat Manzil”Indira Gandhi, India’s former Prime Minister, donated Anand Bhawan to the nation in 1970 and turned itinto a museum housing the books and memorabilia of her father and grandfather.He did his schooling from Harrow and Nehru went to Trinity College, Cambridge in October 1907 andgraduated with an honours degree in natural science in 1910.After completing his degree in 1910, Nehru went to London and stayed there for two years for lawstudies at the Inns of Court School of Law (Inner Temple).After returning to India in August 1912, Nehru enrolled himself as an advocate of the Allahabad HighCourt and tried to settle down as a barrister.He married Kamala Nehru in 1916 and the following year saw the birth of their only child IndiraPriyadarshini (Indira Gandhi).Struggle for Indian Independence (1912-1947):Anti-moderate leaders such as Annie Beasant and Lokmanya Tilak took the opportunity to call fora national movement for Home Rule. But, in 1915, the proposal was rejected due to the reluctance ofthe moderates to commit to such a radical course of action. Besant nevertheless formed a league foradvocating Home Rule in 1916; and Tilak, on his release from a prison term, had in April 1916 formed hisown league. Jawahar Lal Nehru joined Home Rule League in 1917.His real initiation into politics came two years later when he came in contact with Mahatma Gandhi in1919. At that time Mahatma Gandhi had launched a campaign against Rowlatt Act. Nehru was instantlyattracted to Gandhis commitment for active but peaceful, civil disobedience. Gandhi himself sawpromise and Indias future in the young Jawaharlal Nehru.Political Apprenticeship:Nehru first met Gandhi in 1916, at the Lucknow session of the Congress. It was to be the beginning of alifelong partnership between the two, which lasted until the Gandhis death. Nehru quickly rose toprominence under the mentorship of Gandhi. By late 1921, he had already became one of the mostprominent leaders of the Congress.
  • 17. Nehru family changed its family according to Mahatma Gandhis teachings. Jawaharlal and Motilal Nehruabandoned western clothes and tastes for expensive possessions and pastimes. They now wore a KhadiKurta and Gandhi cap.Jawaharlal Nehru took active part in the Non- Cooperation Movement 1920-1922 and was arrested forthe first time during the movement. He was released after few months.He was elected general secretary of the Congress party for two terms in the 1920s. His first term beganwith the Kakinada session of the Congress in 1923.Nehru co-operated with Dr. N.S. Hardiker in founding the Hindustani Seva Dal in 1923.Nehru was elected chairman of the Allahabad Municipal Board in 1923.Nehrus second term as general secretary began with the Madras session of the Congress in 1927.In December 1929, Congresss annual session was held in Lahore and Jawaharlal Nehru was elected asthe President of the Congress Party. During that session a resolution demanding Indias independencewas passed and on January 26, 1930 in Lahore, Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled free Indias flag. Gandhiji gavea call for Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. The movement was a great success and forced BritishGovernment to acknowledge the need for major political reforms.When the British promulgated the Government of India Act 1935, the Congress Party decided to contestelections. Nehru stayed out of the elections, but campaigned vigorously nationwide for the party. TheCongress formed governments in almost every province, and won the largest number of seats in theCentral Assembly. Nehru was elected to the Congress presidency in 1936, 1937, and 1946, and came tooccupy a position in the nationalist movement second only to that of Gandhi. Jawaharlal Nehru wasarrested in 1942 during Quit India Movement. Released in 1945, he took a leading part in thenegotiations that culminated in the emergence of the dominions of India and Pakistan in August 1947.World War IIAt the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, British viceroy Lord Linlithgow committed India tothe war effort without consulting the now-autonomous provincial ministries. In response, the CongressParty withdrew its representatives from the provinces and Gandhi staged a limited civil disobediencemovement in which he and Nehru were jailed yet again.Nehru spent a little over a year in jail and was released with other Congress prisoners three days beforePearl Harbor was bombed by the Japanese. When Japanese troops soon moved near the borders ofIndia in the spring of 1942, the British government decided to enlist India to combat this new threat, butGandhi, who still essentially had the reins of the movement, would accept nothing less thanindependence and called on the British to leave India. Nehru reluctantly joined Gandhi in his hardlinestance and the pair were again arrested and jailed, this time for nearly three years.By 1947, within two years of Nehrus release, simmering animosity had reached a fever pitch betweenthe Congress Party and the Muslim League, who had always wanted more power in a free India. The lastBritish viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, was charged with finalizing the British roadmap for withdrawal with
  • 18. a plan for a unified India. Despite his reservations, Nehru acquiesced to Mountbatten and the MuslimLeagues plan to divide India, and in August 1947, Pakistan was created—the new country Muslim andIndia predominantly Hindu. The British withdrew and Nehru became independent India’s first primeminister.Prime Minister of India (1947-1964):Once elected, Nehru headed an interim government, which was impaired by outbreaks of communalviolence and political disorder, and the opposition of the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah,who were demanding a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. After failed bids to form coalitions, Nehrureluctantly supported the partition of India, according to a plan released by the British on 3 June 1947.He took office as the Prime Minister of India on 15 August, and delivered his inaugural address titled:“A Tryst with Destiny”Lord Mountbatten swears in Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as the first Prime Minister of free India at theceremony held at 8:30 am IST on 15 August 1947.Creating the Planning commission of India, Nehru drew up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, whichcharted the governments investments in industries and agriculture. Increasing business and incometaxes, Nehru envisaged a mixed economy in which the government would manage strategic industriessuch as mining, electricity and heavy industries, serving public interest and a check to private enterprise.In December 1953, Nehru appointed the States Reorganization Commission to prepare for the creationof states on linguistic lines. This was headed by Justice Fazal Ali and the commission itself was alsoknown as the Fazal Ali Commission.The efforts of this commission were overseen by Govind Ballabh Pant, who served as Nehrus HomeMinister from December 1954.On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the UnitedNations. He pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement ofnations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.Nehru envisioned the developing of nuclear weapons and established the Atomic Energy Commission ofIndia (AEC) in 1948. Nehru also called Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, a nuclear physicist, who was entrusted withcomplete authority over all nuclear related affairs and programs and answered only to Nehru himself.Nehru famously said to Bhabha:"Professor Bhabha take care of Physics, leave internationalrelation to me".Nehru ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah in 1953, whom he had previouslysupported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions; Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replacedhim.
  • 19. In 1954 Nehru signed with China the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, known in India as thePanchsheel (from the Sanskrit words, panch: five, sheel: virtues), a set of principles to govern relationsbetween the two states.In 1957, Menon was instructed to deliver an unprecedented eight-hour speech defending India’s standon Kashmir; to date, the speech is the longest ever delivered in the United Nations Security Council,covering five hours of the 762nd meeting on the 23 of January, and two hours and forty-eight minuteson the 24th, reportedly concluding with Menons collapse on the Security Council floor.Krishna Menon, routinely referred to by western publications as "Nehrus Evil Genius".He was described as the second most powerful man in India by Time magazine and others.Nehru accepted the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, signing the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 withPakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the majorrivers of the Punjab region.Although the Pancha Sila (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence) was the basis of the 1954 Sino-Indianborder treaty, in later years, Nehrus foreign policy suffered through increasing Chinese assertivenessover border disputes and Nehrus decision to grant political asylum to the 14th Dalai Lama. After yearsof failed negotiations, Nehru authorized the Indian Army to liberate Goa in 1961 from Portugueseoccupation, and then he formally annexed it to India.Nehrus health began declining steadily after 1962, and he spent months recuperating in Kashmirthrough 1963.Upon his return from Kashmir in 27 May 1964, Nehru suffered a stroke and later a heart attack and died.Two years later Nehrus daughter, Indira Gandhi, became prime minister. With an interruption of onlythree years, she held the post until her assassination in 1984. Her son Rajiv was prime minister of Indiafrom 1984 to 1989, but he too was assassinated.Nehru was cremated in accordance with Hindu rites at the Shantivana on the banks of the YamunaRiver,During his prime minister term (15/8/1947 – 27/05/1964), Monarch was George VI (until 26 January1950).President Rajendra Prasad and Vice President S. Radhakrishnan Governor general C.Rajagopalachari(until 26/01/1950).Deputy PM was Sardar Vallabhai Patel, Succeeding PM was Gulzarilal Nanda (Acting).Indian newspapers repeated Nehrus own words of the time of Gandhis assassination:"The light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere."
  • 20. In 1955 Nehru was awarded Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian honour.Films on Him:1. The canonical performance is probably that of Roshan Seth, who played him three times:in Richard Attenboroughs 1982 film Gandhi, Shyam Benegals 1988 television series Bharat EkKhoj (53 episodes), based on Nehrus The Discovery of India, and in a 2007 TV film entitled TheLast Days of the Raj.2. In Ketan Mehtas film Sardar, Nehru was portrayed by Benjamin Gilani.Written by Vijay TendulkarRole of Sardar Patel Paresh RawalRole of Mahatma Gandhi Annu KapoorRole of Jawaharlal Nehru Benjamin gilaniRole of Mohd Ali Jinnah Sri vallabh vyasRole of H.M. Patel H.M patel himselfRole of Lord Mountbatten of Burma Tom Alter3. Girish Karnads historical play, Tughlaq (1962) is an allegory about the Nehruvian era. It wasstaged by Ebrahim Alkazi with National School of Drama Repertory at Purana Qila, Delhi in 1970sand later at the Festival of India, London in 1982.Writings:1. Discovery of India2. Glimpses of World history3. Toward Freedom (his autobiography)
  • 21. Muhammad Ali JinnahBorn: December 25, 1876, KarachiDied: September 11, 1948, KarachiMuhammad Ali Jinnah was born December 25, 1876, in Karachi,Pakistan. In 1906 he joined the Indian National Congress. Seven yearslater, he joined the India Muslim League. The independent state ofPakistan that Jinnah had envisioned came to be on August 14, 1947.The following day, he was sworn in as Pakistan’s first governor-general. On September 11, 1948, he died near Karachi, Pakistan.He is known as the Founder of Pakistan.He is revered in Pakistan as Quaid-i-Azam (Great Leader) and Baba-i-Qaum (Father of the Nation) and his birthday is observed asa national holiday.Early LifeMuhammad Ali Jinnah was born in a rented apartment on the second floor of Wazir Mansion in Karachi,Pakistan (then part of India), on December 25, 1876. At the time of his birth, Jinnah’s official name wasMahomedali Jinnahbhai. The eldest of his parents’ seven children, Jinnah was underweight andappeared fragile at the time of his birth. But Jinnah’s mother, Mithibai, was convinced her delicateinfant would one day achieve great things. Jinnah’s father, Jinnahbhai Poonja, was a merchant andexporter of cotton, wool, grain and range of other goods. As a whole, the family belonged to the KhojaMuslim sect.When Muhammad Ali Jinnah was 6 years old, his father placed him in the Sindh Madrasatul-IslamSchool. Jinnah was far from a model student. He was more interested in playing outside with his friendsthan focusing on his studies. As the proprietor of a thriving trade business, Jinnah’s father emphasizedthe importance of studying mathematics, but, ironically, arithmetic was among Jinnah’s most hatedsubjects.When Jinnah was nearly 11 years old, his only paternal aunt came to visit from Bombay, India. Jinnahand his aunt were very close. The aunt suggested that Jinnah return with her to Bombay; she believedthe big city would provide him with a better education than Karachi could. Despite his mother’sresistance, Jinnah accompanied his aunt back to Bombay, where she enrolled him in the Gokal Das TejPrimary School. Despite the change of scenery, Jinnah continued to prove himself a restless and unrulystudent. Within just six months he was sent back to Karachi. His mother insisted he attend SindMadrassa, but Jinnah was expelled for cutting classes to go horseback riding.Founder of Pakistan
  • 22. Jinnah’s parents then enrolled him in the Christian Missionary Society High School, hoping he would bebetter able to concentrate on his studies there. As a teen, Jinnah developed an admiration for hisfather’s business colleague, Sir Frederick Leigh Croft. When Croft offered Jinnah an internship in London,Jinnah jumped at the chance, but Jinnah’s mother was not so eager for him to accept the offer. Fearfulof being separated from her son, she persuaded him to marry before leaving for his trip. Presumably shebelieved his marriage would ensure his eventual return.At his mother’s urging, the 15-year-old Jinnah entered into an arranged marriage with his 14-year-oldbride, Emibai, in February 1892. Emibai was from the village of Paneli in India, and the wedding tookplace in her hometown. Following the marriage, Jinnah continued attending the Christian MissionarySociety High School until he left for London.He departed Karachi in January of 1893. Jinnah would never see his wife or his mother again. Emibaidied a few months after Jinnah’s departure. Devastatingly, Jinnah’s mother, Mithibai, also passed awayduring his stay in London.AttorneyAfter disembarking at Southampton and taking the boat train to Victoria Station, Jinnah rented a hotelroom in London. He would eventually, however, settle at the home of Mrs. F.E. Page-Drake ofKensington, who had invited Jinnah to stay as a guest.After a few months of serving his internship, in June of 1893 Jinnah left the position to join Lincoln’s Inn,a renowned legal association that helped law students study for the bar. Over the next few years, Jinnahprepared for the legal exam by studying biographies and political texts that he borrowed from theBritish Museum Library and read in the barristers’ chambers. While studying for the bar, Jinnah heardthe terrible news of his wife and mother’s deaths, but he managed to forge on with his education. Inaddition to fulfilling his formal studies, Jinnah made frequent visits to the House of Commons, where hecould observe the powerful British government in action firsthand. When Jinnah passed his legal exam inMay of 1896, he was the youngest ever to have been accepted to the bar.With his law degree in hand, in August 1896 Jinnah moved to Bombay and set up a law practice as abarrister in Bombay’s high court. Jinnah would continue to practice as a barrister up through the mid-1940s. Jinnah’s most famous successes as a lawyer included the Bawla murder trial of 1925 and Jinnah’s1945 defense of Bishen Lal at Agra, which marked the final case of Jinnah’s legal career.StatesmanDuring Jinnah’s visits to the House of Commons, he had developed a growing interest in politics,deeming it a more glamorous field than law. Now in Bombay, Jinnah began his foray into politics as aliberal nationalist. When Jinnah’s father joined him there, he was deeply disappointed in his son’sdecision to change career paths and, out of anger, withdrew his financial support. Fortunately, the twohad mended fences by the time Jinnah’s father died in April 1902.
  • 23. Jinnah was particularly interested in the politics of India and its lack of strong representation in BritishParliament. He was inspired when he saw Dadabhai Naoroji become the first Indian to earn a seat in theHouse of Commons. In 1904, Jinnah attended a meeting of the Indian National Congress. In 1906 hejoined the congress himself. In 1912, Jinnah attended a meeting of the All India Muslim League,prompting him to join the league the following year. Jinnah would later join yet another political party,the Home Rule League, which was dedicated to the cause of a state’s right to self-government.In the midst of Jinnah’s thriving political career, he met a 16-year-old named Ratanbai while on vacationin Darjeeling. After "Rutti" turned 18 and converted to Islam, the two were married on April 19, 1918.Rutti gave birth to Jinnah’s first and only child, a daughter named Dina, in 1919.As a member of Congress, Jinnah at first collaborated with Hindu leaders as their Ambassador of HinduMuslim Unity, while working with the Muslim League simultaneously.Gradually, Jinnah realized that the Hindu leaders of Congress held a political agenda that wasincongruent with his own. Earlier he had been aligned with their opposition to separate electoratesmeant to guarantee a fixed percentage of legislative representation for Muslims and Hindus. But in1926, Jinnah shifted to the opposite view and began supporting separate electorates. Still, overall, heretained the belief that the rights of Muslims could be protected in a united India. At that stage of hispolitical career, Jinnah left Congress and dedicated himself more fully to the Muslim League.By 1928 Jinnah’s busy political career had taken a toll on his marriage. He and his second wife separated.Rutti lived as a recluse at the Taj Mahal Hotel in Bombay for the next year, until she died on her 29thbirthday.During the 1930s Jinnah attended the Anglo-Indian Round Table Conferences in London, and led thereorganization of the All India Muslim League.Independent PakistanBy 1939 Jinnah came to believe in a Muslim homeland on the Indian subcontinent. He was convincedthat this was the only way to preserve Muslims’ traditions and protect their political interests. Hisformer vision of Hindu-Muslim unity no longer seemed realistic to him at this time.During a 1940 meeting of the Muslim League at Lahore, Jinnah proposed the partition of India and thecreation of Pakistan, in the area where Muslims constitute a majority. At this juncture, Jinnah was bothdispleased with Mohandas Gandhis stance at the London Round Table Conference in 1939, andfrustrated with the Muslim League. Much to Jinnah’s chagrin, the Muslim League was on the verge ofmerging with the National League, with the goal of participating in provincial elections and potentiallyconceding to the establishment of a united India with majority Hindu rule.To Jinnah’s relief, in 1942 the Muslim League adopted the Pakistan Resolution to partition India into
  • 24. states. Four years later, Britain sent a cabinet mission to India to outline a constitution for transfer ofpower to India. India was then divided into three territories. The first was a Hindu majority, which makesup present-day India. The second was a Muslim area in the northwest, to be designated as Pakistan. Thethird was made up of Bengal and Assam, with a narrow Muslim majority. After a decade, the provinceswould have the choice of opting out on the formation of a new federation. But when the Congresspresident expressed objections to implementing the plan, Jinnah also voted against it. The independentstate of Pakistan that Jinnah had envisioned came to be on August 14, 1947. The following day, Jinnahwas sworn in as Pakistan’s first governor-general. He was also made president of Pakistans constituentassembly shortly before his death.Death and LegacyOn September 11, 1948, just a little over a year after he became governor-general, Jinnah died oftuberculosis near Karachi, Pakistan—the place where he was born.Today, Jinnah is credited with having altered the destiny of Muslims in the Indian subcontinent.According to Richard Symons, Muhammad Ali Jinnah "contributed more than any other man toPakistan’s survival." Jinnah’s dream for Pakistan was based on the principles of social justice,brotherhood and equality, which he aimed to achieve under his motto of "Faith, Unity, and Discipline."In the wake of his death, Jinnah’s successors were tasked with consolidating the nation of Pakistan thatJinnah had so determinedly established."There is no power on earth that can undo Pakistan."– Muhammad Ali Jinnah"My message to you all is of hope, courage and confidence."– Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  • 25. Lal Bahadur ShastriBorn: October 2, 1904, MughalsaraiDied: January 11, 1966, TashkentLal Bahadur Shastri was the second Prime Minister of the Republic ofIndia and a leader of the Indian National Congress party.Shastri joined the Indian independence movement in the 1920s.Deeply impressed and influenced by Congress leader MahatmaGandhi, he became a loyal follower, first of Gandhi, and thenof Jawaharlal Nehru.Following independence in 1947, he joined the latters governmentand became one of Prime Minister Nehrus principal lieutenants, firstas Railways Minister (1951–56), and then in a variety of otherfunctions, including Home Minister.Shastri as Prime Minister continued Nehrus policies of non-alignment and socialism. He became anational hero following the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965.His slogan of “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan” ("Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer") became very popular during thewar and is remembered even today.The war was formally ended in the Tashkent Agreement of 10 January 1966; he died the following day,still in Tashkent, of a heart attack.Early life:Shastri was born in Mughal Sarai in the Chandauli district of the United Provinces, British India in Britishruled India.His father, Shri Sharada Srivastava Prasad, was a school teacher, who later became a clerk in theRevenue Office at Allahabad. Shastris father died when he was only a year old.His mother, Ramdulari Devi, took him and his two sisters to her fathers house and settled down there.Shastri ji was educated at East Central Railway Inter College in Mughal sarai and Varanasi. He graduatedwith a first-class degree from the Kashi Vidyapeeth in 1926 and he was given the title Shastri ("Scholar").The title was a bachelors degree awarded by the Vidya Peeth, but it stuck as part of his name.On 16 May 1928, Shastri married Lalita Devi of Mirzapur.He had five children, including Hari Krishna Shashtri, Anil Shastri and Sunil Shashtri, who were allCongress politicians.His son Anil Shastri is still a senior leader of the Congress party.Shastri, who belonged to the Kayastha caste, dropped his surname Srivastava as it indicatedhis caste and he was against the caste system, a major principle of the Gandhian movement.Second Prime Ministerof India
  • 26. There is a very famous incident regarding Lal Bahadur Shastris childhood which took place when he wassix years old. One day, while returning from school, Lal Bahadur and his friends went to an orchard thatwas on the way to home. Lal Bahadur Shastri was standing below while his friends climbed the trees topluck mangoes. Meanwhile, the gardener came and caught hold of Lalbahadur Shastri. He scolded LalBahadur Shastri and started beating him. Lal Bahadur Shastri pleaded to gardener to leave him as hewas orphan. Taking pity on Lal Bahadur, the gardener said,"Because you are an orphan, it is all the more important that you must learnbetter behavior."These words left a deep imprint on Lal Bahadur Shastri and he swore to behave better in the future.Independence Activism:Lal Bahadur stayed at his grandfathers house till he was ten. By that time he had passed the sixthstandard examination. He went to Varanasi for higher education.In 1921 when Mahatma Gandhi launched the non-cooperation movement against British Government,Lal Bahadur Shastri, was only seventeen years old. When Mahatma Gandhi gave a call to the youth tocome out of Government schools and colleges, offices and courts and to sacrifice everything for the sakeof freedom, Lal Bahadur came out of his school. Though his mother and relatives advised him not to doso, he was firm in his decision. Lal Bahadur was arrested during the Non-cooperation movement but ashe was too young he was let off.After his release Lal Bahadur joined Kashi Vidya Peeth and for four years he studied philosophy. In 1926,Lal Bahadur earned the degree of "Shastri" After leaving Kashi Vidya Peeth, Lal Bahadur Shastri joined"The Servants of the People Society", which Lala Lajpat Rai had started in 1921.The aim of the Society was to train youths that were prepared to dedicate their lives in the service of thecountry. In 1927, Lal Bahadur Shastri married Lalitha Devi. The marriage ceremony was very simple andShastri ji took only a charkha (spinning wheel) and few yards of Khadi in dowry.In 1930, Gandhiji gave the call for Civil Disobedience Movement. Lal Bahadur Shastri joined themovement and encouraged people not to pay land revenue and taxes to the government. He wasarrested and put in jail for two and a half years.After Second World War started in 1939, Congress launched "Individual Satyagraha" in 1940 to demandfreedom. Lal Bahadur Shastri was arrested during Individual Satyagraha and released after one year.On 8 August 1942, Mahatma Gandhi issued the Quit India speech at Gowalia Tank in Mumbai,demanding that the British leave India. Shastri, who had just then come out after a year in prison,travelled to Allahabad. For a week, he sent instructions to the freedom fighters from Jawaharlal Nehruhome, Anand Bhavan. A few days later, he was arrested and imprisoned until 1946.
  • 27. Shastri spent almost nine years in jail in total. During his stays in prison, he spent time reading booksand became familiar with the works of western philosophers, revolutionaries and social reformers. Healso translated the autobiography of Marie Curie into Hindi.Political career (1947-1964):State ministerFollowing Indias independence, Shastri was appointed Parliamentary Secretary in his home state, UttarPradesh of Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant, the then chief minister of Uttar Pradesh.He became the Minister of Police and Transport under Govind Ballabh Pants Chief Ministership on 15Aug 1947 following Rafi Ahmed Kidwais departure to become minister at centre.As the Transport Minister, he was the first to appoint women conductors. As the minister in charge ofthe Police Department, he ordered that police use jets of water instead of lathis to disperse unrulycrowds. His tenure as police minister (As Home Minister was called prior to 1950) saw successful curbingof communal riots in 1947, mass migration and resettlement of refugees and break-in and putting ofidols in disputed Babri Masjid - Ram Janmabhoomi complex on 22 Dec 1949.Cabinet minister:In 1951, Shastri was made the General Secretary of the All-India Congress Committee with JawaharlalNehru as the Prime Minister.He was believed to be retained as home minister of UP, but in a surprise move was called to Centre asminister by Nehru. He was elected to Rajyasabha from Uttar Pradesh w.e.f. 3 April 1952.He served as the Minister of Railways and Transport in the Central Cabinet from 13 May 1952 to 7December 1956.In Sep 1956, he offered his resignation after a railway accident at Mahbubnagar that led to 112 deaths.However, Nehru did not accept his resignation. Three months later, he resigned accepting moral andconstitutional responsibility for a railway accident at Ariyalur in Tamil Nadu that resulted in 144 deaths.In 1957 elections, Shastri returned to the Cabinet following the General Elections:First as the Minister for Transport and Communications, andThen as the Minister of Commerce and Industry.He became the Home Minister in 1961, after the death of Govind Vallabh Pant. As Union Home Ministerhe was instrumental in appointing the Committee on Prevention of Corruption under the Chairmanshipof K. Santhanam.
  • 28. Prime minister of India (1964-66):After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri was unanimously elected as the PrimeMinister of India.In his first broadcast as Prime Minister, on 11 June 1964, Shastri stated:"There comes a time in the life of every nation when it stands at the cross-roads of history and mustchoose which way to go. But for us there need be no difficulty or hesitation, no looking to right or left.Our way is straight and clear—the building up of a socialist democracy at home with freedom andprosperity for all, and the maintenance of world peace and friendship with all nations."Domestic policies:Shastri retained many members of Nehrus Council of Ministers. T. T. Krishnamachari was retained asthe Finance Minister of India, as was Defence Minister Yashwantrao Chavan. He appointed SwaranSingh to succeed him as External Affairs Minister. He also appointedIndira Gandhi, daughter ofJawaharlal Nehru and former Congress President, as the Minister of Information and Broadcasting.Gulzarilal Nanda continued as the Minister of Home Affairs.Shastris tenure witnessed the Madras anti-Hindi agitation of 1965. The government of India had for along time made an effort to establish Hindi as the sole national language of India. This was resisted bythe non-Hindi speaking states particularly Madras State.Economic policies:Shastri continued Nehrus socialist economic policies with central planning. He promoted the WhiteRevolution – a national campaign to increase the production and supply of milk – by supportingthe Amul milk co-operative of Anand, Gujarat and creating the National Dairy Development Board.While speaking on the chronic food shortages across the country, Shastri urged people to voluntarilygive up one meal so that the saved food could be distributed to the affected populace.During the 22-day war with Pakistan in 1965, Shastri created the slogan of "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" ("Hailthe soldier, Hail the farmer"), underlining the need to boost Indias food production. Shastri alsopromoted the Green Revolution. Though he was a socialist, Shastri stated that India cannot have aregimented type of economy.Foreign policies:In 1964, Shastri signed an accord with the Sri Lankan Prime minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike regardingthe status of Indian Tamils in the then Ceylon. This agreement is also known as the Srimavo-Shastri Pactor the Bandaranaike-Shastri pact.Under the terms of this agreement, 600,000 Indian Tamils were to be repatriated, while 375,000 were tobe granted Sri Lankan citizenship. This settlement was to be done by 31 October 1981. However, afterShastris death, by 1981, India had taken only 300,000 Tamils as repatriates, while Sri Lanka had granted
  • 29. citizenship to only 185,000 citizens (plus another 62,000 born after 1964). Later, India declined toconsider any further applications for citizenship, stating that the 1964 agreement had lapsed.After the declaration of ceasefire with Pakistan in 1965, Shastri and Pakistani President MuhammadAyub Khan attended a summit in Tashkent (former USSR, now in modern Uzbekistan), organisedby Alexei Kosygin. On 10 January 1966, Shastri and Khan signed the Tashkent Declaration.The Tashkent Declaration of 10 January 1966 was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan afterthe Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.Death:Prime Minister Shastri died in Tashkent due to a heart attack the day after signing the TashkentDeclaration.He was eulogized as a national hero and the Vijay Ghat memorial established in his memory. Upon hisdeath, Gulzarilal Nanda once again assumed the role of Acting Prime Minister until the CongressParliamentary Party elected Indira Gandhi over Morarji Desai to officially succeed Shastri.An epic poetry book in Hindi titled Lalita Ke Aansoo written by Krant M. L. Verma was published in 1978.In this book the tragic story about the death of Shastri has been narrated by his wife Lalita Shastri.Memorials:Shastri was known for his honesty and humility throughout his life.He was the first person to be posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna.Institutes named after him:Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (Mussorie, Uttarakhand)The Shastri Indo-Canadian InstituteIn 2011, on Shastri’s 45th death anniversary, Uttar Pradesh Government announced to renovateShastri’s ancestral house at Ramnagar in Varanasi and declared plans to convert it into a biographicalmuseum.The International Airport at the City of Varanasi is named after him.A Monument and a street are named after him in the city of Tashkent, Uzbekistan.A stadium is named after him in the city of Hyderabad, AndhrapradeshIn 2005, the Government of India created a chair in his honor in the field of democracy and governanceat Delhi University.
  • 30. Indira GandhiBorn: November 19, 1917, AllahabadAssassinated: October 31, 1984, New DelhiIndira Priyadarshini Gandhi was an Indian politician who served asthe 3rdPrime Minister of India for three consecutive terms (1966–77)and a fourth term (1980–84).Gandhi was the second female head of government in the worldafter Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka and she remains as theworlds second longest serving female Prime Minister as of 2012.She was the first woman to become prime minister in India.She was the first woman to Receive Bharat Ratna Award in 1971.Gandhi was the only child of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of independent India.She was also the only Indian Prime Minister to have declared a state of emergency in order to rule bydecree and the only Indian Prime Minister to have been imprisoned after holding that office.She was assassinated by her bodyguards in retaliation for ordering Operation Blue Star.Early Life and Career:She was born on November 19, 1917 at Anand Bhavan in Allahabad.Her father Jawaharlal Nehru and grandfather Motilal Nehru were at the forefront of Indian freedomstruggle and her mother was Kamla Nehru.She attended primary school in a variety of institutions in India and Europe, including EcoleInternationale in Geneva, Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, St Cecilias and St Marys convent schools (both inAllahabad), before graduating from the Pupils Own School in Poona and Bombay. In 1936, Nehruenrolled at Somerville College, Oxford, University of Oxfordin United Kingdom.While preparing for the entrance exam, she suffered a personal tragedy after her mother died from aprolonged battle with tuberculosis in Switzerland.Despite the setbacks, Gandhi chose to continue studying in England.During her time in Europe, Nehru was plagued with ill-health and was being treated by the famed Swissdoctor Auguste Rollier in 1940.Indira Gandhi married a Parsi named Feroze Gandhi in 1942.First Female PrimeMinister of India
  • 31. Shortly after their marriage both Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi were arrested and jailed fornationalist activities.Indira Gandhi was released after eight months and Feroze Gandhi after an year. After the release FerozeGandhi became editor of The National Herald, a newspaper founded by Jawaharlal Nehru, and Mrs.Indira Gandhi became the principal confidant and assistant of her father during the period of Nehrusprime ministership (1947-1965).In 1959, Indira Gandhi became President of the Indian National Congress.Meanwhile, the death of Feroze Gandhi (from a heart attack) in 1960, and the subsequent death of herfather in 1964, caused Indira Gandhi to withdraw into a shell and limit herself to her immediate family.After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964, she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha (upperhouse) and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastris cabinet as Minister of Information andBroadcasting.After Lal Bahadur Shastris untimely death in 1966, she was selected as prime minister by party bosseswithin the Congress Party as a compromise candidate. Her candidature was opposed by Morarji Desai, aveteran nationalist and prime ministerial aspirant himself.Legislative Career:When Indira became Prime Minister in 1966, the Congress was split in two factions, the socialists led byGandhi, and the conservatives led by Morarji Desai.Rammanohar Lohia called her ‘Gungi Gudiya’, which means Dumb Doll.In the fourth general elections held in 1967, Congress suffered a major setback. Congress majority wasgreatly reduced in parliament and non-Congress ministries were established in Bihar, Kerala, Orissa,Madras, Punjab, and West Bengal.She had to accommodate Morarji Desai as Deputy Prime Minister of India and Minister of Finance.War with Pakistan in 1971:The Pakistan army conducted atrocities against the civilian populations of East Pakistan. An estimated 10million refugees fled to India, causing financial hardship and instability in the country.The United States under Richard Nixon supported Pakistan, and mooted a UN resolution warning Indiaagainst going to war. Nixon apparently disliked Gandhi personally, referring to her as a "witch" and"clever fox" in his private communication with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger (now released bythe State Department).Gandhi signed the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, resulting in political support and a Soviet vetoat the UN.
  • 32. Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation:The Indo–Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation was a treaty signed between India andthe Soviet Union in August 1971 that specified mutual strategic cooperation.Foreign Policy:Gandhi invited the Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to Shimla for a week-long summit. The twonational leaders eventually signed the Shimla Agreement on July 2, 1972.It followed from the war between the two nations in the previous year that had led to the independenceof East Pakistan as Bangladesh., which bound the two countries to resolve the Kashmir dispute bynegotiations and peaceful means.Due to her antipathy for Nixon, relations with the United States grew distant, while relations with theSoviet Union grew closer.Nuclear weapons program:Gandhi contributed and further carried out the vision of Jawarharalal Nehru, former Premier of India todevelop the program.Gandhi authorized the development of nuclear weapons in 1967, in response to the Test No. 6 byPeoples Republic of China. Gandhi saw this test as Chinese nuclear intimidation, therefore, Gandhipromoted the views of Nehru to establish Indias stability and security interests as independent fromthose of the nuclear superpowers.The program became fully mature in 1974, when Dr. Raja Ramanna reported to Gandhi that India hadthe ability to test its first nuclear weapon. Gandhi gave verbal authorization of this test and preparationswere made in a long-constructed army base, the Indian Army Pokhran Test Range.In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named as "SmilingBuddha", near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan. As the world was quiet by this test, avehement protest came forward from Pakistan. Great ire was raised in Pakistan, Pakistans Primeminister Zulfi Ali Bhutto described this test as "Indian hegemony" to intimidate Pakistan.Gandhi directed a letter to Bhutto and, later to the world, describing the test as for peacefulpurposes and Indias commitment as to develop its programme for industrial and scientific use.Test No 6:Test No. 6 is the codename for Chinas first test of a three-staged thermonuclear deviceand,also its sixth nuclear weapons test. The device was detonated at Lop Nur Test Base, or oftendubbed as Lop Nur Nuclear Weapon Test Base, in Malan, Xinjiang, on 17 June 1967. Withsuccessful testing of this three-stage thermonuclear device, China became the fourth countryto have successfully developed a thermonuclear weapon after the United States, SovietUnion and the United Kingdom.
  • 33. Smiling Buddha:Smiling Buddha, formally designated as Pokhran-I, was the codename given to the Republic ofIndias first nuclear test explosion that took place at the long-constructed IndianArmy base, Pokhran Test Range at Pokhran municipality, Rajasthan state on 18 May 1974 at 8:05a.m. (IST).It was also the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the five permanent members ofthe United Nations Security Council. The explosive yield of the bomb was reported to be 8 kilo tons.Green Revolution:Rather than relying on food aid from the United States – headed by a President Gandhi dislikedconsiderably (the feeling was mutual: to Nixon, Gandhi was "the old witch"), the country became a foodexporter. That achievement, along with the diversification of its commercial crop production, hasbecome known as the "Green Revolution".At the same time, the White Revolution was an expansion in milk production which helped to combatmalnutrition, especially amidst young children. Food Security, as the program was called, was anothersource of support for Gandhi in the years leading up to 1975.Established in the early 1960s, the Green Revolution was the unofficial name given to the IntenseAgricultural District Program (IADP) which sought to insure abundant, inexpensive grain for urbandwellers upon whose support Gandhi—as indeed all Indian politicians—heavily dependedBank nationalizations:In 1969, fourteen major banks were nationalized as a means of encouraging economic development1971 Election Victory and Second Term:Indira Gandhi campaigned fiercely on the slogan of "Garibi Hatao" (eliminate poverty) during the fifthgeneral elections in March 1971 and won an unprecedented two-third majority.Verdict on electoral malpractice:On 12 June 1975, the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhis election to the Lok Sabha void ongrounds of electoral malpractice. In an election petition filed by Raj Narain (who later on defeated her in1977 parliamentary election from Rae Bareily), he had alleged several major as well as minor instancesof using government resources for campaigning. The court thus ordered her to be removed from herseat in Parliament and banned from running in elections for six years.Thus, this decision effectively removed her from office. Mrs Gandhi had asked one of Indias best legalminds and also one of her colleagues in government, Mr Ashoke Kumar Sen to defend her in court. Ithas been written that Mrs Gandhi was told she would only win if Mr Sen appeared for her.But Gandhi rejected calls to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court. The verdictwas delivered by Mr Justice Jagmohanlal Sinha at Allahabad High Court.
  • 34. It came almost four years after the case was brought by Raj Narain, the premiers defeated opponent inthe 1971 parliamentary election. Gandhi, who gave evidence in her defence during the trial, was foundguilty of dishonest election practices, excessive election expenditure, and of using governmentmachinery and officials for party purposes.After news of the verdict spread, hundreds of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledgingtheir loyalty. Indian High Commissioner BK Nehru said Gandhis conviction would not harm her politicalcareer.State of Emergency (1975–1977):In India, an external state of emergency was declared two times during wars:In 1962 Sino-Indian WarIn 1971 Indo-Pakistani War of 1971In 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a state of internal emergency after she was indicted ina corruption scandal and ordered to vacate her seat in the Indian Parliament, allowing herself to ruleby decree until 1977 and and jailed al her political opponents.The Emergency lasted till March 1977 andin the general election held afterwards in 1977she was defeated by a coalition of parties called JantaMorcha.A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend some normal functions ofthe executive, legislative and judicial powers, alert citizens to change their normal behaviors.Imprisonment:The Congress Party split during the election campaign of 1977: veteran Gandhi supporters like JagjivanRam and her most loyal Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna and Nandini Satpathy, the three were compelled topart ways and form a new political entity CFD (Congress for Democracy) primarily due to intra partypoliticking and also due to circumstances created by Sanjay Gandhi.A coalition of opposition parties, under the leadership of Morarji Desai, came into power after the Stateof Emergency was lifted.The Janata governments Home Minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered the arrest of Indira andSanjay Gandhi on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. The arrestmeant that Indira Gandhi was automatically expelled from Parliament.These allegations included that she “‘had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jailduring the Emergency’”.However, this strategy backfired disastrously. Her arrest and long-running trial, however, gained hergreat sympathy from many people. The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Gandhi (or "thatwoman" as some called her). With so little in common, the Morarji Desai government was bogged downby infighting. Desai resigned in June 1979 after Charan Singh and Raj Narain formed their ownbreakaway party. Charan Singh was appointed Prime Minister, by President Reddy, after Gandhipromised Singh that Congress would support his government from outside.
  • 35. In elections held the following January, Congress was returned to power with a landslide majority.Indira Emerges Once More:By 1980, the people of India had had enough of the ineffectual Janata Party. They reelected IndiraGandhis Congress Party under the slogan of "stability".Indira took power again for her fourth term as prime minister. However, her triumph was dampened bythe death of her son Sanjay, the heir apparent, in a plane crash in June of that year.Operation Blue Star:In the 1977 elections, a coalition led by the Sikh-majority Akali Dal(is a Sikhism-centric political partyin India, mainly active in the Indian state ofPunjab and with a small presence in Haryana) came to powerin the northern Indian state of Punjab.In an effort to split the Akali Dal and gain popular support among the Sikhs, Indira Gandhis Congresshelped bring the orthodox religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale to prominence in the Punjabpolitics.Later, Bhindranwales organization Damdami Taksal became embroiled in violence with anotherreligious sect called the Sant Nirankari Mission, and he was accused of instigating the murder of theCongress leader Jagat Narain.After being arrested in this matter, Bhindranwale disassociated himself from Congress and joined handswith the Akali Dal.In July 1982, he led the campaign for the implementation of the Anandpur Sahib Resolution, whichdemanded greater autonomy for the Sikh-majority state. Meanwhile, a small section of the Sikhsincluding some of Bhindranwales followers, turned to militancy in support of the Khalistan movement,which aimed to create a separate sovereign state for the Sikhs.Khalistan movement refers to a secessionist movement which seeks to create a separatesovereignSikh state, called Khalistan ("The Land of the Pure") in the Punjab region of South Asia.In 1983, Bhindranwale and his militant followers headquarted themselves in the Golden Temple, theholiest shrine of the Sikhs, and started accumulating weapons.After several futile negotiations, Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian army to enter the Golden temple inorder to subdue Bhindranwale and his followers.In the resulting Operation Blue Star, the shrine was damaged and many civilians were killed. The Stateof Punjab was closed to international media, its phone and communication lines shut. To this day theevents remain controversial with a disputed number of victims;Sikhs seeing the attack as unjustified and Bhindrawale being declared the greatest sikh martyr of the21st century by Akal Takht (Sikh Political Authority) in 2003.
  • 36. The Akal Takht is highest seat of temporal authority of the Khalsa. The Akal Takht is located inthe Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab. It was built by the Guru Hargobind Sahib,stands witness to the Sikh idea of sovereignty.Assasination:The day before her death Indira Gandhi visited Orissa on 30 October 1984 where she gave her lastspeech:"I am alive today; I may not be there tomorrow. I shall continue to serve till mylast breath and when I die every drop of my blood will strengthen India andkeep a united India alive."Indira Gandhi delivered her last speech at the then Parade Ground in front of the Secretariat of Orissa.After her death, the Parade Ground was converted to the Indira Gandhi Park which was inaugurated byher son, Rajiv Gandhi.On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhis bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with theirservice weapons in the garden of the Prime Ministers residence at 1 Safdarjung Road, New Delhi. Theshooting occurred as she was walking past a wicket gate guarded by Satwant and Beant. She was tohave been interviewed by the British actor Peter Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irishtelevision. Beant Singh shot her three times using his side-arm, and Satwant Singh fired 30 rounds.Afterwards they were taken away by other guards into a closed room where Beant Singh was shotdead. Kehar Singh was later arrested for conspiracy in the attack. Both Satwant and Kehar weresentenced to death and hanged in Delhis Tihar jail.Indira Gandhi was brought at 9:30 AM to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, where doctorsoperated on her. She was declared dead at 2:20 PM. The post-mortem examination was conducted bya team of doctors headed by Dr. T D Dogra. Dr. Dogra stated that as many as 30 bullet wounds weresustained by Indira Gandhi, from two sources, a Sten gun and a pistol. The assailants had fired 31 bulletsat her, of which 30 had hit; 23 had passed through her body while 7 were trapped inside her.Gandhi was cremated on 3 November near Raj Ghat. Her funeral was televised live on domestic andinternational stations, including the BBC.Following her cremation, millions of Sikhs were displaced and nearly three thousand were killed in anti-Sikh riots.Rajiv Gandhi on a live TV show said of the carnage:"When a big tree falls, the earth shakes."Gandhis yoga guru, Dhirendra Brahmachari, helped her in making certain decisions and also executedcertain top level political tasks on her behalf, especially from 1975 to 1977 when Gandhi "dissolvedParliament, declared a state of emergency and suspended civil liberties.”
  • 37. The Indira Gandhi National Open University, the largest university in the world, is also named afterher.Indira point:Indira point has the name given for the southernmost tip of Republic of India. It is located in the UnionTerritory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands whom has named on the point in honour of Indira Gandhi. Itwas formerly known by various names that including Pygmalion Point, Parsons Point, and for a briefperiod of time India Point.Atal Bihari Vajpayee called her the Avatar of Durga.
  • 38. Rajiv GandhiBorn: August 20, 1944, MumbaiAssassinated: May 21, 1991, SriperumbudurRajiv Rotna Gandhi was the sixth Prime Minister of India (1984–1989).He took office after his mothers assassination on 31 October 1984and he himself was assassinated on 21 May 1991.He became the youngest Prime Minister of India when he took officeat the age of 40.Rajiv Gandhi was the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi.After dropping out of university, he became a professional pilotfor Indian Airlines. He remained aloof from politics, despite hisfamilys political prominence. Following the death of his youngerbrother Sanjay Gandhi in 1980 Rajiv entered politics. Followingthe assassination of his mother in 1984 after Operation Blue Star,the Indian National Congress party leaders nominated him to be Prime Minister.Early life:Rajiv Gandhi was born on August 20, 1944 in Bombay (Mumbai) in Indias most famous political family.His grandfather Jawaharlal Nehru played a stellar role in Indias freedom struggle and becameindependent Indias first Prime Minister.Rajeev Gandhi did his schooling from the elite Doon school and then studied at the University of Londonand at Trinity College, Cambridge in Britain.At Cambridge he met the Italian-born Antonia Albina Maino (Now Sonia Gandhi), then a waitress in arestaurant, whom he later married.In August 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru became the prime minister of independent India, and the familysettled in Allahabad, and then at Lucknow, where Feroze became the editor of the NationalHerald newspaper (founded by Motilal Nehru).In 1952, Indira helped Feroze manage his campaign for elections to the first Parliament ofIndia from Rae Bareli.After becoming an MP, Feroze Gandhi also moved to Delhi, but "Indira continued to stay with her father,thus putting the final seal on the separation."Youngest Prime Ministerof Indi
  • 39. Relations were strained further when Feroze challenged corruption within the Congress leadership overthe Haridas Mundhra scandal. Jawaharlal suggested that the matter be resolved in private, but Ferozeinsisted on taking the case directly to parliament:The scandal, and its investigation by justice M C Chagla, lead to the resignation of one of Nehrus keyallies, finance minister T.T. Krishnamachari, further alienating Feroze from Jawaharlal.After Feroze Gandhi had a heart attack in 1958, the family was reconciled briefly when they holidayedin Kashmir. Feroze died soon afterwards from a second heart attack in 1960.In 1970, his wife gave birth to their first child Rahul Gandhi, and in 1972, to Priyanka Gandhi, theirsecond. Even as Rajiv remained aloof from politics, his younger brother Sanjay became a close advisor totheir mother.Entry into politics:Following his younger brothers death in 1980, Gandhi was pressured by Indian National Congress partypoliticians and his mother to enter politics. He and his wife were both opposed to the idea, and he evenpublicly stated that he would not contest for his brothers seat.Nevertheless, he eventually announced his candidacy for Parliament. His entry was criticized by many inthe press, public and opposition political parties.He fought his first election from Amethi Loksabha seat. In this by-election, he defeated Lokdalleader Sharad Yadav by more than 200,000 votes.Elected to Sanjays Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituency of Amethi in Uttar Pradesh state in February1981, Gandhi became an important political advisor to his mother. It was widely perceived that IndiraGandhi was grooming Rajiv for the prime ministers job, and he soon became the president of the YouthCongress – the Congress partys youth wing.Premiership:Rajiv Gandhi was in West Bengal when his mother, Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984by two of her Sikh bodyguardsTop Congress leaders, as well as President Zail Singh pressed Rajiv to become Indias Prime Minister,within hours of his mothers assassination by two of her Sikh bodyguards. Commenting on the anti-Sikhriots in the national capital Delhi, Rajiv Gandhi said:“When a giant tree falls, the earth below shakes”In October 1984 he became the Youngest Prime Minister of India at the age of 40.He called for general elections in 1984 and riding on a massive sympathy wave led Congress to athumping victory. Congress garnered 80 percent of the seats in the lower house and achieved itsgreatest victory since independence.
  • 40. Economic Policy:He founded the Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya System in 1986 which is a Central government basedinstitution that concentrates on the upliftment of the rural section of the society providing them freeresidential education from 6th till 12 grade.His efforts created MTNL in 1986, and his public call offices, better known as PCOs, helped spreadtelephones in rural areas.Security policy:The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed by Rajiv Gandhi and the Sri Lankan President J. R.Jayewardene, in Colombo on 29 July 1987.The very next day, on 30 July 1987, Rajiv Gandhi was assaulted on the head with a rifle butt by a youngSinhalese naval cadet named Vijayamunige Rohana de Silva, while receiving the honor guard. Theintended assault on the back of Rajiv Gandhis head glanced off his shoulder and it was captured in newscrew photographs and video.Anti sikh riots:This refers to the statement of Rajiv Gandhi as Prime Minister at a Boat Club rally 19-days after theassassination of Indira Gandhi, which read as:“Some riots took place in the country following the murder of Indiraji. We know the people were veryangry and for a few days it seemed that India had been shaken. But, when a mighty tree falls, it is onlynatural that the earth around it does shake a little.”This statement sent a wrong signal to the authorities, who adopted a callous approach of not allowingthe truth to come out despite the government setting up probe panels one after the other, includingtwo full fledged judicial commissions, the first headed by retired Chief Justice of India Ranganath Misraand the second by a former apex court judge G.T. Nanavati.Bofors scandal:The infamous Bofors scandal that still haunts the political walls of the country was exposed during RajivGandhis reign.A strong corruption racket involving many stalwarts of the Congress Party was unearthed in the 1980s.Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India and several others prominent leaders were accused ofreceiving kickbacks from Bofors for winning a bid to supply Indias 155 mm field howitzer (a type ofartillery piece).The case came into light during Vishwanath Pratap Singhs tenure as defence minister, and wasrevealed through investigative journalism by a team led by N. Ram of the newspaper The Hindu.Rajiv Gandhi also emerged as one of Indias controversial Prime Ministers.
  • 41. IPKF:In 1987, the Indian Peace Keeping Force was formed to end the Sri Lankan Civil War between theLiberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the Sri Lankan military. The acts of the military contingentwas opposed by the Opposition parties of Sri Lanka and as well as LTTE. But, Rajiv Gandhi refused towithdraw the IPKF. The idea also turned out to be unpopular in India, particularly in Tamil Nadu. TheIPKF operation cost over 1100 Indian soldiers lives and cost over 2000 crores.Although Rajeev Gandhi promised to end corruption, he and his party were themselves implicated incorruption scandals. The major scandal being Bofors Gun scandal involving alleged payoffs by theSwedish Bofors arms company. The scandal rapidly eroded his popularity and he lost the next generalelections held in 1989.Assasination:Rajiv Gandhis last public meeting was at Sriperumbudur on 21 May 1991, in a village approximately 30miles from Chennai, Tamil Nadu, where he was assassinated while campaigning forthe Sriperumbudur Lok Sabha Congress candidate. The assassination was carried out by the LiberationTigers of Tamil Eelam.At 10:21 pm, a woman (later identified as Thenmozhi Rajaratnam) approached Rajiv Gandhi in a publicmeeting and greeted him. She then bent down to touch his feet (an expression of respectamong Indians) and detonated a belt laden with 700 grams of RDX explosives tucked under her dress.The explosion killed Rajiv Gandhi, his assassin and at least 14 other people.He was cremated on the banks of the river Yamuna, near the samadhis of his mother, brother,grandfather and Mahatma Gandhi. Today, the site where he was cremated is known as Vir Bhumi.The Rajiv Gandhi Memorial was built at the site recently and is one of the major tourist attractions ofthe small industrial town.Rajiv Gandhi was posthumously awarded the Highest National Award of India, Bharat Ratna (1991),joining a list of 40 luminaries, including Indira Gandhi.Rajiv Gandhi was an active amateur radio operator, and used the call sign VU2RG.He alsofounded INTACH in 1984 that seeks to preserve Indias art and cultural heritage.
  • 42. Annie BesantBorn: October 1, 1847, Clapham, LondonDied: September 20, 1933, Adyar, Madras Presidency, IndiaAnnie Besant was a prominent British socialist, Theosophist, Women’sright activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian selfrule.Annie Besant was born as Annie Wood on October 1, 1847 in amiddle-class family in London. She was of Irish origin.She was the daughter of an Irish businessman, William press Woodand an Irish woman, Emily Mary Ruche.She was married at 19 to Frank Besant but separated from him overreligious differences in 1873 and then became the speaker of theNational secular society (NSS) in 1874.At the age of 23, Annie had two children, Arthur and Mabel.Annie Besant fought for the causes she thought were right, such as, womens rights, secularism, birthcontrol, Fabian socialism and workers rights. She became interested in Theosophy as a way of knowingGod. Theosophical Society was against discrimination of race, color, gender and preached Universalbrotherhood. To serve humanity at large was its supreme goal.In 1870, Besant along with Charles Bradlaugh edited the weekly National Reformer.In 1875, Annie joined the religious movement and the supporter of Theosophy (a religious movementfounded by Helena Blavatsky), that was based on Hindu ideas of Karma and Reincarnation.In 1877 Annie Besant and Charles Bradlaugh decided to publish The Fruits of Philosophy writtenby Charles Knowlton, a book that advocated birth control.Annie Besant fought for the causes she thought were right, such as, womens rights, secularism, birthcontrol, Fabian socialism and workers rights. She became interested in Theosophy as a way of knowingGod. Theosophical Society was against discrimination of race, color, gender and preached Universalbrotherhood. To serve humanity at large was its supreme goal. It was as a member of TheosophicalSociety of India that she arrived in India in 1893.She toured the entire country of India. It gave her first hand information about India and middle-classIndians who were affected more by British rule and its system of education. Her long-time interest ineducation resulted in the founding of the Central Hindu College at Benares (1898).First woman presidentof Indian NationalCongress
  • 43. She also became involved in Indian freedom movement.In 1916, she founded Home Rule League which advocated self rule by Indians.In 1907 she became President of the Theosophical Society of india.She became the first woman President of Indian National Congress in 1917.She started a newspaper, "New India", criticized British rule and was jailed for sedition.After the arrival of Gandhiji on Indian national scene, differences arose between Mahatma Gandhi andAnnie Besant. Gradually, she withdrew from active politics.Annie Besant died on September 20, 1933 at Adyar (Madras). As per her wish her ashes were immersedin Ganga in Benares.Her Literary Works:The Political Status of Women (1874)My Path to Atheism (1877)The Law Of Population (1877)Marriage, As It Was, As It Is, And As It Should Be: A Plea For Reform (1878)Autobiographical Sketches (1885)Why I became a Theosophist (1889)The Devachanic Plane. Theosophical Publishing House, London, ca 1895.The Ancient Wisdom (1898)Thought Forms (1901)Bhagavad Gita (translation) (1905)Study in Consciousness – A contribution to the science of psychology. Theosophical PublishingHouse, Madras, ca 1907.Introduction to Yoga (1908)Australian Lectures (1908)JainismMan and his bodies. Theosophical Publishing House, London, 1911.Mans life in this and other worlds. Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1913.Occult Chemistry (With Charles Webster Leadbeater)Initiation: The Perfecting of Man (1923)The Doctrine of the Heart (1920)Esoteric Christianity.The Future of Indian Politics (booklet), Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1922The Life and Teaching of Muhammad, Madras, 1932Memory and Its Nature, Theosophical Publishing House, Madras, ca 1935. (With Helena Blavatsky).
  • 44. Vijaya Lakshmi PanditBorn: August 18, 1900, AllahabadDied: December 1, 1990Vijaya Lakshmi Nehru Pandit was an Indian diplomat and politician, thesister of Jawaharlal Nehru, the aunt of Indira Gandhi and the great-aunt ofRajiv Gandhi, all of whom served as Prime Minister of India.She was married to Ranjit Pandit, a barrister from Kathiawar on may 10,1921 when she was 21 years old. Three children were born to her –Chandra lekha, Nayantara Sahgal, Rita Vitasta.She was first arrested for presiding over a crowded public meeting whenthe independence pledge was taken and held for 18 years ofimprisonment.When the Indian national congress took part in provincial elections sheand her husband were elected to the U.P Assembly.Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit was appointed as the Minister for Health and Local self government in 1937. Sheheld post till 1939 and again from 1946 to 1947.Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit was the first woman minister in India.For two years, she served as the president of the ALL INDIA WOMAN’S CONFERENCE and then herhusband died in his last imprisonment in 1944.After Indias independence in 1947, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit became free Indias first ambassador to theSoviet Union. She was ambassador from 1949 to 1951.When she returned to India in 1952, she contested the first general elections in independent India andbecame an MP.She became the member of the constituent Assembly and was elected twice to the parliament and sheled India’s first goodwill mission to china and from 1962-1964 served as the governor of MaharashtraWhen Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister in the year 1966, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit took retirementfrom active politics. After taking voluntary retirement, she went to the peaceful Dehradun city.In 1953, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit became the first woman elected president of the UN General Assemblywhere she spoke against apartheid and in favour of world peace.• First womanminster in India.• First womanpresident of UNGeneral Assembly
  • 45. Literary Works:1. The Evolution of India (1958).2. The Scope of Happiness: A Personal Memoir (1979).
  • 46. Krishna HutheesingKrishna Nehru Hutheesing (1907–1967) was an Indian writer, the youngest sister ofJawaharlal Nehru and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, and part of the Nehru-Gandhi family.Born Krishna Nehru, in Mirganj, Allahabad to Motilal Nehru, an Indianindependence activist and leader of the Indian National Congress, and Swarup Rani.she was married to Gunottam (Raja) Hutheesing, who belonged to aprominent Ahmedabad family that built the Hutheesing Jain Temple.Gunottam Hutheesing was well known in Indias elite social circles and was ahousehold name in India throughout most of the 20th century.During later 1950s, he became anti-Nehru and in 1959, supported former Governor General C.Rajagopalachari, to form a conservative political party known as the “Swatantra Party.”She has two sons: Harsha Hutheesing and Ajit Hutheesing.Mrs. Hutheesing documented her life as well as the lives of her brother Nehru and her niece, IndiraGandhi, in a series of well regarded books that intertwine history with personal anecdotes.Bibliography:Shadows on the wallThe story of GandhijiWe Nehrus, by Krishna (Nehru) Hutheesing with Alden HatchDear to Behold: An Intimate Portrait of Indira GandhiWith No Regrets - An Autobiography, by Krishna Nehru HutheesingNehrus Letters to His SisterHer husband, Raja Hutheesing, also wrote books, like:The Great Peace: An Asians Candid Report on Red China (1953)Window on China (1953)Tibet fights for freedom: the story of the March 1959 uprising (1960).Sister ofJawaharlalNehru
  • 47. Feroze GandhiBorn: September 12, 1912, MumbaiDied: September 8, 1960, DelhiFeroze Jehangir Gandhi or Feroze Gandhy was an Indian politician andjournalist, and publisher of the The National Herald and TheNavjivan newspapers from Lucknow.He became a member of the provincial parliament (1950–1952) from RaeBareli, and later a member of the Lok Sabha, the Lower House ofIndias parliament.In 1942 he married Indira Nehru (later Prime Minister of India) and they hadtwo sons, Rajiv Gandhi (also later a Prime Minister) and Sanjay Gandhi, andthus became part of the Nehru dynasty.Early life:Feroze Jehangir Gandhi was born in Mumbai at the Tehmulji Nariman Hospital situated in Fort, toa Parsi (Zoroastrian) family from Gujarat.Feroze was the youngest of the five children of Jehangir Faredoon Gandhi and Ratimai Gandhi (formerlyRatimai Commissariat).His elder brothers were Dorab Jehangir Gandhi and Faridun Jehangir Gandhi. while his two elder sisterswere Tehmina Kershashp Gandhi and Aloo Gandhi Dastur. His parents lived in Nauroji NatakwalaBhawan in Khetwadi Mohalla in Bombay.His father Jehangir Gandhi was a Marine Engineer in Kellick Nixon and was later promoted as a WarrantEngineer.In the early 1920s, after the death of his father, Feroze and his mother moved to Allahabad to live withhis unmarried maternal aunt, Shirin Commissariat, a surgeon at the citys Lady Dufferin Hospital. Heattended the Vidya Mandir High School and then graduated from the British-staffed Ewing ChristianCollege. He went on to study at the London School of EconomicsCareer:In March 1930, the youth wing of Congress Freedom fighters, the Vanar Sena was formed. Gandhi metKamala Nehru and Indira among the women demonstrators picketing outside Ewing Christian College.Kamala fainted with the heat of the sun and Gandhi went to comfort her. The next day, he abandonedhis studies in 1930 to join the Indian independence movement. He was imprisoned in 1930, alongwith Lal Bahadur Shastri, head of Allahabad District Congress Committee, and lodged in Faizabad Jail forHusband of IndiraGandhi
  • 48. nineteen months. Soon after his release, he was involved with the agrarian no-rent campaign intheUnited Province (now Uttar Pradesh) and was imprisoned twice, in 1932 and 1933, while workingclosely with Nehru.[Feroze grew close to the Nehru family, especially to Indiras mother Kamala Nehru, accompanying her tothe TB Sanatorium at Bhowali in 1934, helping arrange her trip to Europe when her condition worsenedin April 1935, and visiting her at the sanitarium at Badenweiler and finally at Laussane, where he was ather bedside when she died on 28 February 1936. In the following years, Indira and Feroze grew closer toeach other while in England. They married in March 1942 according to Hindu rituals.The couple were arrested and jailed in August 1942, during the Quit India Movement less than sixmonths after their marriage; he was imprisoned for a year in Allahabads Naini Central Prison. Thecoming five years were of comfortable domestic life and the couple had two sons, Rajiv and Sanjay,born in 1944 and 1946 respectively.After independence, Jawaharlal became the first Prime Minister of India. Feroze and Indira settled inAllahabad with their two young children, and Feroze became Managing Director of The NationalHerald, a newspaper founded by his father-in-law.He was also the first chairman of Indian Oil Corporation Limited.After being a member of the provincial parliament (1950–1952), Gandhi won independent Indias firstgeneral elections in 1952, from Rae Bareli constituency in Uttar Pradesh.Gandhi soon became a prominent force in his own right, criticizing the government of his father-in-lawand beginning a fight against corruption.In 1957, he was re-elected from Rae Bareli. In the parliament in 1958, he raised the HaridasMundhra scandal involving the government controlled LIC insurance company. This was a hugeembarrassment to the clean image of Nehrus government and eventually led to the resignation of theFinance Minister T.T. Krishnamachari. His rift with Indira had also become public knowledge by then,and added to the media interest in the matter.Feroze also initiated a number of nationalization drives, starting with the Life Insurance Corporation. Atone point he also suggested that Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO) be nationalizedsince they were charging nearly double the price of a Japanese railway engine. This raised a stir in theParsi community since the Tatas were also Parsi.Death:Gandhi suffered a heart attack in 1958. Indira, who stayed with her father at Teen Murti House, theofficial residence of the prime minister, was at that time away on a state visit to Bhutan. She returned tolook after him in Kashmir. Gandhi died in 1960 at the Willingdon Hospital, Delhi, after suffering a secondheart attack. He was cremated and his ashes interred at the Parsi cemetery in Allahabad.His Rae Bareli Lok Sabha constituency seat was held by his daughter-in-law, and wife of RajivGandhi, Sonia Gandhi from 2004 until now.
  • 49. Sanjay GandhiBorn: December 14, 1946, New DelhiDied: June 23, 1980, New DelhiSanjay Gandhi was an Indian politician. The younger son of PrimeMinister Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi, he was a member ofthe Nehru-Gandhi dynasty.During his lifetime he was widely expected to succeed his mother as headof the Indian National Congress, but following his early death in a planecrash his older brother Rajiv became their mothers heir, and succeededher as Prime Minister of India after her death.Sanjays widow Maneka Gandhi and son Varun Gandhi are also politiciansfrom BJP.Sanjay Gandhi was an MP from Amethi constituency, Uttar Pradesh.Sanjay studied Grades 7 and half of Grade 8 at the Doon School and the remainder of Grade 8 throughGrade 11 at St. Columbas School, Delhi. Sanjay never attended college, but took up an apprenticeshipwith Rolls-Royce in Crewe, England. He was very interested in sports cars, and also obtained a pilotslicense. While he was building a career as an airline pilot independent of politics, Sanjay still chose toremain close to his mother.Maruti Udyog:In 1971, Prime Minister Indira Gandhis Cabinet proposed the production of a "Peoples car"—anefficient indigenous automobile that middle-class Indians could afford.Maruti Udyog, today Indias premier automobile manufacturing corporation, was founded by SanjayGandhi, but the company did not produce any vehicles during his lifetime.Sanjay Gandhi then contacted Volkswagen AG from West Germany for a possible collaboration, transferof technology and joint production of the Indian version of the "Peoples Car", to emulate Volkswagensworldwide success with the Beetle.When Suzuki came to know that the Government of India had contacted Volkswagen as well, it dideverything to pip the German company in the race to produce Indias first Peoples Car (Maruti 800).Involvement in politics and government:Although he had not been elected and held no office, Sanjay began exercising his new-found influencewith Cabinet ministers, high-level government officers and police officers. While many Cabinet ministersand officials resigned in protest, Sanjay reportedly appointed their successors.Son of Indira Gandhi& Founder of MarutiUdyog
  • 50. In one famous example, Inder Kumar Gujral resigned from the Ministry of Information andBroadcasting when Sanjay attempted to direct the affairs of his ministry and give him orders. Gujral isreported to have angrily rebuked Sanjay and refused to take orders from an unelected person. He wasreplaced by Vidya Charan Shukla, a Sanjay Gandhi acolyte.In another incident, after popular Bollywoodsinger Kishore Kumar refused to attend a function ofthe Indian Youth Congress, due to disagreements over his fees, his songs were banned on All IndiaRadio upon Gandhis insistence.Jama Masjid slum and family planning controversies:In 1976, Sanjay Gandhi launched a drive to cleanse Delhi of slums and force their residents to leave thecapital city. Sanjay reportedly ordered officials of the Delhi Development Authority, headed by hisassociate Jagmohan, to clear the heavily populated, mostly Muslim slum near the TurkmanGate and Jama Masjid in Delhi. This forced resettlement of more than 250,000 people, killed at least adozen people, according to reports, and became a touchstone for the opposition.Death:Sanjay Gandhi died in an air crash on 23 June 1980 near Safdarjung Airport in New Delhi. He was flying anew aircraft of the Delhi Flying club, and, while performing a loop over his office, lost control andcrashed. The only passenger in the plane, Captain Subhash Saxena, was also killed in the crash.
  • 51. Varun GandhiBorn: 13 March 1980, Delhi, IndiaFeroze Varun Gandhi is an Indian politician, he is a member of Lok Sabha, thelower house of Parliament of India, representing the Pilibhit constituency.He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party National Executive and theyoungest National Secretary in the history of the party.Formative years and education:Varun Gandhi was born in Delhi on 13 March 1980 to SanjayGandhi and Maneka Gandhi, he is the grandson of the former Prime Ministerof India, Indira Gandhi and the great-grandson of Indias first PrimeMinister, Jawaharlal Nehru. His father died in a plane crash when he wasthree months old. His grandmother was assassinated when Varun was fouryears old. Indira Gandhi is said to have been very fond of Varun and was greatly distressed when hismother left the household.He attended Rishi Valley School and the British School, New Delhi, where he was elected secretary ofthe student council. According to a press statement released by Sumantra Bose, Professor ofInternational and Comparative Politics at London School of Economics, Varun completed his Bachelor ofScience in Economics from the London School of Economics via the University of London ExternalSystem in the year 2002. He also completed his Master of Science in Public Policy from the School ofOriental and African Studies,University of London, in 2004 also through correspondence.Varun is married to Yamini Roy, daughter of late diplomat Sunil Roy Chowdhury and film enthusiast Dr.Aruna Vasudev.Jan Lokpal bill:In August 2011, Varun Gandhi strongly pitched for the Jan Lokpal Bill. Gandhi offered his officialresidence to Hazare to hold his fast, after Hazare was denied permission by the government. WhenHazare was jailed, Gandhi offered to table the Jan Lokpal Bill in Parliament. On August 24, he went toRamlila Maidan as a common man to support the cause of Anna Hazare, becoming the first politician toopenly support the anti-corruption cause.Son of SanjayGandhi & YoungestNational Secretaryof BJP
  • 52. Bal Gangadhar TilakBorn: July 23, 1856, RatnagiriDied: August 1, 1920, MumbaiLokmanya Tilak born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak was an Indiannationalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and independence fighterwho was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement.The British colonial authorities derogatorily called him:“Father of the Indian unrest”Bal Gangadhar Tilak was popularly called as Lokmanya (Beloved of thepeople).During freedom struggle, his slogan:“Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it”Inspired millions of Indians.Early life:Bal Gangadhar Tilak was born on July 23, 1856 in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. He was a Chitpavan Brahminby caste.His father Gangadhar Ramachandra Tilak was a Sanskrit scholar and a famous teacher. Tilak was abrilliant student and he was very good in mathematics. Since childhood Tilak had an intolerant attitudetowards injustice and he was truthful and straightforward in nature. He was among Indias firstgeneration of youth to receive a modern, college education.When Tilak was ten his father was transferred to Pune from Ratnagiri. This brought sea change in Tilak’slife.He joined the Anglo-Vernacular School in Pune and got education from some of the well knownteachers. Soon after coming to Pune Tilak lost his mother and by the time he was sixteen he lost hisfather too.While Tilak was studying in Matriculation he was married to a 10-year-old girl called Satyabhama. Afterpassing the Matriculation Examination Tilak joined the Deccan College. In 1877, Bal Gangadhar Tilak gothis B.A. degree with a first class in mathematics. He continued his studies and got the LL.B. degree too.British called him‘Father of the Indianunrest’
  • 53. After graduation, Tilak began teaching mathematics in a private school in Pune and later became ajournalist. He became a strong critic of the Western education system, feeling it demeaning to Indianstudents and disrespectful to Indias heritage. He came to the conclusion that good citizens can bemoulded only through good education. He believed that every Indian had to be taught about Indianculture and national ideals.Along with his classmate Agarkar and great social reformer Vishnushastry Chiplunkar, Bal GangadharTilak founded “Deccan Education Society” to impart quality education to India’s youth.The very next year after the Deccan Education Society was founded, Tilak started two weeklies, Kesariand Mahratta.Kesari was Marathi weekly while Mahratta was English weekly. Soon both the newspapers becamevery popular. In his newspapers, Tilak highlighted the plight of Indians. He gave a vivid picture of thepeoples sufferings and of actual happenings. Tilak called upon every Indian to fight for his right. BalGangadhar Tilak used fiery language to arouse the sleeping Indians.Indian National Congress:Bal Gangadhar Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in 1890.He was a member of the Municipal Council of Pune, Bombay Legislature, and an elected Fellow of theBombay University. Tilak was a great social reformer. He issued a call for the banning of child marriageand welcomed widow remarriage. Through the celebrations of Ganapati Festival and the birthday ofthe Shivaji he organized people.Tilak took up the peoples cause by publishing inflammatory articles in his paper Kesari (Kesari waswritten in Marathi), and Maratha was written in English, quoting the Hindu scripture, the BhagavadGita, to say that no blame could be attached to anyone who killed an oppressor without any thought ofreward.He was sentenced to rigorous imprisonment for one and a half year. Tilak was released in 1898.When he emerged from prison, he was revered as a martyr and a national hero. He adopted a newslogan, "Swaraj (self-rule) is my birthright and I shall have it."Following the partition of Bengal in 1905, which was a strategy set out by Lord Curzon to weaken thenationalist movement, Tilak encouraged the Swadeshi movement and the Boycott movement. TheBoycott movement consisted of the boycott of foreign goods and also the social boycott of any Indianwho used foreign goods. The Swadeshi movement consisted of the usage of goods produced by oneselfor in India. Once foreign goods were boycotted, there was a gap which had to be filled by the productionof those goods in India itself. Tilak, therefore, rightly said that the Swadeshi and Boycott movements aretwo sides of the same coin.
  • 54. Tilak opposed the moderate views of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and was supported by fellow Indiannationalists Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab. They were referred to as the Lal-Bal-Pal triumvirate.In 1907, the annual session of the Congress Party was held at Surat, Gujarat. Trouble broke out betweenthe moderate and the radical factions of the party over the selection of the new president of theCongress.The party split into the "Jahal matavadi" ("Hot Faction" or radicals), led by Tilak, Pal and Lajpat Rai,and the "Maval matavadi" ("Soft Faction" or moderates) led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.Arrest:On 30 April 1908, two Bengali youths, Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose, threw a bomb on a carriageat Muzzafarpur, in order to kill the Chief Presidency Majistrate Douglas Kingsford of Calcutta fame, buterroneously killed some women travelling in it. While Chaki committed suicide when caught, Bose washanged. Tilak, in his paper Kesari, defended the revolutionaries and called for immediate Swaraj or self-rule. The Government swiftly arrested him for sedition. He asked a young Muhammad Ali Jinnah torepresent him. But a special jury convicted him, and the Parsi judge D. D. Davar gave him thecontroversial sentence of six years transportation and a Rs 1,000 fine. As a result, Tilak was sentto Mandalay, Burma from 1908 to 1914.While imprisoned, he continued to read and write, further developing his ideas on the Indian nationalistmovement. While in the prison he wrote the most-famous Gita Rahasya. Lots of copies of which weresold, and the money was donated for the freedom fighting.Tilak was released on June 8, 1914.All India Home Rule League:In 1916, Tilak decided to build a separate organization called the Home Rule League. Its goal wasswaraj. Tilak went from village to village, and explained the aim of his league to the farmers and wontheir hearts. He traveled constantly in order to organize the people. While fighting for people’s cause BalGangadhar Tilak died on August 1, 1920.Social Contribution:In 1894, Tilak transformed household worshipping of Ganesha into Sarvajanik Ganeshotsav.Gopal Ganesh Agarkar was the first editor of Kesari, a prominent Marathi weekly in his days, which wasstarted by Lokmanya Tilak in 1880-81.Lokmanya Tilak, established the Shri Shivaji Raigad Smarak Mandal along with Senapati KhanderaoDabhade II of Talegaon Dabhade, who became the Founder President of the Mandal.In 1895, Tilak founded the Shri Shivaji Fund Committee for celebration of Shiv Punya Tithi and for thereconstruction of the Samadhi of Shivaji Maharaj at Fort Raigad.
  • 55. Tilak said:"I regard India as my Motherland and my Goddess, the people in India my kith and kin, and loyal andsteadfast work for their political and social emancipation my highest religion and duty".While fighting for people’s cause Bal Gangadhar Tilak died on August 1, 1920.Literary Works:1. The Arctic Home in the Vedas.2. Shrimadbhagwadgeetarahasya.3. He also wrote Geetha rahasya in prison at port blair.Government of India Coin:In 2007, the Government of India released a coin to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of BalGangadhar Tilak.
  • 56. B R AmbedkarBorn: April 14, 1891, Mhow, (Now in Madhya Pradesh)Died: December 6, 1956, DelhiBhimrao Ramji Ambedkar popularly known as Babasaheb Ambedkar, wasan Indian Jurist, Political Leader, Philosopher, Anthrapologist, Historian,Orator, Economist, Teacher and Editor.Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was elected as the chairman of the drafting committeethat was constituted by the Constituent Assembly to draft a constitutionfor the independent India.B R Ambedkar was voted as the ‘Greatest Indian’ on 14 August 2012 in apoll spearheaded by History TV18 and CNN IBN.Early Life:Born on 14 April 1891 in Mhow, Madhya Pradesh, Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was the 14thchild of hisparents, Bhimabai Sakpal and Ramji.He was the victim of religious untouchability by birth. He was born in a family, which was a part of theHindu Mahar caste. This caste was considered to be untouchables in the society and have to faceimmense discriminations, both in the social as well as in the economic fields.His father was in army and was promoted to the rank of Subedar in the Mhow Cantonment, IndianArmy.At birth, ‘Sakpal’ was the surname of Bhimrao and "Ambavade" was the name of his native village. Toavoid the socio-economic discrimination and the ill-treatment of the higher classes of the society,Bhimrao changed his surname from "Sakpal" to "Ambedkar" by the help of a Brahmin teacher, who hadgreat faith in him. Since then, Bhimrao and his family used the title, Ambavedkar or Ambedkar.Education:He had great interest in education & he got admission into a government school. After his father retiredfrom the Army, the entire family shifted to Satara, Maharashtra. Ambedkar was admitted to a localschool there and had to face discriminations from all sectors.He was made to sit on the floor, away from other students. He was a man of patience from his earlychildhood and underwent all this agony without a fuss.First Law Minister ofIndia
  • 57. In 1908, he passed his Matriculation exam with flying colors from Bombay University. His highereducation continued in Elphinstone College. Political Science and Economics were the subjects in whichhe graduated from the Bombay University in 1912.Just a year after his graduation, Bhimrao Ambedkar lost his father. He acquired a job in Baroda and itwas the Maharaja of Baroda, who awarded him a scholarship to go for higher education to the UnitedStates of America.Finally, he acquired a degree and doctorate from Columbia University in the year 1916. He was a Masterof Arts and also attained a Doctorate in Philosophy on his thesis on "National Dividend for India: AHistorical and Analytical Study".By 1923 he completed a thesis on "The Problem of the Rupee". After completing his studies in London,Ambedkar returned to India. In July 1924, he founded the `Bahishkrit Hitkaraini Sabha`, OutcastesWelfare Association with the aim to uplift the downtrodden socially and politically.In 1917, his scholarship was terminated by the Government of Baroda and Bhimrao Ambedkar had tocome back to India.As Ambedkar was educated by the Princely State of Baroda, he was bound to serve that State. He wasappointed as Military Secretary to the Gaikwar of Baroda but had to quit within a short time. Hedescribed the incident in his short autobiography, Waiting for a Visa.Social reforms & political lifeAfter his return to India, Bhimrao Ambedkar was made the political secretary of the Maharaja of Baroda.He became victim of caste discrimination again and was humiliated greatly by his peers. It was duringthis time that Ambedkar began his movement to eradicate caste system and untouchability fromsociety. Ambedkar again went back to London, completed his law education and became a barrister.Untouchability and caste system were the two social evils that had haunted Dr. B.R. Ambedkar since hischildhood days. However, he thought of tackling the problem himself and began his fight againstuntouchability.He started publishing a weekly journal called Mooknayak (Dumb Hero or the Leader of the silent) onJanuary 31 with the help of Chatrapati Shahu Maharaj I of Kolhapur.In July 1924, he founded the Bahishkrit Hitkaraini Sabha (Outcastes Welfare Association). The aim ofthe Sabha was to uplift the downtrodden socially and politically and bring them to the level of the othersin the Indian society.In 1927, he led the Mahad March at the Chowdar Tank at Colaba, near Bombay, to give theuntouchables the right to draw water from the public tank where he burnt copies of the Manusmritipublicly.
  • 58. In 1929, Ambedkar made the controversial decision to co-operate with the all-British Simon Commissionwhich was to look into setting up a responsible Indian Government in India.When a separate electorate was announced for the depressed classes under Ramsay McDonaldCommunal Award, Gandhiji went on a fast unto death against this decision. Leaders rushed to Dr.Ambedkar to drop his demand.On September 24, 1932, Dr. Ambedkar and Gandhiji reached an understanding, which became thefamous Poona Pact.According to the pact the separate electorate demand was replaced with special concessions likereserved seats in the regional legislative assemblies and Central Council of States.POONA PACT:Due to Ambedkars prominence and popular support amongst the untouchable community, hewas invited to attend the Second Round Table Conference in London in 1932.Gandhi did not attend second round table conference but attended first and last.When the British government and British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald agreed withAmbedkar and announced the awarding of separate electorates, Gandhi began a fast whileimprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of Pune on September 20 1932 against the separateelectorate for untouchables only.Gandhis fast provoked huge civil unrest across India and orthodox Hindu leaders.Fearing a communal reprisal and genocide of untouchables, Ambedkar agreed under massivecoercion from the supporters of Gandhi. This agreement, which saw Gandhi end his fast, wascalled the Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar signed on 24 September 1932 at YerwadaCentral Jail in Pune.As a result of the agreement, Ambedkar dropped the demand for separate electorates that waspromised through the British Communal Award prior to Ambedkars meeting with Gandhi.Instead, a certain number of seats were reserved specifically for untouchables (in the agreement,called the "Depressed Class").Dr. Ambedkar attended all the three Round Table Conferences in London and forcefully argued for thewelfare of the "untouchables". Meanwhile, British Government decided to hold provincial elections in1937. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar set up the "Independent Labor Party" in August 1936 to contest the electionsin the Bombay province. His party won 15 seats in the central legislative assembly in the 1937 elections.In 1937, Dr. Ambedkar introduced a Bill to abolish the "khoti" system of land tenure in the Konkanregion, the serfdom of agricultural tenants and the Mahar "watan" system of working for theGovernment as slaves.
  • 59. Ambedkar objected to the decision of Congress and Mahatma Gandhi to call the untouchablecommunity as “Harijans or People of God”Bhimrao was strongly opposed to this title for the untouchables. He argued that if the "untouchables"were people of God then all others would be people of monsters. But the Indian National Congresssucceeded in introducing the term Harijan.After independenceIn 1947, when India became independent, the first Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, invited Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar, who had been elected as a Member of the Constituent Assembly from Bengal, tojoin his Cabinet as first Law Minister of independent India.The Constituent Assembly entrusted the job of drafting the Constitution to a committee and Dr.Ambedkar was elected as Chairman of this Drafting Committee.In February 1948, Dr. Ambedkar presented the Draft Constitution before the people of India; it wasadopted on November 26, 1949.In October 1948, Dr. Ambedkar submitted the Hindu Code Bill to the Constituent Assembly in anattempt to codify the Hindu law. The Bill caused great divisions even in the Congress party.Consideration for the bill was postponed to September 1951. When the Bill was taken up it wastruncated. A dejected Ambedkar relinquished his position as Law Minister.Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to the lower house of parliament, the LokSabha, but was defeated. He was appointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha inMarch 1952 and would remain as member till death.Conversion to BuddhismIn 1950, Ambedkar traveled to Sri Lanka to attend a convention of Buddhist scholars and monks. Afterhis return he decided to write a book on Buddhism and soon, converted himself to Buddhism. In hisspeeches, Ambedkar lambasted the Hindu rituals and caste division.Ambedkar founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha In 1955.His book "The Buddha and His Dhamma" was published posthumously.On October 14, 1956 Ambedkar organized a public ceremony to convert around five lakh of hissupporters into Buddhism. Ambedkar traveled to Kathmandu to attend the Fourth World BuddhistConference.He completed his final manuscript, "The Buddha or Karl Marx" on December 2, 1956.On December 6, 1956, Baba Saheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar died peacefully in his sleep.
  • 60. Works of B.R. AmbedkarDr. B.R. Ambedkar was a scholarly person and had written several books that dealt with myriad topicsranging from politics to Buddhism, from castes in India to important political figures in India. Some of hismajor writings are as follows:• Essay on Untouchables and Untouchability: Social• Small Holdings in India and their Remedies• Buddha or Karl Marx• Manu and the Shudras• Untouchables or the Children of Indias Ghetto• Who were the Shudras?• Ranade, Gandhi and Jinnah• Statement of Evidence to the Royal Commission on Indian Currency• Buddha and his Dhamma• Revolution and Counter-Revolution• Paramountacy and the Claim of the Indian States to be Independent• Decentralisation of Imperial Finance• The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India: A Study in the Provincial• The Untouchables: Who Were They and Why They Became Untouchables?• History of Indian Currency and Banking• Communal Deadlock and A Way to Solve it• Federation Versus Freedom• Notes on Acts and Laws• Philosophy of Hinduism• Ancient Indian Commerce• Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development• Annihilation of Caste• India on the Eve of the Crown Government• Preservation of Social Order• Which is Worse? Slavery or Untouchability• The Constitution of British India• Pakistan or the Partition of India• Need for Checks and Balances3/4Article on Linguistic State• Maharashtra as a Linguistic Province• Riddles in Hinduism• Lectures on English ConstitutionAmbedkar was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian award, in 1990.His message to his followers was "Educate! Organize! Agitate!"
  • 61. FilmsSeveral movies, plays, and other works have been based on the life and thoughts of Ambedkar. Theseinclude:Jabbar Patel directed the English-language movie, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, in 2000 sponsored byIndias National Film Development Corporation and the Ministry of Social Justice. The role ofAmbedkar was played by Mammootty (Muhammadkutty Ismail Panaparambil)David Blundell established Arising Light, a film on the life on Dr B. R. Ambedkar and social welfare inIndia.The play Ambedkar Aur Gandhi, directed by Arvind Gaur and written by Rajesh Kumar, tracks twoprominent personalities of history – Mahatma Gandhi and Bhimrao Ambedkar. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar -Bajrang Bali Singh, M.K.Gandhi - Viren BasoyaA Vedic scholar from Pune, Prabhakar Joshi, began writing a biography of Ambedkar in Sanskrit in2004. Joshi is a recipient of Maharashtra Governments Mahakavi Kalidas award. The completedwork, "Bhimayan", comprises 1577 Shlokas and is intended as atonement for the injustice done tothe young Bhimrao by some teachers.The Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Samajik Parivarthan Sthal has been constructed at Lucknow by the BSPleader Mayawati. The chaitya consists of monuments showing Ambedkars biography and quotes.
  • 62. Gopal Krishna GokhaleBorn: May 9, 1866, Kothulk, Ratnagari districtDied: February 19, 1915, MumbaiGopal Krishna Gokhale was one of the pioneers of the Indiannational movement. He was a senior leader of the Indian NationalCongress.Gandhiji considered him as his political guru.Apart from being a political leader, Gopalkrishna Gokhale, was also asocial reformer.He founded the "Servants of India Society"-an organization dedicatedto the cause of common peopleEarly Life:Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born on May 9, 1866 in Kothapur, Maharashtra. His father Krishna Rao was afarmer who was forced to work as clerk, as the soil of the region was not conducive for agriculture.His mother Valubai was a simple woman. Gokhale received his early education at the Rajaram HighSchool in Kothapur with the help of financial assistance from his elder brother. Later on he moved on toBombay and graduated from Elphinstone College, Bombay in 1884 at the age of 18.After graduation, he moved on to teaching, and took a position as an Assistant Master in the NewEnglish School in Pune. In 1885, Gokhale moved on to Pune and became one of the founding membersof Fergusson College, along with his colleagues in Deccan Education Society.Gopal Krishna Gokhale gave nearly two decades of his life to Fergusson College and rose to becomeprincipal of the college. During this time, Gokhale came in contact with Mahadev Govind Ranade.Ranade was a judge, scholar, and social reformer, whom Gokhale called his guru. Gokhale worked withRanade in Poona Sarvajanik Sabha of which Gokhale became the Secretary.Gokhale also worked with Ranade in a quarterly Journal, called "Sarvajanik".Freedom StruggleGopal Krishna Gokhale entered public life in 1886 at the age of 20.He delivered a public address on "India under the British Rule", which was highly appreciated. Gokhaleregularly contributed articles to Bal Gangadhar Tilaks weekly "Mahratta". Through his articles he triedPolitical Guru of Gandhiji
  • 63. to awaken the latent patriotism of Indian people. Soon, Gokhale was promoted as Secretary of theDeccan Education Society.When the Indian National Congress held its session in Poona in 1895, he was the secretary of theReception Committee. From this session, Gokhale became a prominent member of the Indian NationalCongress. Gokhale was twice elected as president of Pune Municipality.Servants of India SocietyIn 1902, Gokhale left the Fergusson College. He became a Member of the Imperial Legislative Council inDelhi. There he spoke for the people of the country in an able manner. Gokhale had an excellent graspof the economic problems of our country which he ably presented during the debates.In 1905, Gokhale started a new society called "Servants of India Society". This society trained workersfor the service of the country. In the same year, Gokhale went to England to voice his concerns relatingto the unfair treatment of the Indian people by the British government.Gokhale was appointed a CIE (Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire) in the 1904 New YearsHonours List, a formal recognition by the Empire of his service.Mentor to both Jinnah & GandhiGokhale was famously a mentor to Mahatma Gandhi in his formative years.In Gandhi’s autobiography (The story of my experiments with the truth), Gandhi calls Gokhale hismentor and guide. Gandhi also recognised Gokhale as an admirable leader and master politician,describing him asPure as crystal, gentle as a lamb, brave as a lion and chivalrous to a faultand the most perfect man in the political field.Gokhale was also the role model and mentor of Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the future founder of Pakistan,who in 1912, aspired to become the "Muslim Gokhale".DeathGokhale died on Feb 19 1915 at an early age of forty-nine. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, his lifelong politicalopponent, said at his funeral:"This diamond of India, this jewel of Maharastra, this prince of workers is takingeternal rest on funeral ground. Look at him and try to emulate him".The Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics (GIPE), commonly known as Gokhale Institute, is one ofthe oldest research and training institutes in Economics in India. It is located on BMCC Road in theDeccan Gymkhana area of Pune, Maharashtra.
  • 64. Lala Lajpat RaiBorn: January 28, 1865, DhudikeDied: November 17, 1928, LahoreLala Lajpat Rai was one of the foremost leaders who fought againstBritish rule in India.He became the congress president in 1920.He was popularly known as “Punjab Kesari (Lion of the Punjab)”He was also associated with activities of Punjab National Bank andLakshmi Insurance Company in their early stagesEarly LifeLala Lajpat Rai was born on January 28, 1865 in village Dhudike, inpresent day Moga district of Punjab.He was the eldest son of Munshi Radha Kishan Azad and Gulab Devi. His father was an Aggarwal Baniaby caste. His mother inculcated strong moral values in him.Lala Lajpat Rai joined the Government College at Lahore in 1880 to study Law. While in college he camein contact with patriots and future freedom fighters like Lala Hans Raj and Pandit Guru Dutt. The threebecame fast friends and joined the Arya Samaj founded by Swami Daya Nand Saraswati. He passed hisVakilship Examination in Second Division from Government College in 1885 and started his legal practicein Hissar.He was a devotee of Arya Samaj and was editor of Arya Gazette, which he set up during his studenttime.He was elected to the Hissar municipality as a member and later as secretary. He shifted to Lahore in1892.He was a fearless journalist and founded and edited The Punjabee and The Bande Mataram and theEnglish weekly The People.Freedom StruggleLala Lajpat Rai was one of the three most prominent Hindu Nationalist members of the Indian NationalCongress. He was part of the Lal-Bal-Pal trio. The other two members of the trio were Bal GangadharPunjab Kesari (Lion ofPunjab)
  • 65. Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal. They formed the extremist faction of the Indian National Congress, asopposed to the moderate one led first by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.Lalaji actively participated in the struggle against partition of Bengal. Along with Surendra NathBanerjee, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurorbindo Ghosh, he galvanized Bengal and the nation in a vigorouscampaign of Swadeshi.Lalaji was arrested on May 3, 1907 for creating "turmoil" in Rawalpindi. He was put in Mandalay jail forsix months and was released on November 11, 1907.Travels to AmericaHe went to USA to galvanize support for India.He founded the Indian Home League Society of America and wrote a book called "Young India". Thebook severely indicted British rule in India and was banned in Britain and India even before it waspublished. He was able to return to India in 1920 after the end of World War I.After his return, Lala Lajpat Rai,led the Punjab protests against the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre and theNon-Cooperation Movement. He was arrested several times. He disagreed with Gandhijis suspension ofNon-Cooperation movement due to the Chauri-Chaura incident, and formed the Congress IndependenceParty, which had a pro-Hindu slant.Commission ProtestsIn 1928, British Government decided to send Simon Commission to India to discuss constitutionalreforms. The Commission had no Indian member. This greatly angered Indians. In 1929, when theCommisssion came to India there were protests all over India. Lala Lajpat Rai himself led one suchprocession against Simon Commission. While the procession was peaceful, British Government brutallylathi charged the procession.Lala Lajpat Rai received severe head injuries and died on November17, 1928.Bhagat Singh, who was an eyewitness to this event, claimed that it was this act that caused him to vowto take revenge against the culprits of this violence.Gulab Devi Chest HospitalLala Lajpat Rais mother, Gulab Devi, died of TB in Lahore. In order to perpetuate her memory, LalaLajpat Rai established a Trust in 1927 to build and run a TB Hospital for women reportedly at the spotwhere she had breathed her last.
  • 66. Swami Dayananda SaraswatiBorn: February 12, 1824, GujaratDied: October 31, 1883, JodhpurOne of the most radical socio-religious reformers in the history of India wasDayanand Saraswati. Swami Dayanand Saraswati was the founder of AryaSamaj and propagated egalitarian approach of the Vedas at a time whenwidespread casteism was prevalent in the society. He has establishedgurukuls to impart Vedic education. He was an original scholar, whobelieved in the infallible authority of the Vedas.He is well known as the founder of the Arya Samaj, a Hindu reformmovement. He was the first to give the call for Swarajya "India for Indians"– in 1876, later taken up by Lokmanya Tilak.Dayanand was the first to give the word of Swadeshi long before Mahatma GandhiTankara was a town in Gujrat. There lived a wealthy Brahmin named Karshanji Lalji Tiwari. This good andjust man had faith in religious practices. In 1824 a son was born to the couple Karshanji and his wifeAmrithbai. The son was named Moolashankar. According to the custom of the place, he was also calledDayaram. This child was to become famous as Maharshi Dayananda.As a child Dayanand was brought up under the strictest Brahmin rule, and at the age of eight wasinvested with the Sacred Thread (Upanayna). When he was fourteen his father took him to the templeon the occasion of Shivaratri. Dayanand had to fast and keep awake the whole night in obedience toLord Shiva. In the night he saw a rat nibbling the offerings to the God and running over Shiva`s body. Hetried to find out from elders why this "God Almighty" could not defend himself against the menace ofpetty mice, for which he was admonished. This incident shattered Daya Nand Saraswati`s faith in theidol worship and Dayananda starting questioning traditional beliefs of Hinduism and inquiring about Godin early childhood. Thereafter he refused to participate in the religious rites for the rest of his life.The desire to give up family ties grew slowly in Moolashankar. He wanted to learn the answers to thequestions about life and death from a perfect sage. With this end in view, Mopolashankar wasdetermined to leave home in search of a worthy guru (a teacher). His parents decided to marry him offin his early teens which was very common in 19th century India, but he decided marriage was not forhim and ran away from home.Dayanand Saraswati was disillusioned with classical Hinduism and became a wandering monk. Helearned Panini`s Grammar to understand the Sanskrit texts. At this juncture, Moolashankar came acrossSwami Poornananda, a profound scholar and sanyasi. The Swamiji initiated the young man into the holyorders. Moolashankar became Swami Dayananda Saraswathi. For the next fifteen years he wandered all
  • 67. over the country in the search of a guru. On the heights of the Himalayan regions, his life was in dangeragain and again. He had to stroll day and night in forests where wild beasts roamed.And in the midst of his wanderings his devotion to his goal was tested, too. Then he came to know thatperfect yogis lived in the dense forest near the source of the river Narmada. Without caring for thedistance Dayananda walked hundreds of miles towards the south.Dayananda had the `darshan` of a monk, Poornashrama Swamy by name while he was approaching theriver Narmada. He was happy to hear the story of Dayananda`s wanderings. After hearing his story hesaid, "Dayanandaji, there is only one man on this earth who can fulfil your desire, and that man isVirajananda Dandeesha. He lives in Mathura."In 1860, he found his guru and mentor Swami Virjanand Saraswati at Mathura. He was blind. But he wasthe living form of enlightenment and could clear all the doubts of his disciples, quoting passages from allthe scriptures. Dayananda felt that this meeting with the great genius had fully rewarded all hishardships for fifteen years. He gladly surrendered himself at the feet of the great master.Dayanand Saraswati underwent rigorous training under Swami Virjanand Saraswati. Virjanand Saraswatigave him the name Dayanand and as gurudakshina extracted promise from Dayanand that he woulddevote his life for revival of Hinduism. With his extraordinary devotion and sense of service Dayanandasoon became the most beloved disciple of Virjanand Saraswati.Dayanand Saraswati believed that Hinduism has been corrupted by divergence from the foundingprinciples of the Vedas and misled by the priesthood for the priests` self-aggrandisement. He extensivelytraveled the country challenging the religious scholars and priests todiscussions and won repeatedly onthe strength of his arguments. He made fiery speeches condemning the caste system, idolatry, and childmarriages. Dayanand Saraswati being the first leader in the field of theology welcomed the advances ofsciences and technology.To him, the Vedas as the source book contain the seed of science, and to him, the Vedas advocate thephilosophy of dynamic realism.He pointed out the shortcomings of every one of them without Supporting or opposing any particularreligion. He told the people "Idol worship is not mentioned in the Vedas. The rational mind cannotaccept idol worship. God is everywhere God has no shape or form."He bitterly criticized the harmful and wicked customs that have come down through the centuries. Heexplained the greatness of the religion preached in the Vedas. He advocated the ideal age for a girl to bebetween 16 and 24, and for men between 25 and 40.In the course of his travels he came to Kashi (Benares) on 22nd October 1869 to take part in debateswith the greatest scholars in Kashi. It was Swamy Dayananda who won a great victory in a true sense, inthe debates about the correct explanation of scriptural texts from the point of view of both scholarshipand morality. He always worked hard for his ken desire to unite all people under the banner of a singlereligion. The Maharaja of Kashi with great respect invited Swamy Dayananda to his palace.
  • 68. Dayanand Saraswati founded Arya Samaj in Mumbai in 1875 to promote social service. SwamiDayananda`s creation, the Arya Samaj, is a unique component in Hinduism. Arya Samaj, postulates inprinciple equal justice for all men and all nations, together with equality of the sexes. The Arya Samajcondemns idol-worship, animal sacrifices, ancestor worship, pilgrimages, priestcraft, offerings made intemples, the caste system, untouchability, and child marriages. It repudiates a hereditary caste system,and only recognizes professions or guilds, suitable to the complementary aptitudes of men in society. Tomany people, the Arya Samaj aims to be a "universal church" based on the authority of the Vedas.Hegave new interpretations to reform the stagnant Hindu thought through his book "Satyaprakash" (TheLight of Truth). He profusely quoted the Vedas and other religious texts to insist that salvation was notthe only motto of a Hindu or Arya, as it was believed to be. Working for a noble cause was important tolead a fruitful worldly life. Thus salvation according to him was possible through social service.Dayananda Saraswati immensely contributed to establish equal rights of women and their right toeducation, reading of Indian scriptures. Swami Dayananda was convinced that a common language is agood means of unifying the members of a society. He, therefore, was of the opinion that Hindi should begiven the place of the national language. He translated the Vedas to Hindi from Sanskrit so that commonman can easily read the Vedas. The Arya Samaj is rare in Hinduism in its acceptance of women as leadersin prayer meetings and preaching. Arya Samaj is a rare stream in Hinduism that allows and encouragesconverts to Hinduism.Dayanand`s concept of Dharma is compressed in a certain area in his "Beliefs and Disbeliefs". He said, "Iaccept as Dharma whatever is in full conformity with impartial justice, truthfulness and the like; thatwhich is not opposed to the teachings of God as embodied in the Vedas. Whatever is not free frompartiality and is unjust, partaking of untruth and the like, and opposed to the teachings of God asembodied in the Vedas - that I hold as adharma." Again he says "He, who after careful thinking, is everready to accept truth and reject falsehood; who counts the happiness of others as he does that of hisown self, him I call just."He was among the first great Indian resolute who popularised the concept of "Swaraj", the right to self-determination vested in an individual, when India was ruled by the British. His Vedic message supportedby the Vedic notion of the divine nature of the individual, was to emphasize respect and reverence forother human beings. The nature is divine because the body was the temple where the human essence,soul or "Atma" could possibly interact with the creator "ParamAtma". In the 10 priniciples of the AryaSamaj, he enshrined the idea that "All actions should be performed with the prime objective ofbenefitting mankind" as opposed to following dogmatic rituals or revering idols and symbols. Dayanandaand the Arya Samaj provide the ideological strength of the Hindutva movement of the 20th century.
  • 69. Netaji Subhash Chandra BoseBorn: January 23, 1897, CuttackDied: UnknownSubhash Chandra Bose, affectionately called as Netaji, was one of themost prominent leaders of Indian freedom struggle.He founded Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) to overthrow BritishEmpire from India and came to acquire legendary status among Indianmasses.Early Life:Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa.His father Janaki Nath Bose was a famous lawyer and his motherPrabhavati Devi was a pious and religious lady. Subhas Chandra Bose wasthe ninth child among fourteen siblings. Subhas Chandra Bose was abrilliant student right from the childhood. He topped the matriculation examination of Calcutta provinceand graduated with a First Class in Philosophy from the Scottish Churches College in Calcutta. He wasstrongly influenced by Swami Vivekanandas teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student.To fulfill his parents wishes he went to England in 1919 to compete for Indian Civil Services. In Englandhe appeared for the Indian Civil Service competitive examination in 1920.He came 4thin the ICS examination and was selected but he did not want to work under an aliengovernment which would mean serving the British. He resigned from the civil service job and returnedto India in 1921.He started the newspaper Swaraj and took charge of publicity for the Bengal Provincial CongressCommittee.On Gandhijis instructions, he started working under Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, whom he lateracknowledged his political guru.In the year 1923, Bose was elected the President of All India Youth Congress and also the Secretary ofBengal State Congress.He was also editor of the newspaper "Forward", founded by Chittaranjan Das. Bose worked as the CEOof the Calcutta Municipal Corporation for Das when the latter was elected mayor of Calcutta in 1924.In a roundup of nationalists in 1925, Bose was arrested and sent to prison in Mandalay, where hecontracted tuberculosis.Founder of IndianNational Army
  • 70. Indian National CongressIn 1927, after being released from prison, Bose became general secretary of the Congress party andworked with Jawaharlal Nehru for independence.Subhas Chandra Bose was jailed during Civil Disobedience movement in 1930. He was released in 1931after Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed. He protested against the Gandhi-Irwin pact and opposed thesuspension of Civil Disobedience movement especially when Bhagat Singh and his associates werehanged.All India Forward BlockSubash Chandra Bose was soon arrested again under the infamous Bengal Regulation. After a year hewas released on medical grounds and was banished from India to Europe.Defying the ban on his entry to India, Subash Chandra Bose returned to India and was again arrested andjailed for a year.After the General Elections of 1937, Congress came to power in seven states and Subash Chandra Bosewas released. Shortly afterwards he was elected President of the Haripura Congress Session in 1938.At the end of his first term, the presidential election to the Tripuri Congress session took place early1939. Subhas Chandra Bose was re-elected, defeating Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya who had been backed byMahatma Gandhi and the Congress Working Committee. Clouds of World War II were on the horizonand he brought a resolution to give the British six months to hand India over to the Indians, failing whichthere would be a revolt.There was much opposition to his rigid stand, and he resigned from the post of president and formed aprogressive group known as the Forward Block.Escape from British India to Nazi Germany & JapanSubhas Chandra Bose now started a mass movement against utilizing Indian resources and men for thegreat War. There was a tremendous response to his call and he was put under house arrest in Calcutta.In January 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose disappeared from his home in Calcutta and reached Germany viaAfghanistan. Working on the maxim that “an enemys enemy is a friend”, he sought cooperation ofGermany and Japan against British Empire.In January 1942, he began his regular broadcasts from Radio Berlin, which aroused tremendousenthusiasm in India. In July 1943, he arrived in Singapore from Germany.In Singapore he took over the reins of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia from Rash BehariBose and organised the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) comprising mainly of Indian prisoners ofwar.
  • 71. He was hailed as Netaji by the Army as well as by the Indian civilian population in East Asia. Azad HindFauj proceeded towards India to liberate it from British rule. The I.N.A. Head quarters was shifted toRangoon in January 1944. Azad Hind Fauj crossed the Burma Border, and stood on Indian soil on March18, 1944.Bose most famous quote was:“Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!”On 6 July 1944, in a speech broadcast by the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore, Bose addressed MahatmaGandhi as the "Father of the Nation" and asked for his blessings and good wishes for the war he wasfighting. This was the first time that Gandhi was referred to by this appellation.His other famous quotes were: “Dilli Chalo ("On to Delhi)!" This was the call he used to give the INAarmies to motivate them.Jai Hind, or, "Glory to India!" was another slogan used by him and later adopted by the Government ofIndia and the Indian Armed Forces. Other slogan coined by him was Ittefaq, Etemad, Qurbani. INA alsoused the slogan Inquilab Zindabad, which was coined by Maulana Hasrat Mohani.Dissapearence & Alleged DeathSubhas Chandra Bose was reportedly killed in an air crash over Taipeh, Taiwan (Formosa) on August 18,1945. Though it is widely believed that he was still alive after the air crash not much information couldbe found about him.In May 1956, the Shah Nawaz Committee visited Japan to look into the situation of Boses assumeddeath. Citing their lack of political relations with Taiwan, the Centre, did not seek for the assistance fromtheir government. The reports of Justice Mukherjee Commission, tabled in Parliament on 17 May, 2006said, "Bose did not die in the plane crash and the ashes at Renkoji temple are not his". However, thefindings were rejected by the government of India.In 1992, Bose was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian award, but it waslater withdrawn in response to a Supreme Court directive following a Public Interest Litigation filed inthe Court against the "posthumous" nature of the award. The Award Committee could not giveconclusive evidence on Boses death and thus the "posthumous" award was invalidated.Books on the MysteryMany books have been published in independent India, dealing with the subject of Bose death mystery.Netaji: Dead or Alive? By Samar Guha.Back from Dead: Inside the Subhash Bose Mystery by Anuj Dhar, 2005.India’s Biggest Cover-up by Anuj Dhar, 2012.
  • 72. Desh Prem DivasThe West Bengal government decided in 2011 to observe Boses birth anniversay (23 January) as DeshPrem Divas which means Day of Patriotism.Artistic Depictions of Bose:FilmsYear Film Name description1950 SamadhiThis film also features the famous regimental quickmarch song kadam kadam badaye Ja1966 Subash Chandra It was a Bengali film portraying his life.2002 The Legend of Bhagat SinghBose is portrayed by Keneth Desai directed by RajkumarSantoshi.2005Netaji Subhas ChandraBose:The Forgotten HeroSachin Khedekar stars as Subhas Chandra Bose in thisShyam Benegal’s Movie.2008 Subhash Chandra Bose It was a Telugu Film.Books1989: In a satirical novel The Great Indian Novel by Shashi Tharoor, the character of Pandu issimultaneously based on Bose as well as the mythological character Pandu.2008: CIAs Eye on South Asia by Anuj Dhar.
  • 73. Sardar Vallabhai PatelBorn: October 31, 1875, NadiadDied: December 15, 1950, MumbaiSardar Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was an Indian barrister and oneof the leaders of the Indian National Congress and one of thefounding fathers the Republic of India.He was elected Ahmadabad’s municipal president in 1922, 1924 and1927.He was independent Indias first Deputy Prime Minister and firstHome Minister.He is also regarded as the "Bismarck of India" and "Iron Man ofIndia".In India and across the world, he was often addressed as Sardar,which means Chief in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian.Early LifeVallabhbhai Patel was born on October 31, 1875 in Nadiad, a small village in Gujarat.His father Jhaverbhai was a farmer and mother Laad Bai was a simple lady. Sardar Vallabhais earlyeducation took place in Karamsad. Then he joined a school in Petlad. After two years he joined a highschool in a town called Nadiad. He passed his high school examination in 1896. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patelwas a brilliant student throughout his schooling. He matriculated in 1897.Vallabhbhai wanted to become a barrister. To realize this ambition he had to go to England. But he didnot have the financial means to even join a college India.Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel borrowed books from a lawyer of his acquaintance and studied at home.Occasionally he attended courts of law and listened attentively to the arguments of lawyer. Vallabhbhaipassed the Law examination with flying colours.Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel started his Law practice in Godhra. Soon his practice flourished. He got marriedto Jhaberaba in 1891. In 1904, he got a baby daughter Maniben, and in 1905 his son Dahyabhai wasborn.Vallabhbhai sent his elder brother Vitthalbhai, who himself was a lawyer, to England for higher studies inLaw. Patel was only thirty-three years old when his wife died. He did not wish to marry again. After hisbrothers return, Vallabhbhai went to England. He studied with single-minded devotion and stood first inthe Barrister-at-Law Examination.First Deputy PrimeMinister & First HomeMinister
  • 74. Sardar Patel returned to India in 1913 and started his practice in Ahmedabad.Freedom Struggle:At the urging of his friends, Patel contested and won elections to become the sanitation commissionerof Ahmedabad in 1917.Sardar Patel was deeply impressed by Gandhijis success in Champaran Satyagraha. In 1918, there was adrought in the Kheda division of Gujarat. Peasants asked for relief from the high rate of taxes but theBritish government refused. Gandhiji took up peasants cause but could not devote his full time in Kheda.He was looking for someone who could lead the struggle in his absence. At this point Sardar Patelvolunteered to come forward and lead the struggle. He gave up his lucrative legal practice and enteredpublic life.Vallabhbhai successfully led peasant’s revolt in Kheda and the revolt ended in 1919 when the Britishgovernment agreed to suspend collection of revenue and roll back the rates. Kheda Satyagraha turnedVallabhbhai Patel into a national hero.Vallabhbhai supported Gandhis Non-Cooperation Movement, and as president of the Gujarat Congress,helped in organizing bonfires of British goods in Ahmedabad. He gave up his English clothes and startedwearing Khadi.Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel was elected Ahmedabads municipal president in 1922, 1924 and 1927. Duringhis terms, Ahmedabad was extended a major supply of electricity and underwent major educationreforms. Drainage and sanitation systems were extended over the entire city.In 1928, Bardoli Taluka in Gujarat suffered from floods and famine. In this hour of distress the Britishgovernment raised the revenue taxes by thirty percent. Sardar Patel took up cudgels on behalf of thefarmers and appealed to the Governor to reduce the taxes. The Governor refused and the governmenteven announced the date of the collection of the taxes. Sardar Patel organized the farmers and toldthem not to pay even a single pie of tax. The government tried to repress the revolt but ultimatelybowed before Vallabhbhai Patel. It was during the struggle and after the victory in Bardoli that causedintense excitement across India, that Patel was increasingly addressed by his colleagues and followers asSardar.After the signing of Gandhi-Irwin pact in 1931, Sardar Patel was released and he was elected Congresspresident for its 1931 session in Karachi.Upon the failure of the Round Table Conference in London, Gandhiji and Sardar Patel were arrested inJanuary 1932 and imprisoned in the Yeravada Central Jail. During this term of imprisonment, SardarPatel and Mahatma Gandhi grew close to one another, and the two developed a close bond of affection,trust, and frankness without reserve. Sardar Patel was finally released in July 1934.
  • 75. In August 1942, the Congress launched the Quit India Movement. The government jailed all theimportant leaders of the Congress, including Vallabhai Patel. All the leaders were released after threeyears.After IndependenceAfter achieving independence on 15th of August 1947, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became the first PrimeMinister of independent India and Sardar Patel became the first Home Minister and Deputy PrimeMinister of India.He was in charge of Home Affairs, Minister of Information and Broadcasting and the Ministry ofStates.Political Integration of IndiaThere were 565 princely states in India at that time. Some of the Maharajas and Nawabs who ruled overthese were sensible and patriotic. But most of them were drunk with wealth and power. They weredreaming of becoming independent rulers once the British quit India. They argued that the governmentof free India should treat them as equals. Some of them went to the extent of planning to send theirrepresentatives to the United Nations Organization.Gandhi had said to Patel “the problem of the States is so difficult that you alone can solve it”. Patelinvoked the patriotism of Indias monarchs, asking them to join in the freedom of their nation and act asresponsible rulers who cared about the future of their people.He persuaded the princes of 565 states of the impossibility of independence from the Indian republic,especially in the presence of growing opposition from their subjects. With great wisdom and politicalforesight, he consolidated the small kingdoms. The public was with him. He tackled the Nizam ofHyderabad and the Nawab of Junagarh who initially did not want to join India. Sardar Patels untiringefforts towards the unity of the country brought success. He united a scattered nation without muchbloodshed. Due to the achievement of this massive task, Sardar Patel got the title of ‘Iron Man ofIndia’.DeathSardar Patel died of cardiac arrest on December 15, 1950.Patel was officially awarded the Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian honour posthumously in 1991.Patels birthday, 31 October, is celebrated nationally in India as Sardar Jayanti.Artistic Depictions of Patel2000: Arun Sadekar plays Patel in Hey Ram – a film made by Kamal Haasan.1993: The biopic Sardar was produced and directed by Ketan Mehta and featured noted Indianactor Paresh Rawal as Patel.
  • 76. 1989: In a satirical novel "The Great Indian Novel" by Shashi Tharoor, the character of VidurHastinapuri is simultaneously based on Patel as well as the mythological character Vidura.1982: In Richard Attenboroughs Gandhi (1982), actor Saeed Jaffrey portrayed Patel.1976: Kantilal Rathod directed a documentary on Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
  • 77. C RajagopalachariBorn: December 10, 1878, Salem DistrictDied: December 25, 1972, ChennaiChakravarti Rajagopalachari also called as Rajaji or C.R., was anIndian lawyer, independence activist, politician, writer andstatesman.Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India. C.Rajagopalachari succeeded Lord Mountbatten and was GovernorGeneral of India from 1948 to 1950.After C. Rajagopalachari, the title of Governor General wasabolished and was replaced by President of India. C. Rajagopalacharialso has the distinction of being the first Indian Governor General ofIndia.He is the first person to be awarded Bharat Ratna in 1954.Rajaji founded the Swatantra Party.During his lifetime, he also acquired the nickname ‘Mango of Salem’.Early LifeRajaji was born to Chakravarti Venkatarya Iyengar and Singaramma on 10 December 1878 into adevout Iyengar family of Thorapalli in the Madras Presidency. The couple already had two sons,Narasimhachari and Srinivasa.As a young child, he was admitted to a village school in Thorapalli then at the age of five moved with hisfamily to Hosur where Rajaji enrolled at Hosur Government School. He passed his matriculationexaminations in 1891 and graduated in arts from Central College, Bangalore in 1894. Rajaji also studiedlaw at the Presidency College, Madras, from where he graduated in 1897.Rajaji married Alamelu Mangamma in 1897 and the couple had five children – three sons and twodaughters. Mangamma died in 1916 whereupon Rajaji took sole responsibility for the care of hischildren.His son C. R. Narasimhan was elected to the Lok Sabha from Krishnagiri in the 1952 and 1957 electionsand served as a Member of Parliament for Krishnagiri from 1952 to 1962. He later wrote a biography ofhis father.Last Governor General ofIndia
  • 78. Rajajis daughter Lakshmi married Devdas Gandhi, son of Mahatma Gandhi while his grandsons includebiographer Rajmohan Gandhi, philosopher Ramchandra Gandhi and former governor of WestBengal Gopalkrishna Gandhi.Indian Independence MovementIn 1921-1922, he became the General-Secretary of the Indian National Congress and from 1922 to 1924;he was a member of the Congress Working Committee. He played a prominent role in spreading the CivilDisobedience Movement in Tamil Nadu. He was arrested in April 1930 for leading a salt march fromTrichinopoly to Vedaranniyam on the Tanjore coast.Though Rajaji was active in Congress for about half a century, he was not elected its president evenonce. In the year 1932, however, he was chosen as the acting president of the Congress and playedcrucial role in formulating the Poona Pact with Ambedkar.Premier of Madras (1937-39)He led the Congress to victory in Madras in the 1937 elections.Rajaji was the first Premier (Chief Minister) of the Madras Presidency from the Congress party.As the Chief Minister of Madras (1937-39), he introduced Madras Temple Entry Act (in 1938).Rajaji also issued the Agricultural Debt Relief Act in March 1938 to ease the burden of debt on theprovinces peasant population.At the outbreak of the Second World War Rajaji immediately resigned as Premier along with othermembers of his cabinet in protest at the declaration of war by the Viceroy of India.Rajaji was arrested in December 1940 in accordance with the Defence of India rules and sentenced toone-year in prison.Following the end of the war in 1945, elections followed in the Madras Presidency in 1946. Kamaraj,President of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee backed Tanguturi Prakasam as Chief Ministerialcandidate to prevent Rajaji from winning. However, he did not contest the elections and Prakasam waselected.Interim GovernmentFrom 1946 to 1947, Rajaji served as the Minister for Industry, Supply, Education and Finance in theInterim Government headed by Jawaharlal Nehru.Governor of West Bengal (1947-48)When India attained independence on 15 August 1947, the British province of Bengal was divided intotwo, with West Bengal becoming part of India and East Bengal part of Pakistan. Supported by JawaharlalNehru, Rajaji was appointed first Governor of West Bengal.
  • 79. Governor General of India (1948-50)From 10 November 1947 until 24 November 1947, Rajaji served as Acting Governor-General of India inthe absence of the Governor-General Lord Mountbatten, who was on leave in England to attend themarriage of Princess Elizabeth to Mountbattens nephew Prince Philip.Impressed with his abilities, Mountbatten made Rajaji his second choice to succeed himafter Vallabhbhai Patel, when he was to leave India in June 1948. Rajaji was eventually chosen as theGovernor-General when Nehru disagreed with Mountbattens first choice, as did Patel himself.Rajaji then served as Governor-General of India from June 1948 until 26 January 1950, and was not onlythe last Governor-General of India, but the only Indian national ever to hold the office. He was the lastIndian Governor-General of India.He was the second Governor-General of independent India.Union Home Minister (1951-52)At Nehrus invitation, in 1950 Rajaji joined the Union Cabinet as Minister first without portfolio wherehe served as a buffer between Nehru and Home Minister Sardar Patel and on occasion offered tomediate between the two. Following Patels death on December 15, 1950, Rajaji was finally made HomeAffairs Minister and went on to serve for nearly 10 months.Chief Minister of Madras State (1952-54)Madras governor Sri Prakasa appointed Rajaji Chief Minister after nominating him to the MadrasLegislative Council without consulting either the Indian Prime Minister Nehru or the ministers in theMadras state cabinet. He was chief minister of Madras from 1952 to 1954.In 1953, he introduced a new education scheme known as the "Modified System of ElementaryEducation", which reduced schooling for elementary school students to three hours per day withstudents expected to learn the family vocation at home during the remainder of the day. The plan camein for sharp criticism and evoked strong protests from the Dravidian parties. The Dravida MunnetraKazhagam dubbed the scheme Kula Kalvi Thittam or Hereditary Education Policy and attempted toorganise massive demonstrations outside Rajajis house on 13 and 14 July 1953.Rajaji eventually resigned as Chief Minister on April 13, 1954, attributing the decision to poor health.Following his resignation as Chief Minister, Rajaji took a temporary break from active politics andinstead devoted his time to literary pursuits.He wrote a Tamil re-telling of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana which appeared as a serial in the Tamilmagazine Kalki from May 23, 1954 to November 6, 1955. The episodes were later collected andpublished as Chakravarthi Thirumagan, a book which won Rajaji the 1958 Sahitya Academy awardin Tamil language.
  • 80. On Republic Day 1954, Rajaji was honoured with Indias highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.In 1959, he founded the Swatantra Party which emphasised individual liberty and was critical ofextreme socialism.LiteratureRajaji was the founder of the Salem Literary Society and regularly participated in its meetings. In 1922,he published Siraiyil Tavam (Meditation in jail), a day-to-day account of his first imprisonment by theBritish from 21 December 1921 to 20 March 1922.Rajaji started the Tamil Scientific Terms Society in 1916.He also translated ‘The Tirukkural’ from Tamil to English. ‘Tirukkural’ is an ancient piece of the Tamilliterature and is often referred to as ‘the flower of Tamilnadu’.In 1958, he was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award for works in the Tamil language for his retelling ofthe Ramayana – Chakravarti Thirumagan. He was also one of the founders of the Bharatiya VidyaBhavan, an organisation dedicated to the promotion of education and Indian culture. In 1959 theBharatiya Vidya Bhavan published his book: "Hinduism: Doctrine and Way of Life".Some of his poetry was set to music and sung by Carnatic music’s dominant personality M SSubbulakshmi at several occasions of importance, and once at the United Nations Kurai Onrum Illai(meaning – No regrets have I My lord, None) is a very famous song in the semi-Carnatic music genrewritten by Rajaji and the most popular version, (widely acknowledged as soul-stirring) has beenrendered by M.S. Subbulakshmi.Rajaji also composed a hymn “Here under this Uniting Roof” which was sung in 1966 at the UnitedNations, again by M.S. Subbulakshmi.He was invited to the White House by President Kennedy; perhaps the only civilian, not in power, everto be accorded formal state reception.Rajaji died in December, 1972 after a short illness.LegacyHe frequently wrote articles for Kalki and his own journal Swarajya, of which Philip Spratt was editor.Richard Casey, Governor of Bengal from 1944 to 1946, regarded Rajaji as the wisest man in India.The best possible tribute to Rajaji was from Mahatma Gandhi who referred to him as the "keeper of myconscience".
  • 81. Dadabhai NaorojiBorn: September 4, 1825, MumbaiDied: June 30, 1917, MumbaiDadabhai Naoroji is fondly called as the ‘Grand Old Man ofIndia’.He was a Member of Parliament (MP) in the United KingdomHouse of Commons between 1892 and 1895, and the firstIndian (also Asian) to be a British MP.He is also credited with the founding of the Indian NationalCongress, along with A.O. Hume and Dinshaw Edulji Wacha.Early LifeDadabhai Naoroji was born in a poor Parsi family in Bombay onSeptember 4, 1825. His father, Naoroji Palanji Dordi, died whenDadabhai Naoroji was only four years old.He was raised by her mother Maneckbai who despite being illiterate herself ensured that DadabhaiNaoroji got best English education possible. As a student Dada Bhai Naoroji was very good inMathematics and English. He studied at Elphinstone Institution, Bombay and on completion of hiseducation he was appointed the Head Native Assistant Master at the Elphinstone Institution.Dadabhai Naoroji became a professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Elphinstone Institutionat the age of 25.He was the first Indian to become a professor of the college.CareerAt the early age of 25, he was appointed leading Professor at the Elphinstone Institution in 1850,becoming the first Indian to hold such an academic position.He was called the "The Promise of India" by Professor Orlebar.On 1st August 1851 he established the Rahnumae Mazdayasne Sabha to renovate the Zoroastrianreligion.In 1854, Dadabhai edited a newspaper called Rast Goftar (speaker of the truth). He also edited amagazine called dharma marg darshan.Grand Old Man of India
  • 82. To promote education and propagate the seeds of Free India, he founded the Gyan Prasarak Mandal(Societ for Promotion of Knowledge) for the education of adult menfolk.He travelled to England in 1855 to become a partner in Cama & Co, opening a Liverpool location for thefirst Indian company to be established in Britain. Within three years, he had resigned on ethical grounds.In 1859, he established his own cotton trading company, Naoroji & Co.East India AssociationNaoroji established the "East India Association" in England in 1866 to discuss Indian questions toinfluence British public opinion. Branches of the Association were organized in major Indian cities.Dadabhai voiced the grievances of the Indians in Britain. His consistent effort led to his winning thesupport of eminent Englishmen and was able to exercise considerable influence in the Britishparliament.Indian National Congress FoundationIn 1874, he became Prime Minister of Baroda and was a member of the Legislative Councilof Mumbai (1885–88). Dadabhai Naoroji was instrumental in the establishment of the Indian NationalCongress founded by A.O. Hume in 1885 in Bombay.British Indian MPIn 1892 he was the first Indian to be elected to the British House of Commons in Finsbury Central. Hewas given a ticket by the Liberal party.He was the first British Indian (also first Asian) MP.He got a resolution passed in British Parliament for holding preliminary examinations for the I.C.S. inIndia and England simultaneously. He also got the Wiley Commission, the royal commission on Indiaexpenditure, to acknowledge the need for even distribution of administrative and military expenditurebetween India and England.In his political campaign and duties as an MP, he was assisted by Muhammed Ali Jinnah, thefuture Muslim nationalist and founder of Pakistan.In 1906, Naoroji was again elected president of the Indian National Congress.Thrice he was elected to the post of the President of the Indian National Congress, in 1886, 1893 andin 1906.During his third term, he prevented a split between moderates and extremists in the party. TheCongress demand for swaraj (self-rule) was first expressed publicly by him in his presidential address in1906. Dadabhai Naoroji believed in non-violent and constitutional methods of protest.
  • 83. He was married to Gulbai at the age of eleven.DeathHe died in Bombay on 30 June 1917, at the age of 91. Today the Dadabhai Naoroji Road, a heritage roadof Mumbai, is named after him. Also, the Dadabhoy Naoroji Road in Karachi, Pakistan is also namedafter him as well as the Naoroji Road in the Bloomsbury area of London.Literary WorksThe manners and customs of the Parsees (1864)The Eurobnbvpean and Asiatic races (1866)Admission of educated natives into the Indian Civil Service (1868)The wants and means of India (1870)Condition of India (Madras (1881)Poverty of India (1876)Lord Salisbury’s Blackman (1889)The Parsee Religion (1861)Poverty and Un-British Rule in India (1901)The Rights of Labour (1906)
  • 84. Bhagat SinghBorn: September 28, 1907, FaisalabadDied: March 23, 1931, LahoreBhagat Singh was one of the most prominent faces of Indianfreedom struggle.He is often referred to as Shaheed Bhagat Singh, theword Shaheed meaning "Martyr" in regional Indian languages.Early LifeBhagat Singh was born in a Sikh family in village Khatkar Kalan inNawanshahar district of Punjab. The district has now been renamedas Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar in his memory.He was the third son of Sardar Kishan Singh and Vidyavati. BhagatSinghs family was actively involved in freedom struggle. His father Kishan Singh and Uncle Ajit Singhwere members of Ghadr Party founded in the U.S to oust British rule from India. Family atmosphere hada great effect on the mind of young Bhagat Singh and patriotism flowed in his veins from childhood.While studying at the local D.A.V. School in Lahore, in 1916, young Bhagat Singh came into contact withsome well-known political leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Ras Bihari Bose. Punjab was politically verycharged in those days. In 1919, when Jalianwala Bagh massacre took place, Bhagat Singh was only 12years old. The massacre deeply disturbed him. On the next day of massacre Bhagat Singh went toJalianwala Bagh and collected soil from the spot and kept it as a memento for the rest of his life. Themassacre strengthened his resolve to drive British out from India.Freedom StruggleIn response to Mahatma Gandhis call for non-cooperation against British rule in 1921, Bhagat Singh lefthis school and actively participated in the movement. In 1922, when Mahatma Gandhi suspended Non-cooperation movement against violence at Chauri-chaura in Gorakhpur, Bhagat was greatlydisappointed. His faith in non violence weakened and he came to the conclusion that armed revolutionwas the only practical way of winning freedom. To continue his studies, Bhagat Singh joined the NationalCollege in Lahore, founded by Lala Lajpat Rai. At this college, which was a centre of revolutionaryactivities, he came into contact with revolutionaries such as Bhagwati Charan, Sukhdev and others.To avoid early marriage, Bhagat Singh ran away from home and went to Kanpur. Here, he came intocontact with a revolutionary named Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, and learnt his first lessons asrevolutionary. On hearing that his grandmother was ill, Bhagat Singh returned home. He continued hisrevolutionary activities from his village.Shaheed Bhagat Singh
  • 85. He went to Lahore and formed a union of revolutionaries by name ‘Naujavan Bharat Sabha’. He startedspreading the message of revolution in Punjab. In 1928 he attended a meeting of revolutionaries inDelhi and came into contact with Chandrasekhar Azad. The two formed Hindustan SamajvadiPrajatantra Sangha. Its aim was to establish a republic in India by means of an armed revolution.In February 1928, a committee from England, called Simon Commission visited India. The purpose of itsvisit was to decide how much freedom and responsibility could be given to the people of India. But therewas no Indian on the committee. This angered Indians and they decided to boycott Simon Commission.While protesting against Simon Commission in Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was brutally Lathicharged andlater on succumbed to injuries. Bhagat Singh was determined to avenge Lajpat Rais death by shootingthe British official responsible for the killing, Deputy Inspector General Scott. He shot down AssistantSuperintendent Saunders instead, mistaking him for Scott. Bhagat Singh had to flee from Lahore toescape death punishment.Instead of finding the root cause of discontent of Indians, the British government took to morerepressive measures. Under the Defense of India Act, it gave more power to the police to arrest personsto stop processions with suspicious movements and actions. The Act brought in the Central LegislativeAssembly was defeated by one vote. Even then it was to be passed in the form of an ordinance in the"interest of the public." Bhagat Singh who was in hiding all this while, volunteered to throw a bomb inthe Central Legislative Assembly where the meeting to pass the ordinance was being held. It was acarefully laid out plot, not to cause death or injury but to draw the attention of the government, that themodes of its suppression could no more be tolerated. It was decided that Bhagat Singh andBatukeshwar Dutt would court arrest after throwing the bomb.On April 8, 1929 Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw bombs in the Central Assembly Hall whilethe Assembly was in session. The bombs did not hurt anyone. After throwing the bombs, Bhagat Singhand Batukeshwar Dutt, deliberately courted arrest by refusing to run away from the scene. During histrial, Bhagat Singh refused to employ any defence counsel. In jail, he went on hunger strike to protestthe inhuman treatment of fellow-political prisoners by jail authorities.Death SentenceOn October 7, 1930 Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Raj Guru were awarded death sentence by a specialtribunal. Despite great popular pressure and numerous appeals by political leaders of India, BhagatSingh and his associates were hanged in the early hours of March 23, 1931.Writings in JailSingh wrote his essay Why I Am an Atheist before his execution in the Jail.Statue in the Parliament of IndiaOn 15 August 2008, an 18-foot tall bronze statue of Singh was installed in the Parliament of India, nextto the statues of Indira Gandhiand Subash Chandra Bose. A portrait of Singh and Dutt also adorns thewalls of the Parliament House.
  • 86. National martyrs MemorialsSingh was cremated at Hussainiwala on the banks of the Sutlej river. During the partitionfollowing independence, the cremation spot went to Pakistan. However, on 17 January 1961 it wastransferred to India in exchange for 12 villages near the Sulemanki Headworks(Fazilka) to Pakistan.The National Martyrs Memorial was built on the cremation spot in 1968. The memorial is located justone km from the India–Pakistan border on the Indian side and has memorials of Singh, Rajguru andSukhdev. During the 1971 India–Pakistan war, the memorial was damaged by the withdrawing Pakistanitroops in 1972, and the statues of the martyrs were removed and taken away by the Pakistani army,which have not been returned since. The memorial was rebuilt in 1973 due to the efforts of the thenPunjab Chief Minister, Giani Zail Singh.Every year on 23 March, the Shaheedi Mela (Punjabi: Martyrdom Fair) is observed at this NationalMartyrs Memorial at Hussainiwala, in which thousands of people pay their homage. The day is alsoobserved across the Indian state of Punjab.Bhagat Singh MuseumThe Shaheed-e-azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum at Khatkar Kalan, Singhs native village, opened onhis 50th death anniversary.The Supreme Court of India established a museum to display landmarks in the history of Indias judicialsystem, displaying records of some historic trials. The first exhibition that was organised was the Trial ofBhagat Singh, which opened on 28 September 2007, on the birth centenary celebrations of Singh. InSeptember 2007, the Governor of Pakistani Punjab, Khalid Maqbool, announced that a memorial toSingh would be displayed at Lahore Museum.Modern DayHe was voted the “Greatest Indian” in a poll by the Indian magazine India Today in 2008, ahead ofSubhas Chandra Bose and Gandhi.In Pakistan, after a long-standing demand by activists from the Bhagat Singh Foundation of Pakistan, theShadman Chowk square in Lahore, where he was hanged, was renamed to Bhagat Singh Chowk on 30September 2012, in honour of his efforts to liberate India from British colonial rule.
  • 87. Films on HimName Year NoteShaheed-e-Azam BhagatSingh1954 Directed by Jagdish GautamShaheed Bhagat Singh 1963 Shammi Kapoor portrayed as Bhagat singh directed byKN BansalShaheed 1965 Manoj Kumar portrayed as Bhagat singh & Prem chopraplayed the role of Raj GuruShaheed – E – Azam 2002 Sonu sood played the role of singh23 March 1931: Shaheed 2002, releasedon the samedayBobby Deol portrayed as Singh directed by GudduDhanoa.The Legend of BhagatSinghAjay Devgan portrayed as Bhagat singhRang De Basanti 2006 Siddarth played the role of singhInquilab 2008 Nehru Memorial Museum and Library (NMML) and ActNow for Harmony and Democracy (ANHAD), a non-profitorganisation, co-produced a 40-minute documentary onBhagat Singh entitled Inqilab, directed by Gauhar Raza.SongsThe patriotic Hindi-Urdu songs, "Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna" (Hindi-Urdu: "The desire to sacrifice") and"Mera Rang De Basanti Chola" (Hindi-Urdu: "O Mother! Dye my robe the colour of spring") whilecreated by Ram Prasad Bismil, are largely associated with Singhs martyrdom and have been used in anumber of Singh-related films.Postal StampIn 1968, a postal stamp was issued in India commemorating the 61st birth anniversary of Singh.
  • 88. Gulzarilal NandaBorn: July 4, 1898, SialkotDied: January 15, 1998, New DelhiGulzarilal Nanda was an Indian politician and an economist withspecialization in labour problems.He was the Acting Prime Minister of India twice for 13 days each: the firsttime after the death of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964, and thesecond time after the death of Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastriin 1966.The Government of India honoured Nanda with the Bharat Ratna award in1997.Early LifeGulzarilal Nanda was born on the 4th of July, 1898 in the Sialkot region of Punjab. His family wasPunjabi Hindus who belonged to the Khatri sect. As a child, Gulzarilal Nanda received education fromLahore, which subsequently became a part of Pakistan after the end of the British rule in India. In fact,after partition was declared, Gulzarilal Nandas birthplace Sialkot also went under Pakistan jurisdiction.His childhood years were spent spanning several cities from Lahore to Amritsar and Agra to Allahabad.After completing school from Lahore, Amritsar and Agra, Gulzarilal Nanda studied labor problems fromAllahabad University and earned his research scholar degree from here. He later joined as a professor ofEconomics, specializing in labor studies at National College under Bombay University in the year 1921.Career in PoliticsThe same year, he joined the Indian Non-Cooperation Movement against the British Raj.In 1922, he became secretary of the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association where he worked until1946. He was imprisoned for Satyagraha in 1932, and again from 1942 to 1944.Member of Bombay Legislaive AssemblyIn the British Raj, Nanda was elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly in 1937, and served asparliamentary secretary (for Labor and Excise) to the Government of Bombay from 1937 to 1939.As Labour Minister of the Bombay Government during 1946-50, he successfully piloted the LaborDisputes Bill in the state assembly.He served as a Trustee of the Kasturba Memorial Trust. (Kasturba was the wife of Mahatma Gandhi.)Acting Prime Ministerof India
  • 89. He served as secretary of the Hindustan Mazdoor Sevak Sangh (Indian Labor Welfare Organization), andChairman of the Bombay Housing Board. He was a member of the National Planning Committee. He waslargely instrumental in organizing the Indian National Trade Union Congress, and later became itspresident.In 1947, Nanda went to Geneva, Switzerland as a government delegate to the International LaborConference. He worked on The Freedom of Association Committee of the Conference, and visitedSweden, France, Switzerland, Belgium, and the UK to study labor and housing conditions in thosecountries.In March 1950, Nanda joined the Indian Planning Commission as its vice-chairman.In September 1951, he was appointed Planning Minister in the Indian Government. He was also givencharge of the portfolios of Irrigation and Power.He was elected to the Lok Sabha from Bombay in the general elections of 1952, and wasreappointed Minister for Planning, Irrigation, and Power.He led the Indian Delegation to the Plan Consultative Committee held in Singapore in 1955, andthe International Labor Conference held in Geneva in 1959.Nanda was elected again to the Lok Sabha in the 1957 elections, and was appointed Union Minister forLabour, Employment and Planning and later, as Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission. Hevisited the Federal Republic of Germany, Yugoslavia, and Austria in 1959.Nanda was re-elected to the Lok Sabha in the 1962 elections from the Sabarkantha constituencyin Gujarat. He initiated the Congress Forum for Socialist Action in 1962.He was Union Minister for Labour and Employment during 1962 - 1963, and Minister for HomeAffairs during 1963 - 1966.Acting (Interim) Prime Minister of IndiaThis is probably the role that Gulzarilal Nanda is best known for. Gulzarilal Nanda served as interimPrime Minister twice for a period of 13 days each. The first time that Gulzarilal Nand took over thisposition was after Jawaharlal Nehrus death in the year 1964. This period was a crucial stage to be in thePrime Ministers seat because of the recently ended China War of 1962. The second thirteen days ofinterim Prime Ministership came after the death of lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966. Shastris death alsofollowed the end of the Pakistan War of 1965. Though Gulzarilal Nanda did not have to take any crucialdecisions during the 13 days of both his terms, his position was extremely volatile and sensitive.DeathGulzarilal Nanda died on January 15, 1998. He was 99 years of age at the time of death and was aresident of New Delhi.The government of India awarded him with the Bharat Ratna in 1997 and Gulzarilal Nanda is theeldest person alive at the time of receiving the award (age 99)
  • 90. Timeline1898: Gulzarilal Nanda is born on July 4.1921: Became a professor of Economics at National College, Bombay.1921: Joined the Non Cooperation Movement.1922: Elected secretary of Ahmedabad Textile Labor Organization.1932: Imprisoned for joining the Satyagraha movement.1937: Elected to Bombay Legislative Assembly.1937: Became parliamentary secretary for Labor and Excise.1942: Again faced imprisonment for being part of freedom struggle.1944: Imprisoned for the third time.1946: Became the Labor Minister of the Bombay government.1947: Attended the International Labor Conference in Switzerland.1950: Became the vice chairman of Indian Planning Commission.1951: Became the Planning Minister of India.1952: Contested Lok Sabha elections and becomes the Minister for Planning, Irrigation and Power.1955: Visited Singapore to head the Plan Consultative Committee.1957: Elected the Union Minister for Labor, Employment and Planning after winning Lok Sabhaelections.1959: Lead the International Labor Conference in Geneva.1962: Contested and wins Lok Sabha elections from Sabarkantha in Gujarat.1962: Became the Union Minister for Labor and Employment.1963: Became the Minister for Home Affairs.1964: Became interim Prime Minister after Jawaharlal Nehrus death.1966: Became interim Prime Minister for second time after Lal Bahadur Shastris death.1997: Awarded the Bharat Ratna.1998: Died on July 15.
  • 91. Aruna Asaf AliBorn: July 16, 1909, KalkaDied: July 29, 1996Aruna Asaf Ali born as Aruna Ganguly, was an Indian independenceactivist.She is widely remembered for hoisting the Indian National Congress flag atthe Gowalia Tank maidan (now called August Kranti Maidan)in Bombay during the Quit India Movement, 1942.She is known as the “Grand Old Lady” of the Independence Movement.Early LifeAruna Asaf Ali was born on July 16 1908 at Kalka (Haryana) in an orthodoxHindu Bengali family. She was educated at Sacred Heart Convent inLahore, and then in Nainital. After graduating from school, she taught at the Gokhale Memorial Schoolin Calcutta. In Allahabad, she met her future husband, Asaf Ali,a prominent Congressman who was 23years older than her. They were married in 1928 against parental opposition on the grounds of bothreligion and age.Freedom StruggleAs Asaf Ali was deeply involved with freedom struggle, after marriage Aruna Asaf Ali too plunged into it.Her first major political action was during the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 when she addressed publicmeetings and led processions.British Government charged her for being a “vagrant” and sentenced her to one year’s imprisonment.When political prisoners were released in the aftermath of Gandhi-Irwin pact, Aruna was not released.But a public agitation in favour of her release forced British government to release her.She was arrested again in 1932 and put in Tihar Jail. In Tihar Jail she went on a hunger strike against thetreatment meted out to political prisoners. Her protest caused an improvement in conditions, but sheherself was moved to solitary confinement in Ambala. After her release, she dropped out of the nationalmovement for 10 years.In 1942 she attended the Bombay Congress Session with her husband, where the historic Quit Indiaresolution was passed on 8th August. When the Congress leaders were arrested on the day after thisresolution was passed, Aruna presided over the flag-hoisting ceremony at Gowalia Tank Maidan inBombay. She provided the spark that ignited the movement. She became a full-time activist in the QuitIndia movement and went underground to evade arrest.Heroine of the 1942movement
  • 92. Aruna was dubbed the Heroine of the 1942 movement for her bravery in the face of danger and wascalled Grand Old Lady of the Independence movement in her later years.The Government also announced Rs. 5000 reward for her capture. Meanwhile, she fell ill and on hearingthis Gandhiji advised her to surrender. However, Aruna Asaf Ali surrendered herself only when thewarrants against her were cancelled on 26th January 1946.In the meanwhile, she also edited Inquilab, a monthly magazine of the Congress Party, along with RamManohar Lohia. In a 1944 issue, she exhorted youth to action by asking them to forget futile discussionsabout violence andnon-violence and join the revolution. Leaders such as Jayaprakash Narayan andAruna Asaf Ali were described as "the Political children of Gandhi but recent students of Karl Marx."Post IndependenceAt the time of independence Aruna Asaf Ali was a member of the Congress Socialist Party, which untilthen had been part of the Congress framework. In 1948, however, the socialists, including Aruna,formed a socialist party of their own. In 1955 this group merged with Communist Party of India and shebecame a member of its Central committee and a Vice President of the All India Trade Union Congress.In 1954, she helped form the National Federation of Indian Women, the womens wing of CPI but leftthe party in 1956 following Nikita Khrushchevs disowning of Stalin.In 1958, she was elected the first Mayor of Delhi.She and Narayanan started Link publishing house and published a daily newspaper, Patriot and aweekly, Link the same year.Aruna Asaf Ali died on died July 29 1996AwardsInternational Lenin Peace Prize for the year 1964The Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in 1991India’s second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan in her lifetime in 1992The highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna, posthumously in 1997.In 1998, a stamp commemorating her was issued. Aruna Asaf Ali marg in New Delhi was named in herhonour. All India Minorities Front distributes the Dr Aruna Asaf Ali Sadbhawana Award annually.
  • 93. Rani Lakshmi BaiBorn: November 19, 1835, VaranasiDied: June 18, 1858, GwaliorRani Lakshmi Bai was the queen of the princely state of Jhansi, which islocated on the northern side of India. She was one of the most leadingpersonalities of the first war of Indias independence that started in 1857.Early LifeShe was born to a Maharashtrian family at Kashi (now Varanasi) in theyear 1835. During her childhood, she was called by the nameManikarnika. Affectionately, her family members called her Manu.Her father was Moropant Tambe and her mother Bhagirathibai Tambe.Her parents came from Maharashtra. Her mother died when she was four.Her father worked for a court Peshwa of Bithoor district who brought Manikarnika up like his owndaughter. The Peshwa called her "Chhabili", which means "playful".In the year 1842, she got married to the Maharaja of Jhansi, Raja Gangadhar Rao Niwalkar. On gettingmarried, she was given the name Lakshmi Bai. Her wedding ceremony was held at the Ganesh temple,located in the old city of Jhansi.She gave birth to a boy named Damodar Rao in 1851, but when he was four months old he died.The Raja adopted a child called Anand Rao, the son of Gangadhar Raos cousin, who was renamedDamodar Rao, on the day before he died. The adoption was in the presence of the British political officerwho was given a letter from the raja requesting that the child should be treated with kindness and thatthe government of Jhansi should be given to his widow for her lifetime.InvasionAfter the death of the raja in November 1853 because Damodar Rao was adopted, the British East IndiaCompany, under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie, applied the Doctrine of Lapse, rejecting DamodarRaos claim to the throne and annexing the state to its territories.In March 1854, Lakshmibai was given a pension of Rs. 60,000 and ordered to leave the palace and thefort.Jhansi Ki Rani
  • 94. Doctrine of LapseThe Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy purportedly devised by Lord Dalhousie, whowas the Governor General for the East India Company in India between 1848 & 1856.According to it, any princely state or territory under the directinfluence of the British East India Company as a vassal state under the British Subsidiarysystem, would automatically be annexed if the ruler was either “manifestly incompetent ordied without a direct heir”Indian RebellionA rumour that the cartridges supplied by the East India Company to the soldiers in its army containedpork or beef fat began to spread throughout India in the early months of 1857.On May 10, 1857 the Indian Rebellion started in Meerut; when news of this reached Jhansi theRani asked the British political officer, Captain Alexander Skene, for permission to raise a body of armedmen for her own protection and Skene agreed to this.From the period between Sep-Oct 1857, Rani defended Jhansi from being invaded by the armies of theneighboring rajas of Orchha and Datia.In January 1858, the British army headed its away towards Jhansi. The conflict went on for two weeks.Finally, the Britishers succeeded in the annexation of the city. However, Rani Laksmi Bai managed toescape along with her son, in the guise of a man.She took refuge in Kalpi, where she met Tatya Tope, a great warrior.She died on 17thJune, during the battle for Gwalior.For her immense effort, she is referred to as the Icon of the Indian Nationalist Movement.Cultural DepictionsNovelsFlashman in the Great Game by George MacDonald Fraser, a historical fiction novel about theIndian Revolt describing several meetings between Flashman and the Rani.La femme sacrée, in French, by Michel de Grèce. A novel based on the Rani of Jhansis life in whichthe author imagines an affair between the Rani and an English lawyer.Rani, a 2007 novel in English by Jaishree Misra.Nightrunners of Bengal, a 1951 novel in English by John Masters.Manu and Queen of Glory, (2011 & 2012) by Christopher Nicole, two novels about Lakshmibai fromthe time of her marriage until her death during the Indian Revolt as seen and experienced by anEnglish woman companion.
  • 95. Film and televisionThe Tiger and the Flame (1953), one of the first technicolor films released in India, was directed andproduced by Indian filmmaker Sohrab Modi.Jhansi Ki Rani (TV series) an Indian historical drama television series aired on Zee TV.The Rebel is a new film by Ketan Mehta, and is a companion piece to his film Mangal Pandey: TheRising. The screenplay is byFarrukh Dhondy from a story by Chandra Prakash Dwivedi.Historical StudiesThe Queen of Jhansi, by Mahasweta Devi (translated by Sagaree and Mandira Sengupta). This book is areconstruction of the life of Rani Lakshmi Bai from extensive research of both historical documents(collected mostly by G. C. Tambe, grandson of the Queen) and folk tales, poetry and oral tradition; theoriginal in Bengali was published in 1956CommemorationThe Rani Jhansi Marine National Park is located in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay ofBengal.A womens unit of the Indian National Army was named the Rani of Jhansi Regiment.Patriotic songs have been written about the Rani; one of them includes these lines (translated):"How valiantly like a man fought she, / The Rani of Jhansi / On every parapet a gun she set / Rainingfire of hell, / How well like a man fought the Rani of Jhansi / How valiantly and well!"The most famous composition of Subhadra Kumari Chauhan is the Hindi poem Jhansi Ki Rani, anemotionally charged description of the life of Rani Lakshmi Bai.
  • 96. Sucheta KriplaniBorn: June 25, 1908, AmbalaDied: December 1, 1974Sucheta Kriplani born as Sucheta Mazumdar was an Indian freedomfighter and politician in Uttar Pradesh, India.She was the first woman to be elected as the Chief Minister of a state inIndia i.e., Uttar PradeshEarly LifeShe was born in Ambala, Haryana to a Bengali family. Her father, S.N.Majumdar though a government doctor was a nationalist. Educatedat Indraprastha College and St.Stephens College, Delhi, she became aProfessor of Constitutional History at Banaras Hindu University. In 1936,she married socialist, Acharya Kriplani and became involed with INC.Freedom Movement & IndependenceShe came into the Indian historical scene during the Quit India Movement. Sucheta worked in closeassociation with Mahatma Gandhi during the time of partition riots. She went along with him toNoakhali in 1946. She was one amongst the handful women who got elected to the ConstituentAssembly.On the 15th August, 1947, i.e. the Independence Day, she sang the national song Vande Mataram inthe Independence Session of the Constituent Assembly.Post IndependenceAfter independence she remained involved with politics in Uttar Pradesh.She was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1952 and 1957 from New Delhi constituency and served as aMinister of State for Small Scale Industries.In 1962, she was elected to the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha from Kanpur and served in the Cabinet in1962.In 1963, she became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, the first woman to hold that position in anyIndian state.The highlight of her tenure was the firm handling of a state employees strike. The first-ever strike by thestate employees which continued for 62 days took place during her regime. She relented only when theemployees leaders agreed for compromise.In 1967, she was elected to the 4th Lok Sabha from Gonda constituency in Uttar Pradesh.First woman ChiefMinister
  • 97. She retired from politics in 1971 and remained in seclusion till her death in 1974.
  • 98. Morarji DesaiBorn: February 29, 1896, Bombay PresidencyDied: April 10, 1995, New DelhiMorarji Ranchhodji Desai was an Indian freedom fighter and the firstnon-Congress Party (Janata Party) 4thPrime Minister of India from 1977 –1979 at 81.He was also the worlds oldest person to become a Prime Minister at 81years, a record which he holds till date.He is the only person to receive the highest civilian awards from bothIndia and Pakistan:Bharat Ratna &Nishaan-e-Pakistan (Order of Pakistan)Early LifeMorarji Desai was born on February 29, 1896 in Bhadeli village, now in the Bulsar district of Gujarat. Hisfather was a school teacher. He was educated at St. Busar High School and passed his matriculationexamination. Shri Desai and Gujraben were married in 1911. He graduated from Wilson Civil Service ofthe then Bombay Province in 1918.After graduating from Wilson College, Mumbai he served as a Deputy Collector for twelve years inGujrat.Freedom StruggleIn 1930, Desai resigned from Government service and participated in freedom struggle. Shri Desai wasimprisoned thrice during the freedom struggle. He became a Member of the All India CongressCommittee in 1931 and was Secretary of the Gujarat Pradesh Congress Committee untill 1937.In 1937 Desai became Minister for Revenue, Agriculture, Forest and Co-operatives in the Ministryheaded by Shri B.G. Kher in the then Bombay Province.Shri Desai was arrested in the individual Satyagraha launched by Mahatma Gandhi, released in October,1941 and arrested again in August, 1942 at the time of the Quit India Movement. He was released in1945.After the elections to the State Assemblies in 1946, he became the Minister for Home and Revenue inBombay.Oldest Prime Ministerof India
  • 99. After IndependenceIn 1952, he became the Chief Minister of Bombay.The state was a bi-lingual state home to Marathisand Gujaratis. Since the 1956, Samyukta MaharashtraSamiti led a movement for a Marathi-speaking state of Maharashtra. A Gujarati himself, Desai wasopposed to this movement. He demanded that the city of Bombay (now Mumbai) despite being aMarathi-majority area be transferred to Gujarat. In spite of being a staunch Gandhian, he ordered apolice firing on a peaceful demonstration by the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti at Flora Fountain inBombay (now Mumbai). 105 demonstrators were killed in the incident leading to public outrage thatresulted in the removal of Desai from the post of Chief Minister, and the subsequent formation of thepresent State of Maharashtra, with Bombay (now Mumbai) as its state capital.Flora Fountain was remained as “Hutatma Chowk” (Martyrs Square) to commemorate the 105demostrators killed in the firing.He became the Union Cabinet Minister for Commerce and Industry on November 14, 1956. Later, hetook the Finance portfolio on March 22, 1958.However, in the 1964 elections after Nehrus death, he was defeated by Lal Bahadur Shastri, leaving himto build more support in the party. Yet again in 1966 on Shastris death, he contested for the post butlost to Indira Gandhi with votes in the ratio 169:351.Nonetheless, he was appointed as Deputy Prime Minister in 1967 in Indira Gandhis cabinet. Butbecause he was removed from the post of Finance Minister, he considered this to be disheartening andhence, resigned from the post of Deputy Prime Minister in 1969.He was the Minister of Home Affairs from 1978 – 1979.Prime Minister (1977 - 1979)When the Congress Party split in 1969, Shri Desai remained with the Organisation Congress. Hecontinued to take a leading part the opposition. He was re-elected to Parliament in 1971. In 1975, hewent on an indefinite fast on the question of holding elections to the Gujarat Assembly which had beendissolved. As a result of his fast, elections were held in June, 1975. The Janata Front formed by the fouropposition parties and Independents supported by it, secured an absolute majority in the new House.After the judgement of the Allahabad High Court declaring Smt. Gandhi�s election to the Lok Sabha nulland void, Shri Desai felt that in keeping with democratic principles, Smt. Gandhi should have submittedher resignation.Shri Desai was arrested and detained on June 26, 1975, when Emergency was declared. He was kept insolitary confinement and was released on January 18, 1977, a little before the decision to hold electionsto the Lok Sabha was announced.
  • 100. He campaigned vigorously throughout the length and breadth of the country and was largelyinstrumental in achieving the re-sounding victory of the Janata Party in the General Elections held inMarch, 1977. Shri Desai was himself selected to the Lok Sabha from the Surat Constituency in Gujarat.He was later unanimously elected as Leader of the Janata Party in Parliament and was sworn in as thePrime Minister of India on March 24, 1977 at the age of 81.On March 24, 1977, he was sworn as the fourth Prime Minister of India, thereby becoming the firstnon-Congress to hold such a position. He was also the worlds oldest person to become a Prime Ministerat 81 years, a record which he holds till date.Retirement & DeathIn 1979, Raj Narain and Charan Singh pulled out of the Janata Party, forcing Desai to resign from officeand retire from politics at the age of 83. Desai campaigned for Janata Party in 1980 General Election as asenior politician but did not contest the election himself.In retirement, he lived in Mumbai, and died at the age of 99. He had been honoured much in his lastyears as a freedom-fighter of his generation.Morarji Desai was a strict follower of Mahatma Gandhis principles and a moralist. He was a vegetarian“both by birth and by conviction.”Advocate of Urine TherapyMorarji Desai is most often remembered for his championing of Urine Therapy. He toldjournalist Khushwant Singh that he was advised to try drinking his own urine when in his 40s to curepiles (haemorrhoids), and he got immediate results. Thereafter he continued the practice and was quiteopen about it, saying that you should not do anything you would be ashamed of.Contribution to SocietyMorarji Desai was a true Gandhian and a strict follower of principles, apart from being a social workerand reformer. At Gujarat Vidapith, a university established by Mahatma Gandhi, he served as theChancellor. He used to visit and stay at the university in October, while serving as the Indian PrimeMinister. On Sardar Patels request, he conducted meetings with farmers of Kaira district, therebyleading to the establishment of AMUL Cooperative Movement. He pulled out from Public DistributionSystem which led to losses incurred by rationing shops due to the availability of sugar and oil at cheapprices in the market.FamilyMorarji Desai is survived by his son Kanti Desai, two grandsons Bharat and Jagdeep Desai and four greatgrand children. The only one of them to hold any political ambition is Madhukeshwar Desai, one of hisgreat grand children, son of Jagdeep Desai, who has taken it upon himself to revive the legacy of hisillustrious great grandfather.Vishaal Desai, son of Bharat Desai, is an aspiring filmmaker and writer.
  • 101. Timeline1896: Born on February 29 in Bhadeli, Bombay Presidency1918: Joined as Deputy Collector in civil service in Gujarat1924: Resigned from the job1930: Joined Civil Disobedience Movement1931: Became a member of All India Congress Committee1937: Served as secretary of Gujarat Pradesh Congress Committee1937: Appointed as Minister of Revenue, Agriculture, Forest, and Co-operatives in Bombay Province1942: Arrested for supporting Quit India Movement and imprisoned1945: Released from jail1946: Elected as Minister for Home and Revenue in Bombay Province1952: Elected as Chief Minister of Bombay State1956: Appointed as Minister of Commerce and Industry in the Union Government1958: Changed the portfolio to Finance1964: Lost to Lal Bahadur Shastri in Prime Ministerial elections1966: Lost again to Indira Gandhi in Prime Ministerial elections1967: Appointed as Deputy Prime Minister of India1969: Resigned from the post1975: Campaigned against Indira Gandhi and arrested on June 261977: Released from prison on January 181977: Became the fourth Prime Minister of India on march 241979: Resigned from office on July 28 and retired from politics1990: Awarded the Nishaan-e-Pakistan1991: Conferred upon with Bharat Ratna Award1995: Died in Mumbai on April 10, aged 99
  • 102. Sarojini NaiduBorn: February 13, 1879, HyderabadDied: March 2, 1949, AllahabadSarojini Naidu also known by the sobriquet The Nightingale ofIndia (Bharatiya Kokila) ("Bulbul") was a child prodigy, Indianindependence activist and poet.Naidu was the first Indian woman to become the President of the IndianNational Congressand the first woman to become the Governor of a state(Uttar Pradesh) in India.Her birthday is celebrated as Womens Day in India.Early LifeShe was born in Hyderabad to Bengali Kulin Brahmins AgorenathChattopadhyay and Barada Sundari Devi on 13th February 1879. Her father a doctor of science fromEdinburgh University, settled in Hyderabad State, where he founded and administered the HyderabadCollege, which later became the Nizams College in Hyderabad.Her Father was the founder of the Nizam College, Hyderabad.Her mother was a poetess baji and used to write poetry in Bengali. Sarojini Naidu was the eldest amongthe eight siblings. One of her brothers Birendranath was a revolutionary and her other brother.Harindranath was a poet, dramatist, and actor.Sarojini Naidu was a brilliant student. She was proficient in Urdu, Telugu, English, Bengali, and Persian.At the age of twelve, Sarojini Naidu attained national fame when she topped the matriculationexamination at Madras University. Her father wanted her to become a mathematician or scientist butSarojini Naidu was interested in poetry. She started writing poems in English.Impressed by her poetry, Nizam of Hyderabad, gave her scholarship to study abroad. At the age of 16,she traveled to England to study first at Kings College London and later at Girton College, Cambridge.There she met famous laureates of her time such as Arthur Simon and Edmond Gausse. It was Gaussewho convinced Sarojini to stick to Indian themes-Indias great mountains, rivers, temples, social milieu,to express her poetry. She depicted contemporary Indian life and events.Her poems "The golden threshold", "The bird of time", and "The broken wing" were the collectionswhich attracted huge Indian and English readership.At the age of 15, she met Dr. Govindarajulu Naidu and fell in love with him, a non-brahmin, and adoctor by profession. After finishing her studies at the age of 19, she married him during the time whenThe Nightingale ofIndia
  • 103. inter-caste marriages were not allowed. It was a revolutionary step but Sarojinis father fully supportedher in her endeavour. Sarojini Naidu had a happy married life and had four children: Jayasurya, Padmaj,Randheer, and Leilamani.Indian Freedom FighterSarojini Naidu joined the Indian national movement in the wake of partition of Bengal in 1905. She cameinto contact with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant, C.P. Ramaswami Iyer, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.During 1915-1918, she traveled to different regions in India delivering lectures on social welfare, womenempowerment and nationalism. She awakened the women of India and brought them out of thekitchen.She also helped to establish the Womens Indian Association (WIA) in 1917. She was sent to Londonalong with Annie Besant, President of WIA, to present the case for the womens vote to the Joint SelectCommittee.President of the CongressIn 1925, when she was 46 years of age, she presided over the annual session of Indian National Congressat KanpurIn 1929, she presided over East African Indian Congress in South Africa.She was awarded the hind a kesari medal by the British government for her work during the plagueepidemic in India.In 1931, she participated in the Round table conference with Gandhiji and Madan Mohan Malaviya.Sarojini Naidu played a leading role during the Civil Disobedience Movement and was jailed along withGandhiji and other leaders. In 1942, Sarojini Naidu was arrested during the "Quit India" movement andwas jailed for 21 months with Gandhiji.Sarojini though she showed great respect to Gandhiji, was also very playful with him. She called Gandhi"Mickey Mouse" because of his frail structure. She described her first meeting with Gandhiji in Englandin a very amusing mannerSarojini described Gandhi as: "A little man with shaven head, seated on the floor on a black prisonblanket and eating a messy meal of squashed tomatoes and olive oil out of a wooden prison bowl."After IndependenceShe was appointed Governor of Uttar Pradesh, a large province of India, as soon as India becameindependent. She had the honour of being the first woman governor.
  • 104. Literary CareerSarojini Naidu began writing at the age of 12.With her fathers support, she wrote the play “Maher Muneer” in the Persian language. Dr.Chattopadhyaya distributed some copies among his friends and sent one copy to the Nizam ofHyderabad. Reading a beautiful play written by a young girl, the Nizam was very impressed.In 1905, her collection of poems, named "The Broken exs" was published. Her poems were admired bymany prominent Indian politicians like Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Jawaharlal Nehru.At thirteen she wrote a long poem The Lady of the Lake that was an astounding 1300 lines long, in sixdays. Sarojini though very talented, was very fragile when it came to her health.Sarojini Naidu led a strenuous and hectic life. She travelled all over India and carried India`s message tothe USA and other countries. She was a participant in the Second Round Table Conference as arepresentative of Indian women, along with Gandhiji. After Gandhiji`s assassination Sarojini Naidu`shealth began to deteriorate. She had high blood pressure and respiratory trouble. Her conditionworsened and on 2 March 1949, at Lucknow district, she passed into eternal sleep.The Government of Uttar Pradesh paid his final tribute to Sarojini in these words. "A brilliant orator, agreat poetess, a person endowed with unusual charm and sense of humouras well as oratory,administrative skills and popular leadership".Works1905: The Golden Threshold1912: The Bird of Time: Songs of Life, Death & the Spring1917: The Broken Wing: Songs of Love, Death and the Spring, including "The Gift of India" (firstread in public in 1915)1916: Muhammad Jinnah: An Ambassador of Unity1943: The Sceptred Flute: Songs of India, Allahabad: Kitabistan, posthumously published1961: The Feather of the Dawn, posthumously published, edited by her daughter, Padmaja Naidu1971:The Indian WeaversFamous PoemsDamayante to Nala in the Hour of ExileEcstasyIndian DancersThe Indian GypsyIndian Love-SongIndian WeaversIn Salutation to the Eternal PeaceIn the Forest
  • 105. In the Bazaars of HyderabadLeiliNightfall in the City of HyderabadPalanquin BearersThe Pardah NashinPast and FutureThe Queens RivalThe Royal Tombs of GolcondaThe Snake-CharmerSong of a DreamThe Souls PrayerSutteeTo a Buddha Seated on a LotusTo the God of PainWandering SingersStreet CriesAlabasterAutumn SongIn the Baazars of HyderabadBangle SellersSarojini Naidu Timeline:1879- Sarojini Naidu was born on 13 February.1895- She went on to study at Kings College in London.1898- Sarojini married Dr. Muthyala Govindarajulu.1905- The first volume of her poetries The Golden Threshold was published.1916- She published a biography of Muhammad Ali Jinnah entitled as The Ambassador of Hindu-MuslimUnity.1919- Rowlett Act was introduced.1924- She became a delegate to the East African Indian Congress.1925- Naidu was appointed the President of the National Congress.1942- She was arrested along with Mahatma Gandhi for her involvement in the Quit India movement.1947- Sarojini Naidu was made the Governor of the Uttar Pradesh.1949-She died of a heart attack on 2 March.1961- Her daughter Padma published a collection of poems entitled The Feather of The Dawn.QuotesNaidu writes:"Shall hope to prevail where clamorous hate is rife,
  • 106. Shall sweet love prosper or high dreams have placeAmid the tumult of reverberant strifeTwixt ancient creeds, twixt race and ancient race,That mars the grave, glad purposes of life,Leaving no refuge save thy succoring face?"Naidu said, "When there is oppression, the only self-respecting thing is to rise and say this shall ceasetoday, because my right is justice."She adds, "If you are stronger, you have to help the weaker boy or girl both in play and in the work."
  • 107. Bipin Chandra PalBorn: November 7, 1858, HabiganjDied: May 20, 1932, KolkataBipin Chandra Pal was a teacher, journalist, orator, writer and librarian.But above all, he was the one of the three famous leaders called "LalBal Pal" who comprised the extremist wing of the Indian NationalCongress. It was these three leaders who started the first popularupsurge against British colonial policy in the 1905 partition of Bengal.This was before Mahatma Gandhi had entered the fray of Indianpolitics. Bipin Chandra Pal recognized the positive outcome of theBritish kingdom, but at the same time upheld Indias federal idea.Early LifeHe was born on 7 November 1858 into a wealthy Hindu family at Habiganj, which is now in Bangladesh.His father was Ramchandra Pal, a Persian scholar and small landowner. His son was Niranjan Pal, one ofthe founders of Bombay Talkies. He studied and taught at the Church Mission Society College (now theSt. Pauls Cathedral Mission College), an affiliated college of the University of Calcutta.In his youth Bipin Chandra Pal was inspired by his political Guru, Surendra Nath Banerjee. He startedtaking interest in politics in the early eighties of the last century.B.C. Pal is known as the Father of Revolutionary Thoughts in India and was one of the freedom fightersof India. He was a radical.It was on account of the part played by him in the Swadeshi Movement that Prof. Binoy Kumar Sarkarhas described him as `the father of the Bengalee Revolution`.Freedom StrugglePal was also the founder of the journal Bande MataramAt the time of B. G. Tilaks ("Bal") arrest and government repression in 1907, he left for England, wherehe was briefly associated with the radical India House and founded the Swaraj journal.The trio had advocated radical means to get their message across to the British, like boycotting Britishmanufactured goods, burning Western clothes made in the mills of Manchester or Swadeshiand strikes and lockouts of British owned businesses and industrial concerns.Father of RevolutionaryThoughts
  • 108. He was a staunch radical in both public and private life. He was also among the first who openly rebukedMahatma Gandhi and his followers because they sought to reinstate the current government with nogovernment or by the priestly tyranny of Gandhiji. It was, however, his coalition with pan-Islamismduring Khilafat movement due to which he was cast off from the Congress till his death in 1932.He was imprisoned for six months on the grounds of his refusal to give evidence against Sri Aurobindo inthe Vande Mataram sedition case.He died on May 20, 1932.Literary worksHe started the weekly Paridaashak when he was only 22 years old. His journalistic career saw him in theeditorial staff of the Bengal Public Opinion, Calcutta, as the editor of the Tribune in Lahore from 1887-88, as founder editor of the English weekly, India in 1901, and as the founder editor of the English dailyBande Mataram in 1906, which was later banned by the government.He also published the English weekly Swaraj in London during his exile in 1908-11, founded the Englishmonthly Hindu Review in 1912, edited the daily Independent and the weekly Democrat from 1919 to1920 and the Bengali in 1924, 25. He also regularly contributed to the Modern Review, the AmritaBazaar Patrika and the Statesman.A journalist himself, Pal used his profession in spreading patriotic feelings and social awareness. He wasthe editor of the Democrat, the Independent and many other journals and newspapers.He published a biography of Queen Victoria in Bangla.Swaraj and the Present Situation and The Soul of India are the two of his many books written byhim.Role in congress1. In 1886 he joined the Indian National Congress. At the Madras session of congress held in 1887,Bipin Chandra made a strong plea for repeal of the Arms Act which was discriminatory innature.2. Along with Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak he belonged to the Lal,Bal and Pal trio thatwas associated with revolutionary activity. In fact Aurobindo Ghosh and Pal were recognised asthe chief exponents of a new national movement revolving around the ideals of Purna Swaraj,Swadeshi, boycott and national education.3. His programme consisted of Swadeshi, Boycott and national education. He preached the use ofSwadeshi and the Boycott of foreign goods to eradicate poverty and unemployment.4. He wanted to remove social evils from the form and arouse the feelings of nationalism throughnational criticism.5. He had no faith in mild protests in the form of Non-Cooperation with the government. On thatone issue, the Assertive nationalist leader had nothing common with Gandhi.
  • 109. 6. During last six years of his life he parted company with the Congress and led a secluded life. SriAurobindo referred to him as one of mightiest prophets of nationalism.
  • 110. Mother TeresaBorn: August 27, 1910, SkopjeDied: September 5, 1997, KolkataMother Teresa was one of the great servants of humanity. She was anAlbanian Catholic nun who came to India and founded the Missionaries ofCharity in Kolkata.Mother Teresas original name was Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu (AG-ness,GOHN-jay, boh-yah-JOO)Mother Teresa was fluent in five languages: Bengali, the local language ofthe people of Kolkata,Albanian, Serbo-Croatian, English, and Hindi.Her beatification by Pope John Paul II following her death gave her the title"Blessed Teresa of Calcutta".When Mother Teresa received the Nobel Peace Prize, she was asked, "What can we do to promoteworld peace?" She answered "Go home and love your family"She also singled out abortion as the greatest destroyer of peace in the world.Early Life:Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu was born on 26 August 1910 in Skopje, Macedonia, but she considered 27August, the day she was baptized, to be her "true birthday".Her father was a successful merchant and she was youngest of the three siblings. At the age of 12, shedecided that she wanted to be a missionary and spread the love of Christ. At the age of 18 she left herparental home in Skopje and joined the Sisters of Loreto, an Irish community of nuns with missions inIndia.She arrived in India in 1929, and began her novitiate in Darjeeling, near the Himalayan mountains,whereshe learnt Bengali.From 1931 to 1948, Mother Teresa taught geography and catechism at St. Marys High School inCalcutta.She took her first religious vows as a nun on 24 May 1931. At that time she chose to be namedafter Thérèse de Lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries, but because one nun in the convent hadalready chosen that name, Agnes opted for the Spanish spelling Teresa.She took her solemn vows on 14 May 1937, while serving as a teacher at the Loreto convent school inentally, eastern Calcutta. Teresa served there for almost twenty years and in 1944 was appointedheadmistress.Blessed Teresa ofCalcutta
  • 111. Missionaries of Charity:After a short course with the Medical Mission Sisters in Patna, she returned to Calcutta and foundtemporary lodging with the Little Sisters of the Poor. She started an open-air school for homelesschildren. Soon she was joined by voluntary helpers, and she received financial support from churchorganizations and the municipal authorities.On October 7, 1950, Mother Teresa received permission from the Vatican to start her own order.Vatican originally labeled the order as the Diocesan Congregation of the Calcutta Diocese, and it latercame to known as the "Missionaries of Charity". The primary task of the Missionaries of Charity was totake care of those persons who nobody was prepared to look after.The Missionaries of Charity, which began as a small Order with 12 members in Calcutta, today has morethan 4,000 nuns running orphanages, AIDS hospices, charity centres worldwide, and caring for refugees,the blind, disabled, aged, alcoholics, the poor and homeless and victims of floods, epidemics and faminein Asia, Africa, Latin America, North America, Poland, and Australia.In 1965, by granting a Decree of Praise, Pope Paul VI granted Mother Teresa permission to expand herorder to other countries. The orders first house outside India was in Venezuela. Presently, the"Missionaries of Charity" has presence in more than 100 countries.Death:On March 13, 1997, Mother Teresa stepped down from the head of Missionaries of Charity and died onSeptember 5, 1997, just 9 days after her 87th birthday. And then her sister Nirmala took over as thehead of Missionaries of CharityFollowing Mother Teresas death, the Holy See began the process of beatification, the second steptowards possible canonization, or sainthood. This process requires the documentation of a miracleperformed from the intercession of Mother Teresa.In 2002, the Vatican recognized as a miracle the healing of a tumor in the abdomen of an Indian woman,Monica Besra, following the application of a locket containing Teresas picture. Monica Besra said that abeam of light emanated from the picture, curing the cancerous tumor.Mother Teresa was formally beatified by Pope John Paul II on October 19, 2003 with the title BlessedTeresa of Calcutta. A second miracle is required for her to proceed to canonization.Awards:She was awarded the Padma Shri in 1962In 1962, Mother Teresa received the Philippines-based Ramon Magsaysay Award forInternational Understanding, given for work in South or East Asia.The Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in 1969.In 1971, Paul VI awarded her the first Pope John XXIII Peace Prize, commending her for herwork with the poor, display of Christian charity and efforts for peace.She later received the Pacem in Terris Award (1976).
  • 112. The Balzan Prize for promoting humanity, peace and brotherhood among peoples (1978), andthe Albert Schweitzer International Prize (1975).In 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, "for work undertaken in thestruggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace."She refused the conventional ceremonial banquet given to laureates, and asked that the$192,000 funds be given to the poor in India, stating that earthly rewards were important only ifthey helped her help the worlds needy. When Mother Teresa received the prize, she was asked,"What can we do to promote world peace?" She answered "Go home and love your family."Indias highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna, in both 1972 and 1980.She was appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia in 1982, "for service to thecommunity of Australia and humanity at large."The United Kingdom and the United States each repeatedly granted awards, culminating inthe Order of Merit in 1983, and honorary citizenship of the United States received on 16November 1996.Mother Teresas Albanian homeland granted her the Golden Honour of the Nation in 1994.During her lifetime, Mother Teresa was named 18 times in the yearly Gallups most admiredman and woman poll as one of the ten women around the world that Americans admired most,finishing first several times in the 1980s and 1990s.In 1999, a poll of Americans ranked her first in Gallups List of Most Widely Admired People ofthe 20th Century. In that survey, she out-polled all other volunteered answers by a wide margin,and was in first place in all major demographic categories except the very young.Her Biography:Her official biography was authored by an Indian civil servant, Navin Chawla, and published in 1992.Commemoration:On 28 August 2010, to commemorate the 100th anniversary of her birth, the government ofIndia issued a special 5 Rupee coin, being the sum she first arrived in India with.Albanias international airport is named after her as Tirana International Airport MotherTeresa.Mother Teresa Day (Dita e Nënë Terezës) on 19 October is a public holiday in Albania.In 2009 the Memorial House of Mother Teresa was opened in her hometown Skopje, inthe Republic of Macedonia.Mother Teresa Womens University, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, has been established in 1984 as apublic university by government of Tamil Nadu, India.
  • 113. Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences, Pondicherry has beenestablished in 1999 by Government of Pondicherry, India.Indian Railways introduced a new train, "Mother Express", named after Mother Teresa, on 26August 2010 to mark her birth centenary.Tamil Nadu State government organised centenary celebrations of Mother Teresa on 4December 2010 in Chennai, headed by Tamil Nadu chief minister M Karunanidhi.Films & Documentaries:Mother Teresa is the subject of the 1969 documentary film Something Beautiful for God whichwas filmed by Malcolm Muggeridge and 1972 book of the same title Something Beautiful forGod.A 1997 Art Film Festival award winning film starring Geraldine Chaplin called Mother Teresa: Inthe Name of Gods Poor.A 2003 Italian miniseries titled Mother Teresa of Calcutta, The film stars Olivia Hussey in the titlerole and received a CAMIE award in 2007.And was portrayed by Megan Fox in a satirical film-within-a-film in the 2007 movie How to LoseFriends and Alienate People.Hitchens 1994 documentary about her, Hells Angel, claims that she urged the poor to accepttheir fate, while the rich are portrayed as being favored by God.
  • 114. Khan Abdul Ghaffar KhanBorn: 1890, HashtnagarDied: January 20, 1988, PeshawarKhan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was a Pashtun political and spiritual leaderknown for his non-violent opposition to British Rule in what isnow Pakistan and India.A lifelong pacifist, a devout Muslim and a close friend of Mohandas Gandhi,he was also known as Fakhr-e-Afghan (“The Afghan pride”), Badshah Khan(King khan) and Sarhaddi Gandhi (“Frontier Gandhi”).In 1985 he was nominated for the Nobel peace prize.In 1987 he became the first person without Indian citizenship to be awarded the Bharat Ratna, Indiashighest civilian award.Early LifeBorn in village Uttamazai (now in Pakistan) in a Pathan family, Abdul Ghaffar Khan had his earlyeducation in Peshawar. He was then sent to Aligarh, where he had the opportunity of meeting severaleducationists and nationalists, including Reverend Wigram (his principal), Gandhi Jawaharlal Nehru andAbul Kalam Azad. After returning to his own province (NWFP of British India), he worked for inculcationof ideas of nationalism in the minds of Pathans.Ghaffar “Badshah” KhanAt 20 years of age, Ghaffar opened his first school in Utmanzai. It was an instant success and he wassoon invited into a larger circle of progressively minded reformers.While he faced much opposition and personal difficulties, Ghaffar Khan worked tirelessly to organizeand raise the consciousness of his fellow Pushtuns. Between 1915 and 1918 he visited 500 villages in allpart of the settled districts of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. It was in this frenzied activity that he had come tobe known as Badshah (Bacha) Khan (King of Chiefs).He married his first wife Meharqanda in 1912; she was a daughter of Yar MohammadKhan of the Kinankhel clan of the Mohammadzai tribe of Razzar, a village adjacent to Utmanzai. Theyhad a son in 1913, Abdul Ghani Khan, who would become a noted artist and poet. Subsequently, theyhad another son, Abdul Wali Khan and daughter, Sardaro.Meharqanda died during the 1918 influenza epidemic. In 1920, Abdul Ghaffar Khanremarried; his new wife, Nambata, was a cousin of his first wife and the daughter of Sultan MohammadKhan of Razzar. She bore him a daughter, Mehar Taj (25 May 1921–), and a son, Abdul Ali Khan (20Frontier Gandhi
  • 115. August 1922-19 February 1997). Tragically, in 1926 Nambata died early as well from a fall down thestairs of the apartment they were staying at in Jerusalem.Khudai KhidmatgarIn time, Ghaffar Khans goal came to be the formulation of a united, independent, secular India. Toachieve this end, he founded the Khudai Khidmatgar ("Servants of God"), commonly known as the "RedShirts" (Surkh Posh), in 1929.The Khudai Khidmatgar was founded on a belief in the power of Gandhis notion of Satyagraha, a formof active non-violence as captured in an oath. He told its members:"I am going to give you such a weapon that the police and the army will not be able to stand againstit. It is the weapon of the Prophet, but you are not aware of it. That weapon is patience andrighteousness. No power on earth can stand against it."Because of his socialistic zeal, Ghaffar Khan was given the title Fakhar- e-Afghan (the pride of Afghan).In 1940, he founded another Khudai Khidmatgar on the banks of Sardaryab and named it Markar-e-Allai-e-Khudai Khidmatgar.Indian National CongressIn 1931 the Congress offered him the presidency of the party, but he refused saying, "I ama simple soldier and Khudai Khidmatgar, and I only want to serve." He remained a member of theCongress Working Committee for many years, resigning only in 1939 because of his differences with thePartys War Policy. He rejoined the Congress Party when the War Policy was revised.On April 23, 1930, Ghaffar Khan was arrested during protests arising out of the Salt Satyagraha. A crowdof Khudai Khidmatgar gathered in Peshawars Kissa Khwani (Storytellers) Bazaar. The British orderedtroops to open fire with machine guns on the unarmed crowd, killing an estimated 200–250. The KhudaiKhidmatgar members acted in accord with their training in non-violence under Ghaffar Khan, facingbullets as the troops fired on them. Two platoons of the The Garhwal Rifles regiment refused to fire onthe non-violent crowd. They were later court-martialled with heavy punishment, including lifeimprisonment.Arrest and ExcileGhaffar Khan took the oath of allegiance to the new nation of Pakistan on 23 February 1948 at the firstsession of the Pakistan Constituent Assembly.He pledged full support to the government and attempted to reconcile with the founder of the newstate Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Initial overtures led to a successful meeting in Karachi, however a follow-upmeeting in the Khudai Khidmatgar headquarters never materialised, allegedly due to the role of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Chief Minister, Abdul Qayyum Khan who warned Jinnah that Ghaffar Khan was plotting hisassassination.
  • 116. Following this, Ghaffar Khan formed Pakistans first National opposition party, on 8 May 1948, thePakistan Azad Party. The party pledged to play the role of constructive opposition and would be non-communal in its philosophy.He was arrested several times between late 1948 and in 1956 for his opposition to the One Unit scheme.The government attempted in 1958 to reconcile with him and offered him a Ministry in the government,after the assassination of his brother, he however refused. He remained in prison till 1957 only to be re-arrested in 1958 until an illness in 1964 allowed for his release.[21]In 1962, Abdul Ghaffar Khan was named an "Amnesty International Prisoner of the Year". Amnestysstatement about him said, "His example symbolizes the suffering of upward of a million people all overthe world who are prisoners of conscience."He was arrested by Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhuttos government at Multan in November 1973 anddescribed Bhuttos government as "the worst kind of dictatorship".In 1984, increasingly withdrawing from politics he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. He visitedIndia and participated in the centennial celebrations of the Indian National Congress in 1985; he wasawarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in 1967 and later Bharat Ratna,Indias highest civilian award, in 1987.His final major political challenge was against the Kalabagh dam project, fearing that the project woulddamage the Peshawar valley, his hostility to it would eventually lead to the project being shelved afterhis death.Ghaffar Khan died in Peshawar under house arrest in 1988 and was buried in Jalalabad, AfghanistanJournalsIn 1928, he started a monthly journal in Pushto, Pakhtoon, which was stopped in 1931. However, itresumed publication a few years later as Das Roza. Although a pious Muslim, Ghaffar Khan believed insecularism. He condemned the communal politics of the Muslim League and argued against the idea ofpartition.Political LegacyHis eldest son Ghani Khan was a poet, his other son Khan Abdul Wali Khan is the founder and leader ofthe Awami National Party and was the Leader of the Opposition in the Pakistan National Assembly.His third son Khan Abdul Ali Khan was non-political and a distinguished educator, and served as Vice-Chancellor of University of Peshawar. Ali Khan was also the head ofAitchison College, Lahore and FazleHaq college, Mardan.Mohammed Yahya Education Minister of N W F Province, was the only son in law of Khan Abdul GhaffarKhan.Asfandyar Wali Khan is the grandson of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, and leader of the Awami NationalParty, the party in power in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.Salma Ataullahjan is the great grand niece of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan and a member of the Senate ofCanada.
  • 117. Books on himBooks written on the life of Abdul Ghaffar Khan: "Nonviolent Soldier of Islam" by the late EknathEaswaran.His autobiography My life and struggle: Autobiography of Badshah Khan was published in 1969.Films, Literature & SocietyKhan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was briefly portrayed by Dilsher Singh in Richard Attenboroughs 1982 epicGandhi.In 2008 a documentary, titled "The Frontier Gandhi: Badshah Khan, a Torch for Peace," by filmmakerand writer T.C. McLuhan premiered in New York.Badshah Khan was listed as one of 26 men who changed the world in a recent childrens book publishedin the United States. His philosophy of Islamic pacificism was recognised by US Secretary of State HillaryClinton, in a speech to American Muslims.In the Indian city of Delhi, the popular Khan Market is named in honour of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan,and another market in the Karol Bagh of New Delhi is named after him called Ghaffar Market.Vibhu Puri is reportedly making a Bollywood Biopic on the life of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan titled ChenabGandhi.
  • 118. Rajkumari Amrit KaurBorn: February 2, 1889, LucknowDied: October 2, 1964Amrit Kaur was the health minister in the Indian Cabinet for ten years afterIndias independence from the British Raj in 1947. She was an eminent Gandhian,a freedom fighter, and a social activist.She was appointed Indias first health ministerShe was the first Indian woman to hold the position of cabinet minister.Early LifeThe Amrit Kaur was born on 2 February 1889 in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (then United Provinces), India.She and her seven brothers were the eight children of Rājā Harnam Singh, a member of the princelyfamily of Kapurthalā in the Punjab region and his wife Rāni Harnām Singh, who was the daughter ofa Bengali Presbyterian mother and an Anglican father.She had her early education in Sherborne School for Girls in Dorset, England, and had her collegeeducation at Oxford University. After completing her education in England, she returned to India.She was a fabulous tennis player. She even won a number of prizes for her excellent performance.Freedom StruggleThe ruthless killings that took place in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919 motivated her to join thefreedom struggle. Eventually, she worked together with Mahatma Gandhi. She went far away frommaterialist life and began leading the life of an ascetic. She came to live in Mahatma Gandhis Ashram inthe year 1934. She also raised her voice against inhuman acts like ill treatment of Harijans.She co-founded the All India Women’s Conference in 1927, became its secretary in 1930, and presidentin 1933.For her participation in Gandhi-led 240-mile Dandi March in 1930, British Raj authorities imprisoned her.She went to live at Mahatma Gandhis ashram in 1934, and took up the austere life there despite heraristocratic background. She served as one of Gandhis secretaries for sixteen years.As a representative of the INC, in 1937 She went on a mission of goodwill to Bannu, in the presentday Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The British Raj authorities charged her with sedition and imprisoned her.In 1942, she participated in the Quit India Movement, and the Raj authorities imprisoned her again.She championed the cause of universal suffrage, and testified before the Lothian Committee on Indianfranchise and constitutional reforms, and before the Joint Select Committee of British Parliament onIndian constitutional reforms.Indias firsthealth minister
  • 119. She served as the Chairperson of the All India Women’s Education Fund Association. She was a memberof the Executive Committee of Lady Irwin College in New Delhi. The British Raj appointed her as amember of the Advisory Board of Education; (she resigned from that Board during the Quit IndiaMovement).She was sent as a member of the Indian delegation to UNESCO conferences in London and Paris in 1945and 1946, respectively. She also served as a member of the Board of Trustees of the All India Spinners’Association.Post IndependenceAfter India’s independence, Amrit Kaur became part of Jawaharlal Nehrus first Cabinet; she was thefirst woman to hold Cabinet rank.She was assigned the Ministry of Health and was one of only two Indian Christians in the Cabinet (alongwith John Mathai).In 1950, she was elected the president of World Health Organization, becoming the first woman andthe first Asian to hold that post; for the first 25 years of that organisations history, only two womenheld that post.Kaur was a strong moving force behind the establishment of the All India Institute of MedicalSciences in New Delhi, and became its first president.For establishing the institute, she secured aid from New Zealand, Australia, West Germany, Sweden,and USA. She and one of her brothers donated their ancestral property and house (named Manorville)in Simla, Himachal Pradesh to serve as a holiday home for the staff and nurses of the Institute.Kaur served as the Chairperson of the Indian Red Cross society for 14 years. During her leadership, theIndian Red Cross did a number of pioneering works in the hinterlands of India. She initiatedthe Tuberculosis Association of India and the Central Leprosy Teaching and ResearchInstitute in Madras (Chennai). She started the Amrit Kaur College of Nursing and the National SportsClub of India.From 1957 until her death in 1964, she remained a member of Rajya Sabha.Between 1958 and 1963 Kaur was the president of the All-India Motor Transport Congress in Delhi. Untilher death, she continued to hold the presidencies of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences,the Tuberculosis Association of India, and the St. John’s Ambulance Corps. She also was awardedthe Rene Sand Memorial Award.Today, her private papers are part of the Archives at the Nehru Memorial Museum & Library, at TeenMurti House, Delhi.This great soul departed for heaven on the 2nd October in the year 1964.
  • 120. Bhikaiji CamaBorn: September 24, 1861, MumbaiDied: August 13, 1936, MumbaiBhikaiji Rustom Cama was a prominent figure in the Indianindependence movement.Madam Bhikhaji Cama was a pioneer amongst those who martyred theirlives for India’s freedom and was considered the mother of IndianRevolution.Early LifeBhikhaiji Rustom Cama was born on 24 September 1861 in Bombay into alarge, well-off Parsi family. Her parents, Sorabji Framji Patel and JaijibaiSorabji Patel, were well known in the city, where her father Sorabji—alawyer by training and a merchant by profession—was an influential member of the Parsi community.Like many Parsi girls of the time, Bhikhaiji attended Alexandra Native Girls English Institution. Bhikhaijiwas by all accounts a diligent, disciplined child with a flair for languages.On 3 August 1885, she married Rustom Cama, a wealthy, pro-British lawyer who aspired to enterpolitics. It was not a happy marriage, and Bhikhaiji spent most of her time and energy in philanthropicactivities and social work.Social LifeIn the year 1896, the Bombay presidency was hit by a natural calamity, which had adverse effects on thecity. Bhikaji was instrumental in the activities undertaken to provide assistance to the afflicted people.While rescuing other people and inoculating them, she herself became a victim of the infection. Shebecame very weak, but somehow managed to survive. In the year 1902, she went to Europe forsubsequent medical care and convalescence.During her stay in London, she got a message that her return to India can take place subject to thepromise that she would not participate in the Nationalist Movement. She refused to make such apromise and remained in exile in Europe. She died in the Parsi General hospital in Bombay (nowMumbai) in the year 1936. While Madam Cama was in London, she served as the private secretary toDadabhai Naoroji, who was the first Asian to be elected to the British House of Commons.When Bhikaji Cama was in Paris, she happened to come across a number of notable leaders of theIndian Nationalist Movement. In Holland, they secretly published and circulated the revolutionaryliterature for the Nationalist Movement. During her stay in France, the British Raj authorities requestedThe mother of IndianRevolution
  • 121. her extradition, but the French Government did not show their willingness and refused to cooperate. Inreturn, the Britishers confiscated Madame Camas legacy.In 1905, Cama along with her friends designed the India’s first tricolor flag with green saffron ad redstripes bearing the immortal words – Bande Mataram. This flag was raised by Madam Cama on August22, 1907 for India’s Independence at the International Socialist Conference in Stuggart, Germany.Where is the Flag Now?The flag was smuggled into India by Indulal Yagnik, the socialist leader of Gujarat. It is now on publicdisplay at the Maratha and Kesari Library in Pune.That flag, a modification of the Calcutta Flag, was co-designed by Cama, Vinayak DamodarSavarkar and Shyamji Krishna VarmaThere are many cities in India that have streets and places being named after Bhikaiji Cama. On 26thJanuary 1962, the Indian Posts and Telegraphs Department issued a stamp to acknowledge her work andgive her honor. The Indian Coast Guard consists of a ship that has been named after her.After 35 years fighting for India’s Independence on foreign land she returned to India and died onAugust 13, 1936.LegacyBikhaiji Cama bequeathed most of her personal assets to the Avabai Petit Orphanage for girls, whichestablished a trust in her name.On 26 January 1962, Indias 11th Republic Day, the Indian Posts and Telegraphs Department issued acommemorative stamp in her honour.In 1997, the Indian Coast Guard commissioned a Priyadarshini-class fast patrol vessel ICGS BikhaijiCama after Bikhaiji Cama.In 2004, politicians of the BJP, Indias Hindu nationalist party, attempted to identify a later design (fromthe 1920s) as the flag Cama raised in Stuttgart. The flag Cama raised – misrepresented as "originalnational Tricolour" – has an (Islamic) crescent and a (Hindu) sun, which the later design does not have.Bhikaiji Cama is the subject of several biographies:Sethna, Khorshed Adi (1987)Kumar, Raj; Devi, Rameshwari; Pruthi, RomilaYadav, Bishamber Dayal; Bakshi, Shiri Ram (1992), Madam Cama: A True Nationalist
  • 122. Calcutta FlagThe Calcutta Flag was one of the first unofficial flags of India. It was designed by Sachindra PrasadBose and unfurled on August 7, 1906 at Parsi Bagan Square (Greer Park), Calcutta.The flag had three horizontal bands of equal width with the top being orange, the centre yellow and thebottom green in colour. It had eight half-opened lotus flowers on the top stripe representing the eightprovinces of India and a picture of the sun and a crescent moon on the bottom stripe. व दे मातरम ्Vande Mataram meaning "I do homage to the mother" was inscribed in the centre in Sanskrit.The tricolor-flag Madam Cama unfurled had green, saffron, and red stripes. Red represented strength,saffron victory, and green stood for boldness and enthusiasm. There were eight lotuses representing theeight provinces and flowers represented princely states. "Vande Mataram" in Devanagari adornedcentral saffron stripe which meant "salutation to Mother India." The sun and the moon indicated Hinduand Muslim faiths. The flag was designed by Veer Savarkar with the help of other revolutionariesLiterary WorksShe became publisher of "Vande Mataram" a revolutionary magazine and was a distributor as well, anextremely difficult task in the days of British Espionage.Another magazine "Madans Talwar" was also started in memory of Madanlal Dhingrawho had laiddown his life for the country. Both the magazines were outlawed in India and England.CALCUTTA FLAG, UNFURLED ON 7-AUG-1906 BHIKHAIJI CAMA FLAG, UNFURLED ON 22-AUG-1907
  • 123. Shyama Prasad MookerjeeBorn: July 6, 1901, KolkataDied: June 23, 1953Shyama Prasad Mookerjee, the son of eminent educationist and CalcuttaUniversity Vice Chancellor Ashutosh Mukherjee, was a prominent memberof the Congress party during the prime ministership of Jawaharlal Nehru.Shyama Prasad Mookerjee was responsible for the ministry of industry andsupply in the Jawaharlal Nehru cabinet.However, differences soon arose between him and Nehru, compellingShyama Prasad Mookerjee to leave the Congress and form his own party theBharatiya Jana Sangh in 1951. Shyama Prasad Mookerjee had a flourishingcareer in politics even before his sting as a Congressman.He served as the Finance Minister of Bengal and was a major spokesman for the Hindus in Bengalthrough the Hindu Mahasabha.Early LifeMookerjee was born in a Bengali Hindu Kulin Brahmin family on 6 July 1901 in Calcutta (Kolkata). Hisfather was Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, a well-respected advocate in Bengal, who became the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta, and his mother was Lady Jogmaya Devi Mookerjee.Mookerjee obtained his degrees from the University of Calcutta. He graduated in English securing thefirst position in first class in 1921and also did MA in 1923 and BL in 1924. He became a fellow of theSenate in 1923. He enrolled as an advocate in Calcutta High Courtin 1924 after his father had diedshortly after losing to Syed Hasan Imam at Patna high court. Subsequently he left for England in 1926 tostudy at Lincolns Inn and became a barrister in 1927.At the age of 33, he became the youngest Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta (1934), and heldthe office till 1938.Political JourneryShyama Prasad Mookerjee entered into active politics after the end of his term as the Vice Chancellor ofthe University of Calcutta.He joined the Indian National Congress, from where he was elected to the Legislative Council of Bengal.However, Shyama Prasad Mookerjee resigned from the legislative council after only a year in office insupport of Congress decision to boycott the legislature.First Union Ministerof Industry andSupply
  • 124. Shyama Prasad Mookerjee decided to contest elections as an independent candidate after hisresignation. He won the elections and assumed office as the Finance Minister of the Bengal province forthe term 1941-1942.Shyama Prasad Mookerjee protested against the communalist and separatist ideas propagated byMuslim League leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Jinnah wanted a separate Muslim state, a condition thatShyama Prasad Mookerjee decided to protest against.He gradually became popular as a spokesman for Hindus in Bengal and after he joined the HinduMahasabha, Shyama Prasad Mookerjee was appointed its President in the year 1944. However ShyamaPrasad Mookerjee soon realized that all that the Muslim League promoted was communal disharmony.He realized the futility of compromising with the Muslim League and being a part of a Muslimdominated state.Therefore Shyama Prasad Mookerjee no longer protested against separation, rather he spoke in favor ofthe partition of Bengal in 1946, saying that the Muslims could live in a separate state of East Pakistan.Later it was the Hindus who were blamed for violence when Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by aHindu fanatic. The Hindu Mahasabha, of which Shyama Prasad Mookerjee was the president, cameunder attack after the assassination and was highly criticized.After Indias IndependenceAfter August 1947, Shyama Prasad Mookerjee was made a part of the Jawaharlal Nehru cabinet andgiven the office of the minister for industry and supply. Having worked with the Indian NationalCongress before, Shyama Prasad Mookerjee was a favorite with several within the party. But differencesbetween him and Jawaharlal Nehru forced the former to resign from his position in the government onApril 6, 1950.While Jawaharlal Nehru had forwarded an invitation to the Pakistan Prime Minister (Liaqat Ali Khan) todiscuss issues on minority commissions and minority rights, Shyama Prasad Mookerjee was of theopinion that Pakistan was responsible for the influx of refugees from East Bengal in West Bengal. Heeven believed that the violence that was meted out to Hindus in East Pakistan was the result ofPakistans support to the government of the country. Though Jawaharlal Nehru was prepared toappease Pakistan, Shyama Prasad Mookerjee refused to relent from his beliefs and thus quit theCongress.For his act, Shyama Prasad Mookerjee was hailed as a hero of West Bengal.Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee founded the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS) on 21 October 1951, following hisparting ways with Nehru. The BJS was ideologically close to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) andwidely considered the political arm of Hindu Nationalism. It was opposed to appeasement of IndiasMuslims, and favoured free-market economics as opposed to the socialist policies pursued by Nehru.The BJS also favored a uniform civil code governing personal law matters for both Hindus and Muslims,
  • 125. wanted to ban cow slaughter and end the special status given to the Muslim-majority state of Jammuand Kashmir.The BJS founded the Hindutva agenda which became the wider political expression of Indias Hindumajority. He was also influential with the more conservative members within the Congress.In the 1952 general elections to the Parliament of India, Dr. Mookerjee and the BJS won three seats.Dr.Syama Prasad Mookerjee opposed the Indian National Congresss decision to grant Kashmir a specialstatus with its own flag and Prime Minister. According to Congresss decision, no one, includingthe President of India could enter into Kashmir without the permission of Kashmirs Prime Minister.In opposition to this decision, he once said "Ek desh mein do Vidhan, do Pradhan aur Do Nishan nahichallenge" (A single country cant have two constitutions, two prime ministers, and two NationalEmblems).Dr. Mookerjee went to visit Kashmir in 1953, and observed a hunger strike to protest the law thatprohibited Indian citizens from settling in a state within their own country and mandated that they carryID cards. He was arrested on 11 May while crossing border into Kashmir. Although the ID card rule wasrevoked owing to his efforts, he died as detune on 23 June 1953 under mysterious circumstances.DeathShyama Prasad Mookerjee was taken under house arrest on May 11, 1953. Keeping him locked inside adecrepit house did not help to better pleurisy and coronary problems which he was already sufferingfrom. Shyama Prasad Mookerjee was taken ill to hospital in June and treated with penicillin in spite ofrepeated warnings to the medical authorities about his allergy to penicillin. Shyama Prasad Mookerjeedied while he was in hospital under mysterious circumstances. He was declared dead on June 23, 1953and though many including his mother wanted explanations and independent enquiries into the death,Jawaharlal Nehru clearly refused their demands, saying that once death was declared there could be nomystery. The Hindu nationalist thus died a controversial death.CommemorationsShyama Prasad Mookerjee was and has remained one of the chief political figures of India.• A junction located at the intersection of Chhatrapati Shivaji Museum and the Regal Cinema inMumbai has been named after Shyama Prasad Mookerjee.• The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation dedicated a bridge to Shyama Prasad Mookerjee onAugust 27, 1998.• The CSIR in India announced fellowships named after Shyama Prasad Mookerjee in 2001 fordeserving candidates who want to pursue the Ph D degree.• The tallest building in Delhi, the newly constructed 650 crore building which houses offices ofseveral branches of the Municipal Corporation of Delhi was named the Doctor Shyama PrasadMookerjee Civic Centre’ on April 22, 2010.
  • 126. Timeline1901: Shyama Prasad Mookerjee was born on July 6.1921: Graduated with English from University of Calcutta.1923: Completed his masters from the same institution.1923: Became a fellow of the Senate in Calcutta University.1924: Completed the bachelors in law degree.1924: Became an advocate in Calcutta High Court.1924: His father Ashutosh Mukherjee expired.1926: Went to England to study at Lincolns Inn.1927: Became a barrister in England.1934: Became the youngest Vice Chancellor of Calcutta University.1938: His term as Vice Chancellor ended.1941: Elected Finance Minister of Bengal province.1944: Became the President of Hindu Mahasabha.1946: Spoke out in favor of the partition of Bengal.1947: Joined Jawaharlal Nehrus cabinet as minister for industry and supply.1950: Had quit from his position on April 6 after differences with Jawaharlal Nehru.1951: Sets up the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS) on October 21.1952: Won three seats in general elections.1953: Was arrested after entering Jammu and Kashmir by force on May 11.1953: Died in hospital on June 23.
  • 127. N V GadgilBorn: January 10, 1896Died: January 12, 1966Narhar Vishnu Gadgil was an Indian freedom fighter and politicianfrom Maharashtra, India. He was also a writer. He wrote inboth Marathi and English.Gadgil graduated from Fergusson College in Pune in 1918, andobtained a degree in Law two years later.Activities before India’s IndependenceIn Indias pre-independence days, freedom fighters Lokmanya BalGangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Vallabhbhai Patel influenced Gadgil. Spiritualleaders Swami Ramkrishna Paramhans and Swami Vivekanand also made a deep impression on him. Hejoined the Indian National Congress immediately after obtaining his law degree and started his activeparticipation in the national freedom movement. He suffered imprisonment from the ruling Britishgovernment eight times for the participation.In Indias pre-independence days, Gadgil served as the secretary of Poona District Congress Committee(1921–25), the president of Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee (1937–45), and the whip andsecretary of the Congress Legislative Party (1945–47). He was elected to the central Legislative Assemblyin 1934.Gadgil was a pioneer in social reform movements in Maharashtra in the 1930s.Service after India’s IndependenceDuring 1947-52 periods, Gadgil served as a minister in the first central cabinet of independent India. Heheld the portfolios of Public Works, Commerce, and Mines and Power.In his first year in the central Cabinet, he initiated the project of building a military-caliberroadfrom Pathankot to Srinagar via Jammu in Kashmir as a part of Indias activities in the 1947 Indo-PakistanWar. As a cabinet minister, he also initiated the important development projects pertainingto Bhakra, Koyna, and Hirakund dams. He was a member of the Congress Working Committee during1952-55 period.Gadgil served as the governor of Punjab from 1958 to 1962 and as the vice-chancellor of PoonaUniversity 1964 onwards until his death less than two years later.He was associated with several public associations and institutions, including Sarvajanik Sabha,Pune; Yong Mens Association, Pune; Maharashtra Youth League, Bombay; Pune Central CooperativeFirst Union Minister ofWorks, Mines and Power
  • 128. Bank; and Pune Municipality. His next generations, son Vitthalrao Gadgil was veteran congressmanand MP from Poona loksabha constituency and Anant Gadgil is currently spokesman for MaharshtraPadesh Congress Committee.HonorThe Indian Post & Telegraph Department issued a commemorative postage stamp in Gadgils honor in1985.AuthorshipGadgil wrote several books and articles on politics, economics, law, and history. He was electedpresident of Marathi Sahitya Sammelan in 1962 held at Satara.The following are the titles of some of Gadgils books:Pathik (Autobiography)Rajya Shastra WicharShubha ShastraWaktrutwa ShastraGyanbache ArthashastraGovernment from Inside
  • 129. C. H. BhabhaCooverji Hormusji Bhabha more popularly known as C. H. Bhabha was a Parsibusinessman who took charge of the Commerce portfolio in the First Cabinetof Independent India (from 15 August 1947).He was in charge of the "Works, Mines and Power" in the interim governmentthat took office on 26 October 1946, (announced on 25 August 1946).He was also the first cabinet minister to head the Special EmergencyCommittee, which was formed as a reaction to the communal riots breakingout in the Capital.John MathaiJohn Mathai, CIE, was an economist who served as Indias first RailwayMinister and subsequently as Indias Finance Minister, taking officeshortly after the presentation of Indias first Budget, in 1948. Mathaigraduated in economics from Madras Christian College.He served as a part-time professor in University of Madras from 1922 to1925. He presented two Budgets, but resigned following the 1950 Budgetin protest at the increasing power of the Planning Commission and P. C.Mahalanobis.He was the first Chairman of the State Bank of India when it was set up in1955.He served as the Vice Chancellor of the University of Mumbai from 1955till 1957 and then as the first Vice Chancellor of the University of Kerala from 1957 to 1959. Hisnephew, Verghese Kurien, was the father of Indias White Revolution. His son, Ravi J. Mathai, was theFounder Director of the prestigious Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. Dr. John MathaiCentre, Thrissur, located on the large plot of land donated by his family, is named in his honour.John Mathai was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1934, and wasawarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1976.Indias first RailwayMinisterFirst Union Minister ofCommerce
  • 130. Rafi Ahmed KidwaiBorn: February 18, 1894, BarabankiDied: October 24, 1954An Indian independence activist and a socialist to the core, Rafi AhmedKidwais ceaseless efforts in making the country free from the British rulehave been nothing but praiseworthy. Although a bachelor in arts graduatefrom Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental Co llege, his skills of keen observing andlearning from human nature took him beyond bookish knowledge. Duringthe crisis situations that he had to deal with during his service to the nation,he showed distinct man management skills and an innovative approach toresolve human issues. And with Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru as his mentor,there was no stopping him further. His efforts in bringing out many reforms and fighting against theunjust with utmost conviction will always be remembered. A committed freedom fighter to the veryend!Early LifeRafi Ahmed Kidwai was born on 18th February 1894 in the village of Masauli in Barabanki District ofUttar Pradesh to a middle class zamindar family. His father, Imtiaz Ali Kidwai was a zamindar and agovernment servant by profession. His mother Rashid-ul-Nisa, died during Kidwais early childhood.Young Kidwai received his early education from his uncle Vilayat Ali, who was a politically active lawyer.It was till 1913 that he attended the Government high school in Barabanki. In 1916, he enrolled into theMohammadan Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh to pursue his graduation. It was in the December of1916 that his uncle made sure he participated in the historic session of the Congress party and theMuslim League party held at Lucknow. It was at this session that the Congress-league Pact was signed. In1918 he successfully completed his B.A degree. For further education, Kidwai started to work towardsL.L.B but couldnt complete it following his involvement in the national freedom struggle. In between, healso got married to Majid-ul-Nisa in 1919. The only son they had died at the age of seven.Political Career (Pre Independence)It was by 1920 that Kidwais political career officially initiated after he had become an active forcebehind the Khilafat Movement and the Non-Cooperation Movement and was even jailed for the same.In 1922, he moved to Allahabad after being released from jail and served as the private secretary toMotilal Nehru. In 1926, Kidwai was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly of the British India andfrom there on it was his political and social insightfulness that made him the Chief Whip of the CongressLegislative Assembly from 1926 to 1929. He also held the secretary position of the United ProvincesCongress Committee and organized a no-rent campaign to protect the farmers of the Rae Bareli districtfrom the ongoing economic depression. For this, he was even sentenced for six months.India’s First Ministerof Communications
  • 131. After the passage of the Government of India Act 1935, he held an office for the Indian NationalCongress.In 1937, Kidwai became a minister for Revenue and Prisons in Govind Ballabh Pants cabinet inthe United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (UP) under the Provincial Autonomy Scheme.In April 1946, he became the Home Minister of UP.Post IndependenceAfter India gained independence from the British Raj in 1947, Kidwai became Indias first Minister forCommunications. (Kidwai and Abul Kalam Azad were the two Muslims in Nehrus central cabinet.)The "own your telephone" service that he launched in 1948 still goes by the name of OYT; under whicha new telephone may be obtained. In the same year, he also launched night air mail service as a ministerfor communications.It was after the first general elections in 1952 that Kidwai was entrusted with the food and agricultureportfolio. This was a trying time as food rationing had pan India footprints and supplies were only inlimited quantities. It was only due to Kidwais polished administrative skills that he was able to turn theproblem on its head with food being available in abundance. Apart from this, he also played a crucialrole in the Kashmir embroilment by displacing Sheikh Abdullah from the prime ministership of the state.Throughout his political tenure, Kidwai remained faithful in deeds to liberate India from the British ruleand further by contributed whole heartedly to Jawahar Lal Nehru and the government to strengthen thestate of the nation.DeathIt was cardiac asthma that that led to a heart failure in between a speech at public meeting in Delhi thatKidwai lost his life and passed away on 24th October 1954. He was buried in his home village of Masauliand a Mughal style mausoleum was built over his grave.Legacy• Once every two years, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research hands out a Rafi AhmedKidwai Award to a scientist who has made outstanding research contributions in the field ofagriculture, animal husbandry, or allied sciences. A Gold medal, a citation, and a cash prize of300,000 Indian rupees constitute the award.• A road in Calcutta has been named Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Road in his honor.
  • 132. Timeline1894: Rafi Ahmed Kidwai was born.1913: Ended his stay in the Government High School.1916: Enrolled into the Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh to pursue his graduation. Alsoparticipated in the historic session of the Congress party and the Muslim League party held at Lucknow.1918: Successfully completed his graduation in B.A.1919: Got married to Majid-ul-Nisa.1920: Started his political career by joining the Khilafat movement and the non-cooperation movement.1922: Moved to Allahabad and served as a private secretary to Motilal Nehru.1926: Was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly of the British India.1926-1929: Served as the Chief Whip of Congress legislative assembly.1946: Was second to Pant as home minister. Also became the home minister of UP.1948: Launched "own your telephone" and "night air mail service" as the minister of communications.1952: Was entrusted with the food and agriculture portfolio.1954: Rafi Ahmed Kidwai passed away on 24th October.
  • 133. Babu Jagjivan RamBorn: April 5, 1908, ArrahDied: July 6, 1986, New DelhiBabu Jagjivan Ram (5 April 1908 – 6 July 1986), known popularlyas Babuji, was afreedom fighter and a social reformer hailing from thescheduled castes of Bihar in India. He was from the Chamar caste andwas a leader for his community.He was instrumental in foundation of the All-India Depressed ClassesLeague, an organization dedicated to attaining equality foruntouchables, in 1935 and was elected to Bihar Legislative Assembly in1937, that is when he organized, rural labour movement.In 1946, he became the youngest minister in Jawaharlal Nehrus provisional government, the FirstUnion Cabinet of India as a Labour minister, and also a member of Constituent Assembly of India, wherehe ensured that social justice was enshrined in the Constitution.He went on serve as a minister in the Indian parliament with various portfolios for more than forty yearsas a member of Indian National Congress (INC), most importantly he was the Defence Minister ofIndia during the Indo-Pak war of 1971, which resulted in formation of Bangladesh.His contribution to the Green Revolution in India and modernising Indian agriculture, during his twotenures as Union Agriculture Minister are still remembered, especial during 1974 drought when he wasasked to hold the additional portfolio to tide over the food crisis. Though he supported Indira Gandhiduring the Emergency in India (1975–1977), he left Congress in 1977 and joined Janata Party alliance in1977, along with his Congress for Democracy, he later served as the Deputy Prime Minister ofIndia (1977–1979), then in 1980, he formed Congress (J).Parliamentary CareerIn 1946 he became the youngest minister in Jawaharlal Nehrus provisional government and also thesubsequent First Indian Cabinet, as a Labour Minister, where he is credited for laying the foundation forseveral labour welfare policies in India.He was a part of the prestigious high profile Indian delegation that attended to attend the InternationalLabour Organization (ILO)s International Labour Conference on 16 August 1947 in Geneva along withthe great Gandhian Bihar Bibhuti Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha his chief political mentor and also the thenhead of the delegation, and few days later he was elected President of the ILO.He served as Labour minister until 1952, later he several Ministerial posts in Nehrus Cabinet,Communications (1952–56), for Transport and railways (1956–62), and for Transport andcommunications (1962–63).India’s First Minister ofLabour
  • 134. In Indira Gandhis government he worked as minister for Labour, employment, and rehabilitation(1966–67), and Union minister for Food and agriculture (1967–70), where he is best remembered forhaving successfully led the Green Revolution during his tenure.When the Congress Party split in 1969, Jagjivan Ram joined the camp led by Indira Gandhi, and becamethe president of that faction of Congress. He worked as the Minister of Defence (1970–74) making himthe virtual No. 2 in the cabinet, minister for Agriculture and irrigation (1974–77). It was during histenure as the minister of Defence that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was fought, and Bangladeshachieved independence. While loyal to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi for most of the Indian Emergency,in 1977 he along with five other politicians resigned from the Cabinet and formed the Congress forDemocracy party, within the Janata coalition.A few days before the elections, on a Sunday, Jagjivan Ram addressed an Opposition rally at the famousRam Lila Grounds in Delhi. The national broadcaster Doordarshan allegedly attempted to stop crowdsfrom participating in the demonstration by telecasting the blockbuster movie Bobby. The rally still drewlarge crowds, and a newspaper headline the next day ran "Babu beats Bobby".He was the Deputy Prime Minister of India when Morarji Desai was the Prime Minister, from 1977 to1979, though initially reluctant to join the cabinet, and was not present at the oath-taking ceremony on27 March 1977; he eventually did so at the behest of Jai Prakash Narayan, who insisted that his presencefor necessary, "not just as an individual but as a political and social force" and took oath lateron. However, he was once again given the defence portfolio. Disillusioned with the Janata party heformed his own party, the Congress (J). He remained a member of Parliament till his death in 1986, afterover forty years as a parliamentarian. He was elected from Sasaram parliament constituency in Bihar.His uninterrupted representation in the Parliament from 1936 to 1986 is a world record.Positions HeldHe holds the record for being the longest-serving cabinet minister in India for 30 years.(Ref. Kendriya Mantripraishad 1947-2004, published by Loksabha Secretriate) Union Minister of Labour,1946-1952. Union Minister for Communications, 1952-1956. Union Minister for Transport and Railways,1956-1962. Union Minister for Transport and Communications, 1962-1963. Union Minister for Labour,Employment and Rehabilitation, 1966-1967. Union Minister for Food and Agriculture, 1967-1970. UnionMinister of Defence, 1970–1974, 1977-1979. Union Minister of Agriculture and Irrigation, 1974-1977.Founding Member, Congress for Democracy party (aligned with Janata Party), 1977. Deputy PrimeMinister of India, March 23, 1977-August 22, 1979. Founder, Congress (J). He served as President of theBharat Scouts and Guides from September 1976 to April 1983.Personal LifeIn August 1933 his first wife died after a brief illness, thereafter in June 1935 he married Indrani Devi, adaughter of Dr. Birbal, a well-known social worker of Kanpur, and the couple had two children, SureshKumar and Meira Kumar.
  • 135. LegacyThe place he was cremated has been turned into the memorial Samata Sthal, and his birth anniversaryis observed as Samatha Diwas., (Equality Day) in India, his centenary celebrations were held all over thenation in 2008, especially at his statues at the Parliament and at Nizam College; demands for awardinghim posthumous Bharat Ratna have been raised from time to time Hyderabad. Andhra University whichhad conferred an honorary doctorate on him in 1973, and in 2009 on the occasion of his 102nd birthanniversary, his statue was unveiled on the university premises .His daughter, Meira Kumar, is a prominent INC leader, who has won his former seat Sasaram, both 2004and 2009 and was later the Minister for Social Justice in the Manmohan Singh government (2004 - 09),thereafter she became the Speaker of Lok Sabha in 2009. To propagate his ideologies, the Babu JagjivanRam National Foundation, has been set up by Ministry of Social Justice, Govt. of Indiain Delhi.The first indigenously built electric locomotive to have been built in India, a WAM-1 model, was namedafter him, which was recently restored by the Eastern Railway.
  • 136. R. K. Shanmukham ChettyBorn: October 17, 1892, CoimbatoreDied: 1953, CoimbatoreSir Ramasamy Chetty Kandasamy Shanmukham Chetty KCIE wasan Indian lawyer, economist and politician who served as independentIndias first finance minister from 1947 to 1949.He also served as President of Indias Central Legislative Assembly from1933 to 1935 and Diwan of Cochin kingdom from 1935 to 1941.There are hardly any words that can help describe the greatness of R. K.Shanmukham Chetty. He was a visionary, economist, socialist, lawyer andan orator. He was preceded by Dr. Liaquat Ali Khan and was succeeded byJohn Mathai as the Finance Minister of India.R. K. Shanmukham Chetty was one of the few people who believed in constitutional means rather thanconfrontational means to secure freedom. Incidentally, he was regarded as one of the key freedomfighters in Indias struggle for freedom against the British. He is credited with having solved the sterlingcrisis which was a boon to the Indian Government.R.K. Shanmukham Chetty is best remembered for his political career and traditionalism along with beingone of the top leaders of Coimbatore. The veteran politician died at the age of sixty-one, after receivingquite a number of awards.Early LifeChetty was born in the year 1892 to orthodox, but affluent, parents of the Tamil Vania Chetty family.They were businessmen who owned mills in Coimbatore. Chetty had the opportunity of graduating fromthe famous Madras Christian College. At a young age, he displayed a multi-faceted personality becauseof which his father, Kandaswamy Chettiar, wanted him to join the Civil Services. Chettys interests,however, lay elsewhere. He was keen on going to Madras to pursue his studies at the M.C.C. Hemanaged to convince his grandfather, Ramaswamy Chettiar, to send him there.He then went on to become the councilor and vice-chairman of the Coimbatore Municipality in 1917.During 1920-1921, he was a part of the Madras Legislative Assembly. This is where he learnt a lot aboutlegislative activities.CareerAs mentioned earlier, R. K. Shanmukham Chetty was instrumental in establishing the concept of self-ruleand independence for India. He was against the idea of a violent and aggressive approach for freedomIndiasfirst finance minister
  • 137. and instead, he used politics and constitutional means to achieve this end. He was appointed the ChiefWhip of the Swarajya Party and also became a member of the Justice Party.The year 1923 saw the induction of Chetty into the Central Legislative Assembly (CLA) where he wasmade the Deputy President. In the year 1929, he represented India in the International LabourOrganization (ILO) conference that aimed at attaining social justice and human rights.By 1931, he became the President of the CLA. Following the first stint, he served a second term from1933-1934. During the years between 1931 and 1945, Chetty served as the Diwan of Cochin State.There was an all-round administrative progress and the Cochin Secretariat was organized under hissupervision.In 1938, the High Court was opened and the Harbor Development Scheme was completed. In the sameyear, Chetty became an Indian delegate who represented the country in the Assembly of the League ofNations in Geneva. In 1944, he attended the World Monetary Conference held at Bretton Woods, NewHampshire, United States of America. He travelled all around the world in the name of economic,administrative and social reforms but never forgot his roots and continued to head the TamilisaiSangham.In 1945, he was made the Constitutional Adviser to the Chamber of Princes and consequently became amember of the Constituent Assembly of India. The years 1947 and 1948 saw Chetty dealing withchallenging tasks.This was when he became the first Union Finance Minister of India and presented independent Indiasfirst budget. Chetty, however, resigned a few years later because of differences with Nehru, the thenPrime Minister of India.The year 1951 saw Chetty becoming the Vice-Chancellor of Annamalai University where he studiedagriculture and science. Here, he honoured a number of Tamil scholars. In 1952, he became a memberof the Madras Legislative Council. He also happens to be the founder President of the Indian Chamber ofCommerce & Industry (ICCI) and even headed the Southern India Textile Research Association, PerurTamil College and Southern India Mills Association. A great list of accomplishments, dont you think?During his tenure as member of the Central Legislative Assembly, Chetty is believed to have enjoyed thesupport of Lord Willingdom, who once, even referred to Shanmugham Chetty as his "god-son".ContributionsApart from being a great economist, R.K. Shanmukham Chetty was also an eminent lawyer, industrialist,orator and an exemplary Tamil literary enthusiast. His contributions were a result of being a part of pre-independent India, understanding the problems of finance and dealing with the sterling issues whichsaw India gaining back most of the wealth that it had lost to the British.
  • 138. His biggest contribution to the country was framing the first Indian budget. His budgetary speech beganwith, "I rise to present the first Budget of a free and independent India. This occasion may well beconsidered a historic one and I count it a rare privilege that it has fallen to me to be the Finance Ministerto present this Budget. While I am conscious of the honour that is implied in this position, I am evenmore conscious of the responsibilities that face the custodian of the finances of India at this criticaljuncture"DeathHe died on May 5th, 1953 at the age of sixty-one due to reasons that, to this very day, remain mostlyunknown.Timeline1892: Born R. K. Shanmukham Chetty, in the state of Tamil Nadu.1917: Made the Councilor and Vice Chairman of Coimbatore Municipality.1920: Elected into the Madras Legislative Assembly.1923: Inducted to the Central Legislative Assembly as Deputy President.1929: Represents India in the International Labour Organization.1931: Made the President of the Central Legislative Assembly and becomes the Diwan of Cochin.1938: Represents India at the Assembly of the League of Nations in Geneva.1944: Becomes a part of the World Monetary Conference.1945: Becomes the Constitutional Adviser to the Chamber of Princes.1947: Frames the first Indian Budget.1951: Appointed the Vice-Chancellor of Annamalai University.1952: Made a member of the Madras Legislative Council and becomes the founder President of theIndian Chamber of Commerce & Industry.1953: Dies at the age of 61.
  • 139. Baldev SinghBorn: July 11, 1902, RupnagarDied: 1961, DelhiBaldev Singh was an Indian Sikh political leader; he was an Indianindependence movement leader and the first Defence Minister of India.Moreover, he represented the Punjabi Sikh community in the processes ofnegotiations that resulted in the independence of India, as well asthe Partition of India in 1947.After independence, Baldev Singh was chosen to become as thefirst Minister of Defence, and served in this post during thefirst Kashmir war between India and Pakistan. He is addressed often withthe title of Sardar, which in Punjabi and Hindi means Leader or Chief.Early Life & Political CareerBaldev Singh was born on July 11, 1902 in the Rupar district of Punjab to an aristocratic family. Singhwas educated at the Khalsa College in Amritsar, and began working in his fathers firm in the steelindustry. He rose to the position of director of the firm.Bladev Singh won an election to the Punjab provincial assembly under the Government of India Act1935 in 1937, as a candidate of the Panthic party. He became closely linked with Master Tara Singh andthe Shiromani Akali Dal.Cripps Mission & World War IIWhen the Cripps Mission arrived in India in 1942 to offer Indians some form of self-government, BaldevSingh was chosen to represent the Sikh community in the talks, which also included the chief Indianpolitical party, the Indian National Congress and Muslim League party. The Mission failed to make anyprogress.While the Congress Party launched the Quit India Movement, Baldev Singh and other Sikh leaders didnot support it. Singh negotiated an agreement with Sikander Hyat Khan, the leader of the UnionistMuslim League to form a government in Punjab, and became the provincial Development Minister for abrief time in the summer of 1942.Cabinet Minister and GovernmentBaldev Singh was chosen again to represent the Sikh viewpoint to the Cabinet Mission Plan that hadarrived to discuss proposals for Indian political independence. Singh reiterated the Sikh view that Indiashould remain a united country with special protections for the rights of religious minorities. Singh alsoinsisted that should partition become inevitable, the division of the Punjab should happen in a way tooffer territorial protection to the Sikhs from Muslim domination.First Defence Ministerof India
  • 140. Although Baldev Singh and other Sikhs initially opposed the implementation of the Missions May 16scheme, in the grounds that it did not offer any protection to the Sikh community, Baldev Singh joinedthe new Viceroys Executive Council, to be headed by Congress leaders Jawaharlal Nehru and SardarVallabhbhai Patel as the Sikh member. Singh became the Defence Member, a post erstwhile held by theBritish Commander in Chief of the Indian Army. However, by early 1947, it was clear that the interimgovernment would not work, owing to the conflict between the Congress Party and the Muslim League.Partition of IndiaBaldev Singh once again represented the Sikh community, this time on the Partition Council, which onthe basis of the plan written by V.P. Menon and Lord Louis Mountbatten, would partition BritishIndia into two independent, self-governing dominions of the British Empire: India and Pakistan.The Sikh community feared that partition would leave the Sikhs people a small minority in both Pakistanand India, and worried of the violence and deprivation of rights which might victimize them. But theviolence of 1946-47 where thousands of people in the Punjab had been killed, made the Sikh leadersunwilling to co-exist with a Muslim majority and had acquiesced to the partition of the province. Andgiven assurances by Congress leaders that India would protect its religious minorities under a secular,democratic Constitution, the Sikhs backed India and partition.As Defence MinisterOn August 15, 1947, India became an independent nation and Baldev Singh Singh became Indiasfirst Minister of Defence, under the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. Singh was also amember of the Constituent Assembly of India.Along with Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the Home Minister, Singh became responsible for leadingthe Indian Armys efforts t ecurity, relief and refuge to over 10 million Hindus and Sikhs who wereleaving the newly created Pakistan. Terrible violence broke loose on both sides of the frontier alongthe Punjab and Bengal, and to date it is estimated that over 1 million people were killed, with millionsmore suffering from usual acts of cruelty and great physical and personal trauma from the migration.The Army was caught unprepared, and itself was torn apart by the conflict. Thousands of Muslimofficers were leaving for Pakistan, and those still doing their duty for India were worried of their ownsafety. The Hindu and Sikh soldiers were committing acts of violence against Muslims leaving India asrevenge for the killings of Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan. Riots had broken out in Calcutta, Delhi andBombay. Patel and Singh led from the front, and despite a heavy toll, the Army finally re-asserted peaceand rule of law all over India and the borders of Punjab and Bengal, and organized a massive relief andaid operation for the millions of people arriving in India.Defence Minister Singh also led the preparations and planning for war in Kashmir, which had broken outwith Pakistani tribesmen and some military officers had in cursed into the state with the aim of annexingit into Pakistan. Over almost two years, the Indian Army would wage battle with the militants and thePakistan Army at the highest altitudes in the world. The Army succeeded in pushing back the raidersfrom Srinagar and beyond the Baramulla Pass, but with Nehrus declaration of a cease-fire under the
  • 141. supervision of the United Nations, a considerable portion of territory now lay under firm control ofthe Pakistani Army, and the Kashmir conflict was born.In September 1948, under the instructions of Acting Prime Minister Sardar Patel Singh and hiscommanders prepared plans for Operation Polo, a week-long operation that annexed the princely stateof Hyderabad into the Indian Union. Singh remained a close advisor to Patel on managing the Kashmirconflict and issues of the integration of India.Later LifeIn 1952, Baldev Singh became a member of the Parliament of India as a member of the Congress Partywhen the nation held its first democratic elections under the new Constitution of India, but did not jointhe Nehru administration. Singh remained the major political representative of Sikh concerns and wasrespected by the Akali Dal, and was re-elected in 1957.Singh died in Delhi after a prolonged illness in 1961. He is survived by his nephew, Sardar Ravi InderSingh, former Speaker of the Punjab Vidhan Sabha, leader of the Akali Dal, Panthic Morcha and also theonly Punjabi to own 4 private jets. He is also survived by his niece Harbhajan Kaur who currently residesin Ludhiana.
  • 142. Rabindranath TagoreBorn: May 7, 1861, KolkataDied: August 7, 1941, Jorasanko Thakur BariRabindranath Tagore was an icon of Indian culture. He was a poet,philosopher, musician, writer, and educationist.Rabindranath Tagore became the first Asian to became Nobel laureatewhen he won Nobel Prize for his collection of poems, Gitanjali, in 1913.He was popularly called as Gurudev by Mahatma Gandhi and his songswere popularly known as Rabindrasangeet.Two songs from his Rabindrasangit canon are now the national anthemsof India and Bangladesh: the Jana Gana Mana and the Amar ShonarBangla.In translation his poetry was viewed as spiritual and mercurial; his seemingly mesmeric personality,flowing hair, and other-worldly dress earned him a prophet-like reputation in the West.He was highly influential in introducing the best of Indian culture to the West and vice versa, and he isgenerally regarded as the outstanding creative artist of modern India.A Pirali Brahmin from Calcutta, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. At age sixteen, he released hisfirst substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhānusiṃha("Sun Lion"), which were seized upon byliterary authorities as long-lost classics.Tagore modernised Bengali art by spurning rigid classical forms and resisting linguistic strictures. Hisnovels, stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays spoke to topics political and personal.Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced), and Ghare-Baire (The Home and the World) are his best-known works, and his verse, short stories, and novels were acclaimed—or panned—for their lyricism,colloquialism, naturalism, and unnatural contemplation.The composer of Sri Lankas national anthem: Sri Lanka Matha was a student of Tagore, and the song isinspired by Tagores style.Early Life: (1861 - 1878)Rabindranath Tagore was born on May 7, 1861 in a wealthy Brahmin family in the Jorasanko mansion inCalcutta.He was the ninth son of Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi.The loyalist "Prince" Dwarkanath Tagore, who employed European estate managers and visitedwith Victoria and other royalty, was his paternal grandfather."Rabi" was raised mostly by servants; his mother had died in his early childhood and his father travelledwidely. His home hosted the publication of literary magazines; theatre and recitals of both Bengali andGURUDEV
  • 143. Western classical music featured there regularly, as the Jorasanko Tagores were the center of a largeand art-loving social group.Tagores oldest brother Dwijendranath was a respected philosopher and poet.Another brother, Satyendranath, was the first Indian appointed to the elite and formerly all-European Indian Civil Service.His sister Swarnakumari became a novelist.Rabindra Nath Tagore had his initial education in Oriental Seminary School. But he did not like theconventional education and started studying at home under several teachers.After undergoing his upanayan (coming-of-age) rite at the age of eleven, Tagore and his father leftCalcutta in 1873 to tour India for several months, visiting his fathers Santiniketan estate and Amritsarbefore reaching the Himalayan hill station of Dalhousie. There, Tagore read biographies, studied history,astronomy, modern science, and Sanskrit, and examined the classical poetry of Kalidasa.In 1874, Tagores poem Abhilaash (Desire) was published anonymously in a magazine calledTattobodhini. Tagores mother Sarada Devi expired in 1875.Rabindranaths first book of poems, Kabi Kahini ( tale of a poet ) was published in 1878. In the sameyear Tagore sailed to England with his elder brother Satyandranath to study law. But he returned toIndia in 1880 and started his career as poet and writer.In 1883, Rabindranath Tagore married Mrinalini Devi Raichaudhuri, with whom he had two sons andthree daughters.In 1884, Tagore wrote a collection of poems Kori-o-Kamal (Sharp and Flats). He also wrote dramas -Raja-o-Rani (King and Queen) and Visarjan (Sacrifice).In 1890, Rabindranath Tagore moved to Shilaidaha (his vast ancestral estates which is now inBangladesh) to look after the family estate.Between 1893 and 1900 Tagore wrote seven volumes of poetry, which included Sonar Tari (The GoldenBoat) and Khanika.In 1901, Rabindranath Tagore became the editor of the magazine Bangadarshan.He Established Bolpur Bramhacharyaashram at Shantiniketan, a school based on the pattern of oldIndian Ashrama.In 1902, his wife Mrinalini died. Tagore composed Smaran (In Memoriam ), a collection of poems,dedicated to his wife.In 1905, Lord Curzon decided to divide Bengal into two parts. Rabindranath Tagore strongly protestedagainst this decision. Tagore wrote a number of national songs and attended protest meetings. Heintroduced the Rakhibandhan ceremony , symbolizing the underlying unity of undivided Bengal.
  • 144. Nobel Prize:In 1909, Rabindranath Tagore started writing Gitanjali. In 1912, Tagore went to Europe for the secondtime.On the journey to London he translated some of his poems/songs from Gitanjali to English. He metWilliam Rothenstein, a noted British painter, in London. Rothenstien was impressed by the poems,made copies and gave to Yeats and other English poets. Yeats was enthralled.He later wrote the introduction to Gitanjali when it was published in September 1912 in a limited editionby the India Society in London.Rabindranath Tagore was awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 for Gitanjali.In 1915 he was knighted by the British King George V.In 1919, following the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Tagore renounced his knighthood. He was a supporterof Gandhiji but he stayed out of politics. He was opposed to nationalism and militarism as a matter ofprinciple, and instead promoted spiritual values and the creation of a new world culture founded inmulti-culturalism, diversity and tolerance. Unable to gain ideological support to his views, he retired intorelative solitude. Between the years 1916 and 1934 he traveled widely.In 1921, Rabindranath Tagore established Viswabharati University.He gave all his money from Nobel Prize and royalty money from his books to this University.Tagore was not only a creative genius, he was quite knowledgeable of Western culture, especiallyWestern poetry and science too. Tagore had a good grasp of modern - post-Newtonian - physics, andwas well able to hold his own in a debate with Einstein in 1930 on the newly emerging principles ofquantum mechanics and chaos. His meetings and tape recorded conversations with his contemporariessuch Albert Einstein and H.G. Wells, epitomize his brilliance.In 1940 Oxford University arranged a special ceremony in Santiniketan and awarded RabindranathTagore with Doctorate of Literature.At twenty he wrote his first drama-opera: Valmiki Pratibha (The Genius of Valmiki). In it thepandit Valmiki overcomes his sins, is blessed by Saraswati, and compiles the Rāmāyana.Another play, Dak Ghar (The Post Office), describes the child Amal defying his stuffy and puerileconfines by ultimately "fall[ing] asleep", hinting his physical death.Chitrangada, Chandalika, and Shyama are other key plays that have dance-drama adaptations, whichtogether are known as Rabindra Nritya Natya.Tagore wrote eight novels and four novellas, among them Chaturanga, Shesher Kobita, Char Odhay,and Noukadubi. Ghare Baire (The Home and the World)—through the lens of theidealistic zamindar protagonist Nikhil—repudiates the frog-march of nativism, terrorism, and religiousquerulousness popular among segments of the Swadeshi movement.Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore passed away on August 7, 1941 in his ancestral home in Calcutta.
  • 145. On the occasion of Tagores 150th birthday an anthology (titled Kalanukromik Rabindra Rachanabali) ofthe total body of his works is currently being published in Bengali in chronological order. This includes allversions of each work and fills about eighty volumes.In 2011, Harvard University Press collaborated with Visva-Bharati University to publish The EssentialTagore, the largest anthology of Tagores works available in English; it was edited by FakrulAlam and Radha Chakravarthy and marks the 150th anniversary of Tagore’s birth.Bengali (Poetry)Bhānusiṃha Ṭhākurer Paḍāvalī (Songs of Bhānusiṃha Ṭhākur) 1884Manasi (The Ideal One) 1890Sonar Tari (The Golden Boat) 1894Gitanjali (Song Offerings) 1910Gitimalya (Wreath of Songs) 1914Balaka (The Flight of Cranes) 1916Valmiki-Pratibha (The Genius of Valmiki) 1881Visarjan (The Sacrifice) 1890Raja (The King of the Dark Chamber) 1910Dak Ghar (The Post Office) 1912Achalayatan (The Immovable) 1912Muktadhara (The Waterfall) 1922Raktakaravi (Red Oleanders) 1926Nastanirh (The Broken Nest) 1901Gora (Fair-Faced) 1910Ghare Baire (The Home and the World) 1916Yogayog (Crosscurrents) 1929Jivansmriti (My Reminiscences) 1912Chhelebela (My Boyhood Days) 1940Jana Gana Mana (National Anthem)"Jana Gana Mana" is the national anthem of India.Written in highly Sanskritised (Tatsama) Bengali, it is the first of five stanzas of aBrahmo hymn composed and scored by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore.It was first sung in Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress on 27 December 1911.The Calcutta Congress session began on 26 December 1911. The proceedings on the first day began withVandemataram. The second day was entirely devoted to things connected with the welcoming of KingGeorge V, and this day the song Janaganamana was sung."Jana Gana Mana" was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on24 January 1950.27 December 2011 marked the completion of 100 years of Jana Gana Mana since it was sung for the firsttime.
  • 146. The original poem written by Rabindranath Tagore was translated into Hindi by Abid Ali & in English bySri Auribindo.The original Hindi version of the song Jana Gana Mana, translated by Ali and based on the poem byTagore, was a little different. It was "Sukh Chain Ki Barkha Barase, Bharat Bhagya Hai Jaga...."A formal rendition of the national anthem takes 52 seconds.A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is alsostaged occasionally.Our National Anthem English TranslationJana-gaṇa-mana adhināyaka jaya heBhārata bhāgya vidhātāPañjāba Sindhu Gujarāṭa MarāṭhāDrāviḍa Utkala BaṅgaVindhya Himāchala Yamunā GaṅgāUchhala jaladhi taraṅgaTava śubha nāme jāgeTava śubha āśhiṣa māgeGāhe tava jaya gāthāJana gaṇa maṅgala dhāyaka jaya heBhārata bhāgya vidhātaJaya he, jaya he, jaya heJaya jaya jaya, jaya he.Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,Dispenser of Indias destiny.Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindhu,Gujarat and Maratha,Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganges and ischanted by the waves of the Indian Ocean.They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.The saving of all people waits in thy hand,Thou dispenser of Indias destiny.Victory, victory, victory to thee.Rabindranath Tagore translated "Jana Gana Mana" from Bengali to English and also set it to music inMadanapalle, a town located in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Though the Bengalisong had been written in 1911, it was largely unknown except to the readers of the Brahmo Samajjournal, Tatva Bodha Prakasika, of which Tagore was the editor.The song was carried beyond the borders of India by the college students and became The MorningSong of India and subsequently the national anthem.Today, in the library of Besant Theosophical College in Madanapalle, the framed original Englishtranslation of Jana gana Mana, titled as The Morning Song of India in Tagores handwriting, is displayed.
  • 147. Debendranath TagoreBorn: May 15, 1817, KolkataDied: January 19, 1905, KolkataDevendranath Tagore was a Hindu philosopher and religious reformer.Debendranath Tagore is known as the second pillar of the Brahmo Samaj.He was a childhood companion of Rammohun Roy, one of the co-foundersof Brahmo Samaj in 1848 which today is synonymous with Brahmoism theyoungest religion of India and Bangladesh.A Bengali, he was born in Shilaidaha. His father was the fabulous"Prince" Dwarkanath Tagore.This Bengali personality is the father of the famous ‘GURUDEV’Rabindranath Tagore.In 1848, Debendranath wrote the book Brahmo Dharma which helped lay down the doctrines of theBrahmo Religion.Debendranath Tagore came into early influence through the Brahmo Sabha, a renewed movement inHindu religion formulating as Original Dharma ( Adi Dharma ), which is considered as the originalprinciples of Hinduism. He was drawn towards this religion and began reflecting the nature and meaningof life. He began a profound study of religious literature, mainly the Upanishads.In 1839, with guidance from Pandit Ram Chandra Vidyabageesh, leader of the Brahmo Sabha, he shapedhis own active “Tattwabodhini Sabha” which means “Truth seekers Association” through which hespread his novel knowledge and experiences.In 1843, Debendranath started the Tattwabodhini Patrika as mouthpiece of the Tattwabodhini Sabha.In the very same year, he rejuvenated the Brahma Sabha which had fallen in strength, following thedeath of Rammohun Roy in 1833. The original Brahmo Sabha was officially captivated and merged intothe Tattwabodhini Sabha(Truthseekers Association) and got renamed as Calcutta Brahma Samaj.The Brahmo Samaj literally denotes communities of men who worship Brahman.The auspicious 7th day of the Bengali calendar is observed as the foundation day of the Samaj. ThePatrika became the main force of the Samaj and continued its publications till 1883.In 1848, Debendranath Tagore arranged certain laws and rules into a systematic code, “The Adi DharmaDoctrine” as the Brahmo Dharma Beej which meant the Seed of the Brahmo Dharma.In 1950, Debendranath published a book titled “Brahmo Dharma” preserving the fundamentalprinciples of the religion. These principles emphasize rationality, monotheism and reject scripturalinfallibility, the requirement of intervention between man and God, caste division and idolization.Debendranath Tagore spread the influence of Brahmoism throughout India and gathered a reputation ofa spiritual accomplished person and was honored as a “Maharshi”.Father ofRabindranath Tagore
  • 148. Debendranath’s roles in the Bengal revitalization and the restructuring and rejuvenation of Hindureligion are certainly undoubted.The nation lost this true saint on January 19, 1905.Controversies over foundation of Brahma samaj:Who founded the Brahmo Samaj?The Brahmo Samaj was founded at Lahore in 1861 by Pandit Navin Chandra Roy to propagate theBrahmo religion. Nobin Chunder Roy had been deputed by Maha Acharya Hemendranath Tagore tospread the new Adi Dharma message of casteless Vedic Aryanism in Upper India and rescue Christianconverts to the fold of the national religion.Who founded the Brahmo religion?The Brahmo religion was founded in 1849 at Calcutta by Debendranath Tagore with the publication of“Brahmo Dharma“. This work established Brahmoism as a separate religion apart from all others.Is not Raja Ram Mohan Roy the Brahmo Samaj founder?Ram Mohan Roy started the Brahma Sabha (Association of Brahmins) along with Dwarkanath Tagore in1828. The objectives of this association were to publicize the true Vedanta which had been corrupted byBuddhist and Brahmanical influences. The Sabha met every Wednesday at Kamal Basu’s house in Chitpurand later moved to their own premises at Chitpur Road in 1830 (purchased by the munificence ofDwarkanath Tagore). After the death of Ram Mohan Roy in 1833, the Sabha became moribund.Are these Chitpur premises of 1830 not the Adi Brahmo Samaj ?It is correct that the present Adi Brahmo Samaj premises are situated at the same location as 1830.However, the Adi Brahmo Samaj is only the name given by the common people to the Calcutta BramhoSamaj when Keshub Chunder Sen and a few of his sympathisers were expelled from it by MahaAcharya.If the Calcutta Brahmo Samaj is the same as Adi Brahmo Samaj, when was it founded ?The Calcutta Brahmo Samaj was so named in 1863, when after a cyclone the Chitpur Road premiseswere affected and Brahma Sabha (previously amalgamated with Tattwabodhini Sabha) was shifted tothe Jorasako Thakur bari.Children:Dwijendranath Tagore:He was an eldest son and accomplished scholar, poet and music composer. He initiated shorthand andmusical notations in Bengali. He wrote extensively and translated Kalidas’s Meghdoot into Bengali.Satyendranath Tagore:He was the first Indian to join the Indian Civil Service. At the same time he was a scholar.Hemendranath Tagore:He was the scientist and organiser of the family. He was a spiritual seer and Yogi and he was responsiblefor development of modern Brahmoism which is now the Adi Dharm religion. He was a "doer" of his
  • 149. Tagore generation and worthy successor to his grandfather Dwarkanath and father. He sided with his"conservative" siblings Dwijendranath and Birendranath in the family disputes against "modern"Satyendranath, Jyotindranath and Rabindranath.Jyotirindranath Tagore:He was a scholar, artist, music composer and theatre personality.Rabindranath Tagore:He was his youngest son. A Nobel laureate in Literature whose poems have been adopted as nationalanthems of India and Bangaladesh. Rabindranath founded the Vishwabharathi University in theShantiniketan Estate acquired by his father.His other sons were Birendranath (1845–1915) and Somendranath.His daughters were Soudamini, Sukumari, Saratkumari, Swarnakumari (1855–1932) and Barnakumari.Soudamini was one of the first students of Bethune School and a gifted writer.Bibliography:BengaliBangla Bhashay Sanskrita Vyakaran (1838, now lost)Brahmodharma (1st & 2nd parts, 1849)Atmatattvavidya (1852)Brahmodharmer Mat O Bisvas (1860)Paschim Pradesher Durbhiksha Upashame Sahajya Sangraharthe Brahmo Samajer Baktrita (1861)Brahmodharmer Byakhyan, Part I (1861)Kalikata Brahmosamajer Baktrita (1862)Brahmo Bibaha Pranali (1864)Brahmo Samajer Panchabingshati Batsarer Parikshita Brittanta (1864)Brahmodharmer Anusthan-Paddhati (1865)Bhowanipur Brahmavidyalayer Upadesh (1865-66)Brahmodharmer Byakhyan, Part II (1866)Masik Brahmo Samajer Upadesh (A collection of eighteen lectures delivered during 1860-67)Brahmodharmer Byakhyan, Epilogue (1885)Jnan O Dharmer Unnati (1893)Paralok O Mukti (1895)Atmajivani (1898)Patravali (A collection of letters written during 1850-87)EnglishVedantic Doctrines Vindicated (1845)Autobiography (Translated from the original Bengali work, Atmajivani, by Satyendranath Tagore,
  • 150. Dwijendranath TagoreBorn: March 11, 1840, KolkataDied: January 19, 1926, SantiniketanDwijendranath Tagore was an Indian poet, song composer, philosopher,mathematician, and a pioneer in Bengali shorthand and musical notations.His first contribution to Bengali literature was the Bengali translationof Kalidasa’s classical Sanskrit work Meghaduta in 1860. It was the first timethat the great Sanskrit poetic work was translated into Bengali.His second great work of poetry was Swapnaprayan, published in 1875.Michael Madhusudan Dutta was at the height of his success, whenDwijendranath started writing poetry. On return to Calcutta from Madras (now Chennai) in 1856,Michael Madhusudan worked with marvellous devotion for six years until he sailed for Europe,producing such plays and poems as:Tilottama (1859)Padmavati (1860)Meghnadbadh Kavya (1861)Vrajangana (1861)Krishnakumari (1861)Virangana (1862), and so on.His philosophical work, Tattwabidya ("Knowledge of Principles"), published in three volumes between1866 and 1868, was a pioneering effort in Bengali.In 1896, he published Adwaita Mater Samalochana (Criticism of Adwaita philosophy) and in1899, Aryadharma O Boudhya Dharmer Ghat-Protighat (a book on the conflicts of Aryan religion[Hinduism] and Buddhism).He edited Tattwabodhini Patrika for 25 years from 1884 and was founder of Hitabadi.He was keen on extending Tattwabodhini Patrika but his younger brother Jyotirindranath Tagore (1849 –1925) proposed a new magazine, Bharati. Although he was editor, it was effectively run by his youngerbrother.Works:Bhratrbhab (1863)Tattvabidya (1866–68)Sonar Kathi Rupar Kathi (1885)Sonay Sohaga (1885)Aryami ebang Sahebiana(1890)Samajik Roger Kaviraji Chikitsa (1891)Advaitamater Samalochana (1896)Brahmajnan O Brahmasadhana (1900)Banger Rangabhumi (1907)Haramanir Anvesan (1908)Gitapather Bhumika (1915) andPrabandhamala (1920).Brother ofRabindranath Tagore
  • 151. Satyendranath TagoreBorn: June 1, 1842, KolkataDied: January 9, 1923, KolkataSatyendranath Tagore was the first Indian to join the Indian Civil Service.He was an author, song composer, linguist and made significantcontribution towards the emancipation of women in Indian society duringthe British Raj.Civil Service:For a long time, only British officers were appointed to all covenantedposts. In 1832, the posts of musif and sadar amin were created and opened to Indians. In 1833, theposts of deputy magistrate and deputy collector were created and opened to Indians.The ICS Act of 1861 established the Indian Civil Service. The Act of 1853 had already established thepractice of recruiting covenanted civilians through competitive examinations.It was a daunting task to go to England and compete with the British for a position. However, hisfriend Monomohun Ghose offered encouragement and support, and both of them set sail for England in1862 to prepare for and compete in the civil service examinations.Satyendranath was selected for the Indian Civil Service in June, 1863. He completed his probationarytraining and returned to India in November 1864. Monomohun Ghose did not succeed in theexamination for the ICS but was called to the bar.Satyendranath was posted to Bombay presidency, which then covered western parts of present-day Maharashtra, Gujarat and Sindh. After initial posting of four months in Bombay (now Mumbai), hehad his first active posting at Ahmedabad.He translated Bal Gangadhar Tilak’s Geetarahasya and Tukaram’s Abhang Poems into Bengali.He served in the ICS for about thirty years and retired as Judge of Satara in Maharashtra in 1897.Works:Sushila O Birsingha (play, 1867)Bombay Chitra (1888)NabaratnamalaStrisvadhinataBauddhadharma (1901)Amar Balyakatha O BombayPrabas (1915)Bharatvarsiya Ingrej (1908)Raja Rammohan Roy.
  • 152. Swarnakumari DeviBorn: August 28, 1855, KolkataDied: July 3, 1932, KolkataSwarnakumari Devi was an Indian poet, novelist, musician and social worker.Her first novel Deepnirban was published in 1876.There is an opinion that Hana Catherine Mullens was the first novelist inthe Bengali language with her Phoolmani O Karunar Bibaran (Description ofPhulmani and Karuna), published in 1852.Swarnakumari was the first woman novelist amongst the Bengali people.Works (Novels)Mibar Raj (1877)Chhinnamukul (1879)Malati (879)Hughlir Imam Badi (1887)Bidroha (1890)Snehalata (1892)Kahake (1898)Bichitra (1920)Swapnabani (1921)Milanrati (1925)Phuler MalaSister ofRabindranath Tagore
  • 153. Plays – Rajkanya, DivyakamalPoetry – Gatha, Basanta Utsab, GitiguchhaScientific essays – PrithibiAwards:University of Calcutta honoured her with the Jagattarini gold medal in 1927 andin 1929 she became the president of the Bangiya Sahitya Sammelan.This is Dwarkanath Tagore, The father of Debendranath Tagore and Grand fatherof all his sons and daughters.DwarkanathTagore
  • 154. Dr Rajendra PrasadBorn: December 3, 1884, BiharDied: February 28, 1963, PatnaDr. Rajendra Prasad was the first President of independent IndiaBefore serving as the president of the Constituent Assembly that draftedthe constitution, he had served as Minister of Food and Agriculture inthe year 1946 in the Interim national Government.Early Life:Dr. Rajendra Prasad was born on December 3, 1884 in Ziradei village inSiwan district of Bihar. His fathers name was Mahadev Sahay and his mothers name was KamleshwariDevi. Rajendra Prasad was youngest among his siblings.At the age of five Rajendra Prasad was, according to the practice in the community to which hebelonged, put under a Maulavi who taught him Persian.Later, he was taught Hindi and arithmetic. At the age of 12, Rajendra Prasad was married to RajvanshiDevi.Dr. Rajendra Prasad was a brilliant student. He stood first in the entrance examination to the Universityof Calcutta, and was awarded a monthly scholarship of Rs.30.He joined the Presidency College, Kolkata in 1902, initially as a science student. Here his teachersincluded the great scientist Jagdish Chandra Bose and the highly respected Prafulla Chandra Roy. Lateron he switched from Science to Arts and completed his M.A. and Masters in Law.He was a great scholar. It can be proved from the comment of an examiner who wrote on his answersheet “examinee is better than examiner”Meanwhile, in 1905, Doctor, Rajendra Prasad was initiated into the Swadeshi Movement by his elderbrother Mahendra. He also joined the Dawn Society run by Satish Chandra Mukherjee, and SisterNivedita.Career:Dr. Rejendra Prasad started his life as a Professor of English in G. B. B. College, Mazaffarpur, in 1908.In 1911, he joined the A.I.C.C. However, his family estate was in bad condition. He was looked upon asthe savior.First President ofIndependent India
  • 155. Later he joined the bar and started practice in the High Court of Calcutta in 1911.In the year 1916, he joined the High Court of Bihar and Orissa. Later in the year 1917, he was appointedas one of the first members of the Senate and Syndicate of the Patna University. He also used topractice law at Bhagalpur, the famous silk-town of Bihar.Independence Movement:Prasad had formally joined the Indian National Congress way back in the year 1911.During the Lucknow Session of Indian National Congress held in 1916, he met Mahatma Gandhi.The arrival of Mahatma Gandhi on the Indian national scene greatly influenced Dr. Rajendra Prasad.While Gandhiji was on a fact-finding mission in Champaran district of Bihar, he called on RajendraPrasad to come to Champaran with volunteers. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was greatly impressed by thededication, conviction and courage that Gandhiji displayed.Gandhijis influence greatly altered Dr. Rajendra Prasads outlook. He sought ways to simplify his life andreduced the number of servants he had to one. He started doing his daily chores such as sweeping thefloor, washing the utensils-the tasks he had all along assumed others would do for him.After coming into contact with Gandhiji, Dr. Rajendra Prasad immersed himself fully into the freedomstruggle.He wrote articles for the revolutionary publications Searchlight and the Desh and collected funds forthese papers.He played a active role during Non-Cooperation Movement. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was arrested in 1930while participating in Salt Satyagraha.He took an active role in helping the affected people during the 1914 floods that struck Bihar andBengal. When an earthquake affected Bihar on 15 January 1934, Prasad was in jail. During that period,he passed on the relief work to his close colleague Anugrah Narayan Sinha. He was released two dayslater and set up Bihar Central Relief Committee on 17 January 1934, and took the task of raising funds tohelp the people himself.He became the General Secretary of the Indian National Congress in 1922.He was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress during the Bombay session in October1934. He again became the president when Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose resigned in 1939.On 8 August 1942, Congress passed the Quit India Resolution in Bombay which led to the arrest of manyIndian leaders. He was arrested from Sadaqat Ashram, Patna and sent to Bankipur Jail. After remainingincarcerated for nearly three years, he was released on 15 June 1945.After the formation of Interim Government of 12 nominated ministers under the leadership ofJawaharlal Nehru on Sep 2 1946, he got the Food and Agriculture department.
  • 156. Later, he was elected the President of Constituent Assembly on 11 December 1946.Again on 17 November 1947 he became Congress President for a third time after Jivatram Kripalanisubmitted resignation.Two and a half years after independence, on January 26, 1950, the Constitution of independent Indiawas ratified and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected the nations first President.In 1962, after serving 12 years as the president, he announced his decision to retire. After relinquishingthe office of the President of India on May 1962, he returned to Patna on 14 May 1962 and preferred tostay in the campus of Bihar Vidyapeeth.He was subsequently awarded the Bharat Ratna, the nations highest civilian award.Death:Within months of his retirement, early in September 1962, his wife Rajvanshi Devi passed away. He diedon 28 February, 1963 with Ram Ram on his lips.His legacy is being ably carried forward by his great grandson Ashoka Jahnavi-Prasa, a psychiatrist and ascientist of international repute who introduced sodium valproate as a safer alternative to lithium saltsin the treatment of bipolar disorders.Literary Contributions:Satyagraha at Champaran (1922)India Divided (1946)Atmakatha (1946), his autobiography written during his 3-year prison term in Bankipur JailMahatma Gandhi and Bihar, Some Reminisences" (1949)Bapu ke Kadmon Mein (1954)Since Independence (published in 1960)
  • 157. Sarvepalli RadhakrishnanBorn: September 5, 1888, TiruttaniDied: April 17, 1975, ChennaiSarvepalli Radhakrishnan was first Vice President of India and SecondPresident of India.His birthday is celebrated in India as Teachers Day on 5 September.Early LifeSarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born in a poor Niyogi Telugu Brahmin familyat Tiruttani India, now in Thiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu. His fathers namewas Sarvepalli Veeraswamiand his mothers name was Sitamma.His early years were spent in Tiruttani and Tirupati. His father was asubordinate revenue official in the service of a local zamindar (landlord). His primary education was atPrimary Board High School at Tiruttani. In 1896 he moved to the Hermansburg Evangelical LutheralMission School in Tirupati.Radhakrishnan was awarded scholarships throughout his academic life. He joined VoorheesCollege in Vellore but switched to the Madras Christian College at the age of 17. He graduated fromthere in 1906 with a Masters degree in Arts, being one of its most distinguished alumni.Radhakrishnan wrote his thesis for the M.A. degree on “The Ethics of the Vedanta and its MetaphysicalPresuppositions”.Radhakrishnan was married to Sivakamu, a distant cousin, at the age of 16.CareerIn April 1909, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was appointed to the Department of Philosophy at the MadrasPresidency College. Thereafter, in 1918, Radhakrishnan was selected as Professor of Philosophy bythe University of Mysore.By that time he had written many articles for journals of repute like The Quest, Journal ofPhilosophy and the International Journal of Ethics.He also completed his first book, The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore. He believed Tagoresphilosophy to be the "genuine manifestation of the Indian spirit".Radhakrishnans second book, The Reign of Religion in Contemporary Philosophy was published in1920.First Vice President ofIndia
  • 158. In 1921 he was appointed as a professor in philosophy to occupy the King George V Chair of Mental andMoral Science at theUniversity of Calcutta.In 1929 Radhakrishnan was invited to take the post vacated by Principal J. Estlin Carpenter at HarrisManchester College. This gave him the opportunity to lecture to the students of the University of Oxfordon Comparative Religion. For his services to education he wasknighted by George V in the June1931 Birthday Honours, and formally invested with his honour by the Governor-General of India, theEarl of Willingdon, in April 1932.He was the Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University from 1931 to 1936. In 1939 Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviyainvited him to succeed him as the Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University (BHU). He served as itsVice-Chancellor till January 1948.Independent IndiaWhen India became independent in 1947, Radhakrishnan represented India at UNESCO (1946–52) andwas later Ambassador of India to the Soviet Union, from 1949 to 1952. He was also elected tothe Constituent Assembly of India.Presidency:Radhakrishnan was elected as the first Vice President of India in 1952. After serving two terms as Vice-President, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was elected President of India in 1962.Aldous Huxley observed that Dr. Radhakrishnan "is the master of words and no words."Radhakrishnans tenure as President was marked by the disastrous Indo-China war of 1962, the end ofthe Nehru-era with Nehrus death in 1964, and Indias victorious performance against Pakistan in 1965under Lai Bahadur Shastri.All through the years, Radhakrishnan guided each of the Prime Ministers wisely and helped see Indiathrough those trying years safely. Radhakrishnan refused to continue for another term as President afterhis term ended in 1967.At the age of 79, Dr. Radhakrishnan returned to Madras to a warm homecoming. He spent his last yearshappily at his house "Girija" in Mylapore, Madras.Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan passed away on April 17, 1975.In India, September 5 (his birthday) is celebrated as Teachers Day in his honor.AwardsThe Bharat Ratna in 1954Radhakrishnan was appointed a Knight Bachelor in 1931.Elected Fellow of the British Academy in 1938.He was awarded Order of Merit in 1963.He received the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in 1961.
  • 159. Awarded the Templeton Prize in 1975, a few months before his death. He donated the entireamount of the Templeton Prize to Oxford University. In 1989, the university instituted theRadhakrishnan Scholarships in his memory. The scholarships were later renamed the"Radhakrishnan Chevening Scholarships".WritingsThe Ethics of Vedanta and Its Metaphysical Presuppositions (1908)Essentials of Psychology (1912)The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore (1918)The Reign of Religion in Contemporary Philosophy (1920)Indian Philosophy - Volume I (1923)The Hindu View of Life (1926)Indian Philosophy - Volume II (1927)The Religion We Need (1928)Kalki or the Future of Civilization (1929)An Idealist View of Life (Hibbert Lectures) (1932)East and West in Religion (1933)The Heart of Hindustan (1936)Freedom and Culture (1936)Contemporary Indian Philosophy (1936)Religion in Transition (1937)Gautama, the Buddha (British Academy Lectures) (1938)Eastern Religions and Western Thought (1939)Mahatma Gandhi (Essays and Reflections on his Life and Work) (1939)India and China (1944)Education, Politics and War (A collection of addresses) (1944)Is this Peace ? (1945)Religion and Society (Kamala Lectures) (1947)The Bhagavadgita (1948)Great Indians (1949)The Dhammapada (1950)An Anthology (Of Radhakrishnan Writings) (1952)The Religion of the Spirit and Worlds Need: Fragments of a Confession (1952)History of Philosophy in Eastern and Western (2 Vols.) (1952)The Principal upaniShads (1953)East and West: Some Reflections (First series in Bently Memorial Lectures) (1955)Recovery of Faith (1956)Occasional Speeches and WritingsA Source Book in Indian Philosophy (1957)The brahma sutra: The Philosophy of Spiritual Life (1960)The Concept of Man (1960)Fellowship of Faiths (Opening address to the Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard)(1961)Occasional Speeches [July 1959 - May 1962] (1963)President Radhakrishnans Speeches and Writings 1962-1964 (1965)On Nehru (1965)Religion in a Changing World (1967)
  • 160. President Radhakrishnans Speeches and Writings 1964-1967 (1969)Radhakrishnan Reader: An Anthology (1969)The Creative Life (1975)Living with a Purpose (1977)True Knowledge (1978)Indian Religions (1979)Towards a New World (1980)The principal Upanishads
  • 161. Dr Zakir HussainBorn: February 8, 1897, HyderabadDied: May 3, 1969, New DelhiZakir Hussain was the 3rdPresident of India, from 13 May 1967 until hisdeath on 3 May 1969.He was the first elected Muslim president of India.Early Life:Zakir Hussain was born in Hyderabad Deccan, and his ancestor HussainKhan migrated from Kohat to Kaimganj, Farrukhabad, Uttar Pradesh, in1715.His father and mother passed away when he was only 10 and 14 yearsold respectively, leaving young Zakir to complete his school education from the Islamia High School inEtawah. He, later, attended the Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College in Aligarh (today known as theAligarh Muslim University), the place which saw the beginning of his career as a reformist politician.Middle YearsZakir Hussain had already gained recognition throughout India as the leader of the student union duringhis years of study at the Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College. However, it was not only politics thatinterested him.After completing his formal education, Zakir Hussain became the leader of a young group of studentswho together founded the National Muslim University in Aligarh on October 29, 1920.The university then shifted base to Karol Bagh, New Delhi in 1925.Ten year later it yet again shifted base this time permanently to Jamia Nagar, New Delhi and was namedit Jamia Millia Islamia.He was merely 23 years old when he established the educational institution.Zakirs keen interest and dedication towards education more than politics became evident when hewent to Germany to pursue a PhD in Economics. It was in the University of Berlin that Zakir Hussainbrought out an anthology of some of the best works of Urdu poet Mirza Khan Ghalib.The chief motive of Zakir Hussain was to use education as the chief tool to help India during the periodof freedom struggle against the British. In fact, Zakir Hussain was so dedicated in his goal towardsdissemination of education in India, that he was also successful in winning the attention of hisadversary, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, in the field of politics.First Muslim Presidentof India
  • 162. Return to IndiaThough Dr. Zakir Hussain visited Germany for his education, he returned soon after to provide academicand administrative leadership to Jamia Milia Islamia. The university was on the verge of being shut downin the year 1927 and it was due to the efforts of Dr Zakir Hussain that the educational institution hasmanaged to stay afloat.He continued to lend his support, providing academic and managerial leadership to the institution fortwenty one years. It was due to his efforts that the university immensely contributed in Indias strugglefor freedom from the British Rule. As a teacher, Dr Zakir Hussain propagated the learnings of MahatmaGandhi and Hakim Ajmal Khan. He was an active member of several educational reform movements inthe country in the mid 1930s.Dr Zakir Hussain was elected the Vice Chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University (his alma materpreviously known as Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College) in independent India.During his stint as Vice Chancellor, Dr Zakir Hussain was able to avert several teachers within theinstitution from lending their support in creating a separate state of Pakistan.Dr. Zakir Hussain was awarded Padma Vibhushan in 1954.With the end of his term as Vice Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University, Dr Zakir Hussain wasnominated to the Rajya Sabha and thus, became a member of the Indian Parliament in 1956.However, he held this position only for a year after which he became the Governor of Bihar, a post heoccupied for five years from 1957 - 1962.After serving as the Governor of Bihar for 5 years, Zakir Hussain was appointed as the 2ndVice Presidentof India from 1962 to 1967.Hussain was elected President of India on 13 May 1967.It was on May 13, 1967 that Dr Zakir Hussain created history by being “the first Muslim President ofIndia” to be elected for such a prestigious position.He was also the third politician to occupy the office of the Indian President, after Dr Rajendra Prasad,Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.DeathDr Zakir Hussain passed away on the 3rd of May, 1969, two years after he was sworn in as President ofIndia. His death also made him the first President to die while still in office. He was buried on thecampus of the Jamia Millia Islamia (or Central University) in New Delhi.Awards:• Zakir was honored with the Bharat Ratna award in 1963.• He was also the recipient of D.Litt. (Honoris Causa) by the Universities of Delhi, Calcutta, Aligarh,Allahabad and Cairo.
  • 163. Timeline1897: Zakir Hussain was born on February 8.1920: Founded the National Muslim University in Aligarh on October 29.1925: The campus of the university was shifted to New Delhi.1935: National Muslim University was renamed Jamia Millia Islamia and was relocated in Jamia Nagar,New Delhi.1948: Became the Vice Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University.1954: Was awarded Padma Vibhushan1956: Became a member of the Indian Parliament1957-62: Elected as the Governor of Bihar for a period of five years.1962: Sworn in as second Vice President of India.1963: Recipient of the Bharat Ratna Award1967: Became the first Muslim President of India1969: Died on May 3.
  • 164. Born: August 10, 1894, Berhampur, APDied: June 23, 1980, ChennaiVarahagiri Venkata Giri commonly known asthe 4thPresident of the Republic of India1974.He was also Acting President of Indiabefore becoming actual president.Childhood & Early LifeVarahagiri Venkata Giri was born in a TeluguBerhampur in the year 1894, now part ofPradesh State.The young lad completed his primary and secondary education in his hometown.In order to study law, V.V Giri went to the University College Dublin in 1913.The same year, he met Gandhi who influenced Giri deeply and finally made him realize that the freedomstruggle is far more important than law.At college, Giri became involved with the Sinn Fein movement which led to his expulsion from Ireland in1916, leaving him unable to complete his law degree. It was the freedom and workers movement ofIreland and the revolutionary ideas of people like De Valera, Collins, Pearee, Desmond Fitzgerald,MacNeil, and Connolly, whom he met personally, that influenced him fumovements in India.Subsequently, V.V Giri returned to India and started actively participating in the Labor Movement, laterbecoming the General Secretary.He was also very active in the Nationalist Movement.Career (Pre-Independence)By 1922, Giri became a trusted aide of N.M. Joshi, who worked for the cause of the workers, and withthe support of his mentor, Giri aligned himself with the organizations working for the cause of theworking class.Later, because of his commitment to the Trade Union Movement, he was elected as the President of theAll India Railway mens Federation.He also served as the President of the1942.V V Giri, APcommonly known as V. V. Giri wasRepublic of India from 24 August 1969 to 23 AugustPresident of India from 3 May 1969 to 20 July 1969,Varahagiri Venkata Giri was born in a Telugu-speaking Brahmin family inin the year 1894, now part of East Godavari District - AndhraThe young lad completed his primary and secondary education in his hometown.In order to study law, V.V Giri went to the University College Dublin in 1913.The same year, he met Gandhi who influenced Giri deeply and finally made him realize that the freedomstruggle is far more important than law.At college, Giri became involved with the Sinn Fein movement which led to his expulsion from Ireland inaving him unable to complete his law degree. It was the freedom and workers movement ofIreland and the revolutionary ideas of people like De Valera, Collins, Pearee, Desmond Fitzgerald,MacNeil, and Connolly, whom he met personally, that influenced him further to participate in suchSubsequently, V.V Giri returned to India and started actively participating in the Labor Movement, laterHe was also very active in the Nationalist Movement.By 1922, Giri became a trusted aide of N.M. Joshi, who worked for the cause of the workers, and withthe support of his mentor, Giri aligned himself with the organizations working for the cause of theis commitment to the Trade Union Movement, he was elected as the President of the.He also served as the President of the All India Trade Union Congress twice, once in 1926 and again inFirst Acting Presidentof IndiaThe same year, he met Gandhi who influenced Giri deeply and finally made him realize that the freedomAt college, Giri became involved with the Sinn Fein movement which led to his expulsion from Ireland inaving him unable to complete his law degree. It was the freedom and workers movement ofIreland and the revolutionary ideas of people like De Valera, Collins, Pearee, Desmond Fitzgerald,rther to participate in suchSubsequently, V.V Giri returned to India and started actively participating in the Labor Movement, laterBy 1922, Giri became a trusted aide of N.M. Joshi, who worked for the cause of the workers, and withthe support of his mentor, Giri aligned himself with the organizations working for the cause of theis commitment to the Trade Union Movement, he was elected as the President of thetwice, once in 1926 and again inActing Presidentof India
  • 165. In 1934 he was selected as a member of the Imperial Legislative Assembly. His tryst with politics beganwhen he stood in 1936 General Elections as a Congress candidate.He became minister of labour and industries in 1937 for the Congress Party government formed by C.Rajagopalachari in the Madras Presidency.When the Congress Government resigned in 1942 to protest against the British rule, V.V. Giri returnedto the Labor Movement to take part in the Quit India Movement. He was imprisoned and was lodged inRajahmundry jail.Again, after the General Election of 1946 he was given the labor ministry.Post-IndependenceAfter India got its independence, V.V. Giri was sent to Ceylon as the High Commissioner.After India gained independence, he was first appointed high commissioner to Ceylon and thensuccessfully ran for parliament in 1952. He was elected for 1st Lok Sabha from Pathapatnam Lok SabhaConstituency and served as minister of labour until resigning in 1954.The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE) was founded in 1957 by a distinguished group ofacademicians and public men engaged in promoting the study of labour and industrial relations. Theteam was headed by Shri Giri.He served successfully as governor of Uttar Pradesh (1957–1960), Kerala (1960–1965) andMysore (1965–1967).From 1957, while still occupying the post of Governor, he worked as the President of the IndianConference of Social Work.Then after a decade long spell of being the Governor of various Indian states:“He was elected as the third Vice President of India in 1967”In 1969, when the then President Zakir Hussain passed away:“V.V Giri became the first acting President of India”V.V.Giri was elected to the Office of the President and was sworn in on 24.8.69.He decided to run for that position in the ensuing election. The Congress Party Official leadership ledby Kamraj chose to support Neelam Sanjiva Reddy for the position, but he was able to prevail anywaybeing the chosen candidate for Indira Gandhi who controlled the government, serving until 1974.LegacyIn 1974, the Government of Indias Ministry of Labor established an autonomous institution for"research, training, education, publication and consultancy on labour related issues". This institutionwas, in 1995, renamed the V.V Giri National Labor Institute in his honor. An outspoken activist of laborrights, Giri will always be remembered for his work towards uplifting the workers and working towardspreserving their rights.
  • 166. Personal life and death:V.V Giri married early in life to Saraswati Bai. At the age of 85, Giri passed away in Chennai in the year1980.Awards & BooksHe received Indias highest civilian decoration, the Bharat Ratna, in 1975.He was a prolific writer and a good orator. He has written books on Industrial Relations andLabour problems in Indian Industry.Timeline1894: V.V Giri was born in Berhampur.1913: Joined University College Dublin.1916: Was expelled from Ireland.1934: Became a member of the Imperial Legislative Assembly.1936: Ran for the Madras General Election.1937: Inducted into the Congress ministry in Madras as the minister of labor.1942: Joined the Quit India Movement.1947: Appointed High Commissioner of Ceylon.1952: Elected to the Lok Sabha and became a member of the Union Cabinet.1957: Founded the Indian Society of Labor Economics; Appointed the Governor of Uttar Pradesh.1960: Appointed as the Governor of Kerala.1965: Appointed as the Governor of Mysore.1967: Elected as the Vice President of India.1969: Elected as the President of India.1975: Recipient of the Bharat Ratna.1980: Passed away in Chennai.
  • 167. Mohammad HidayatullahBorn: December 17, 1905, LucknowDied: September 18, 1992, MumbaiSir Mohammad Hidayatullah was:The 11thChief Justice of India, (February 25, 1968 to December 16,1970)The 6thVice-President of India, (August 20, 1977 to August 20,1982)The Acting President of India (July 20, 1969 to August 24, 1969)Muhammad Hidayatullah, the first Muslim Chief Justice of India and thesecond Muslim to hold the post of the President of India.Early Life:Hidayatullah was born in Lucknow in 1905 in the well-known family of Khan Bahadur Hafiz MohammedWilayatullah, an upper-class family.Wilayatullah was Gold medallist of Aligarh Muslim University in 1897. He served till 1928 in ICS and from1929-33 as member of Central Legislative Assembly.Hidaytullahs elder brothers Mohammed Ikramullah (ICS, later Foreign Secretary, Pakistan) andAhmedullah (ICS, retired as Chairman, Tariff Board) were scholars as well as sportsmen. He on the otherhand excelled in Urdu poetry.After completing primary education at the Government High School of Raipur in 1922, Hidayatullahattended Morris College in Nagpur, where he was nominated as the Phillips Scholar in 1926.Hidayatullah attended Trinity College at the University of Cambridge from 1927 to 1930. Here hesecured the 2nd order of merit and was awarded a Gold Medal for his performance in 1930. He wascalled to the Bar from Lincolns Inn when he was just 25 years old. He was awarded LL.D. (HonorisCausa) from University of the Philippines and D. Litt. (Honoris Causa) from University of Bhopal(nowBarkatullah University) and University of Kakatiya.His son Arshad Hidayatullah is a Senior Counsel at the Supreme Court of India.While at Cambridge, Hidayatullah was elected and served as the President of the Indian Majlis in 1929.Also while here, he pursued English and Law Tripos from the renowned Lincolns Inn. In addition hesecured a place of Barrister-at-Law in 1930.First Muslim Chief Justiceof India
  • 168. Judicial Career:After graduation, Hidayatullah returned to India and enrolled as an Advocate of the High Court ofCentral Provinces and Berar at Nagpur on 19th July 1930.On 2nd August 1943, he became the Advocate General of Central Provinces and Berar (now MadhyaPradesh) and continued to hold the said post till he was appointed as an Additional Judge of that HighCourt on the 24thof June 1946.Hidayatullah was the youngest Advocate General of an Indian state, Madhya Pradesh, in 1943 and theyoungest Chief Justice of a High Court when he was appointed to the Madhya Pradesh High Court in1954.In 1946, Hidayatullah was appointed as a judge at the Nagpur High Court, where he served until beingelevated to Chief Justice of the Nagpur High Court in 1954. Hidayatullah served as the Chief Justice hereuntil 1956, and was subsequently appointed the Chief Justice of the Madhya Pradesh High Court inNovember 1956.Following this longstanding experience in the states court circuit, Hidayatullah was eventually elevatedas a Justice to the Supreme Court of India in December 1958.In his time he was the youngest judge of the Supreme Court of India. After serving as a Justice for nearly10 years, Hidayatullah took the oath as Chief Justice of India on 28 February 1968 - becoming the firstMuslim Chief Justice of India.He retired from this position on 16 December 1970.Presidency:During his term as the Chief Justice of India, the then President of India, Dr Zakir Hussain died suddenly,in harness, on May 3, 1969. Then Vice President of India Mr.V V Giri became the acting President.V V Giri resigned to take part in Presidential elections. Justice Hidayatullah then served as the Presidentof India being ex-officio Chief Justice of India for a short period from 20 July to 24 August.The visit of President of the United States Mr. Richard Nixon to India made his Presidential term historic.After his retirement, Justice Hidayatullah was elected as the Vice-President of India by a consensusamong different parties and occupied that high office with distinction from 1979 to August 1984. Duringhis tenure as the Vice-President he won the respect of all concerned for his impartiality andindependence.Having served at all of these positions made Hidayatullah unique among other members of Indianhistory.Justice Hidayatullah became the only person to have served in all three offices of Chief Justice ofIndia, President of India, and the Vice President of India.During his long tenure in the Supreme Court he was a party to a number of landmark judgmentsincluding the judgment in Golaknath v. State of Punjab which took the view that the Parliament had nopower to cut down the Fundamental Rights by constitutional amendment. His judgment in the caseof Ranjit D. Udeshi dealing with the law of obscenity, displayed a flair for literature which is not socommon among our judges.
  • 169. Career in NagpurBefore becoming involved in national politics and serving as Supreme Court Justice, Hidayatullah wasinvolved in local and state affairs. The following are some of the committee positions he held:Member of the Nagpur Municipal Committee (1931–1933)Member of the Nagpur Universitys Executive and Academic Councils (1934–1953)Member of the Nagpur Improvement Trust (1943–1945)Member of the Nagpur Bar Council (1943–1946)Chief Commissioner of the Madhya Pradesh Bharat Scouts and Guides (1950–1953)Many of these positions, as well as those of High Court Justice were held prior to Indian Independence,they were all considered service to Great Britain, thus Hidayatullah was conferred the honour asan Officer of the Order of the British Empire by the British Royal Family in 1946.Teaching:In 1935, he took a teaching post at University College of Law - where he taught until 1943. Later heserved as Dean of the Faculty of Law at Nagpur University from 1949 to 1953. In addition, he served asFaculty of Law at various other institutions throughout the 1950s: Sagar University, Court VikramUniversity, and the prestigious Aligarh Muslim University.Post-retirement Hidayatullah renewed his interest in Boy Scouts and served as Chief Scout of the AllIndia Boy Scouts Association from 1982 to 1992.Institutions:He was the president of Indian Law Institute, International Law Association (Indian Branch), IndianSociety of International Law from 1968 to 1970.He also presided Indian Red Cross Society in 1982. He was closely associated with Hunger Project ofUSA, World Association of Orphans and Abandoned Children (Geneva), and Independent Commission onInternational Humanitarian Issues (1982-84).The Hidayatullah National Law University at Naya Raipur is named after him.Books:Democracy in India and the Judicial ProcessThe South-West Africa CaseA Judges MiscellanyUSA and India: All India Reporter (1977).A Judges Miscellany (Second Series) (1972).The Fifth and Sixth Schedules to the Constitution of IndiaMy own Boswell (Autobiography) Arnold-Heinemann (1980).Editor, Mullas Mohammedan LawConstitutional law of India: Bar Council of India Trust (1984).Right to property and the Indian Constitution: Calcutta University (1984).Justice Hidayatullah on commercial laws: Deep & Deep (1982).
  • 170. Awards & Honours:Officer of the Order of the British Empire, 1946,Order of the Yugoslav Flag with Sash, 1970,Medallion and Plaque of Merit Philconsa, Manila, 1970 andKnight of Mark Twain, 1971Honoured with “Proud Past Alumni" in the list of 42 members, from "Allahabad University AlumniAssociation", NCR, Ghaziabad (Greater Noida) Chapter 2007-2008 registered under society act 1860with registration no. 407/2000Legacy:In his honor, the Hidayatullah National Law University was established in 2003, in his home townof Raipur, in the state of Chhattisgarh.
  • 171. Fakhruddin Ali AhmedBorn: May 13, 1905, DelhiDied: February 11, 1977, New DelhiFakhruddin Ali Ahmed was the 5thPresident of India from 1974 to 1977.Early LifeFakhruddin Ali Ahmed was born in Hauz Qazi area of the walled city of OldDelhi to Col. Zalnur Ali and daughter of Nawab of Lohari.His family was a well known Assamese Muslim family.Fakhruddin received his formal education at Government High School,Gonda district, Uttar Pradesh. On completion of his matriculation fromDelhi Government High School, he went to England in 1923 to pursue his higher studies from St.Catherines College, Cambridge. After his return from London, he started practicing law in Lahore HighCourt in 1928.Political CareerDuring his stay in England, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed met Jawaharlal Nehru in 1925 whose progressive ideastouched him so much that he treated him as his mentor and friend from 1930s onwards. On Nehrusrequest, Ali Ahmed joined the Indian National Congress and actively participated in the Indian freedomstruggle, though he was persuaded by his co-religionists to join the Muslim League.He offered Satyagraha in 1940 for which he was arrested and imprisoned. Further in 1942, he supportedthe Quit India Movement for which he was yet again arrested in August 9, while returning from thehistoric session of All India Congress Committee (AICC) meeting in Bombay. He was, thus, detained as asecurity prisoner for three and a half years until April 1945.While serving as a Congress leader, Ali Ahmed occupied several positions.To begin with, he was a member of Assam Pradesh Congress Committee since 1936 and was elected toAssam Assembly in 1935.Later, he became the Minister of Finance, Revenue, and Labor in September 1938 Gopinath BordoloiMinistry.He introduced the Assam Agricultural Income Tax Bill, the first of its kind in India, which levied taxes ontea garden lands in the Province and his pro-labor policy in the labor strike in the British-owned AssamOil Company Ltd.5th President of India
  • 172. Post-IndependenceAfter India gained independence, Fakhruddin was elected to Rajya Sabha in 1952 and eventually becameAdvocate-General of the Government of Assam.He fought from Congress in the Assam Assembly and served two terms, from 1957-62 and 1962-67.He gained a senior position in the Chaliha Ministry in 1957 and was asked by Nehru to join his cabinet inJanuary 1966. In 1971, he was elected to Lok Sabha from Barpeta constituency. During his tenure, AliAhmed handled various portfolios, including Food and Agriculture, Cooperation, Education, IndustrialDevelopment, and Company Laws. He attained the membership of AICC from 1947 to 1974.Tenure as a PresidentWith the split of congress in 1969, Fakhruddin chose to be with Indira Gandhi due to his deep-rootedassociation with Nehru and his family. As such, he was picked up by the then Prime Minister IndiraGandhi as the President of India on August 29, 1974, thereby becoming the second Muslim Indianpresident after Dr Zakir Hussain.In the wake of Emergency rule in 1975, Fakhruddin became the target of his detractors claiming that heput his signature at the behest of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.HonorsFakhruddin was a multifaceted personality. His deep and intense interest in sports and other extra-curricular activities was extremely popular during his time.Being a half tennis player and golfer, he was elected as the President of the Assam Football Associationand Assam Cricket Association on various terms.He even served as the Vice President of Assam Sports Council. Apart from being a member of Delhi GolfClub and Delhi Gymkhana Club since in 1961, he was selected as the President of All India CricketAssociation in 1967.During his visit to Yugoslavia in 1975, he was conferred upon with an honorary doctorate by theUniversity of Pristina in Kosovo.Personal LifeFakhruddin Ali Ahmed married a young 21-year old Abida on November 9, 1945 at the age of 40. Abidawas educated at Aligarh Muslim University and belonged to a respectable family from Uttar Pradesh.Begum Abida Saheba was elected to Lok Sabha in 1981 from UP constituency.DeathFakhruddin Ali Ahmed was unable to complete his 5-year tenure as the President of India since hesuffered a heart attack immediately after his return from a tour of the South-East Asian countries. Hebreathed his last on 11th February, 1977 in Rashtrapati Bhavan, Delhi while still in office. He was 71years old.
  • 173. He was the second Indian president to die in office, on 11 February 1977. Today his grave lies rightacross Parliament of India, next to Sunhari Masjid, at Sansas chowk, in New Delhi.Timeline1905: Was born on May 13, in Hauz Qazi, old Delhi1923: Completed matriculation and went to St. Catherines College, Cambridge, England1925: Met Jawaharlal Nehru in England1928: Returned to India and started practicing law in Lahore High Court1935: Selected in the Assam Assembly1936: Elected member of Assam Pradesh Congress Committee1938: Became the Minister of Finance, Revenue, and Labor in September1940: Arrested and imprisoned for offering satyagraha1942: Arrested and imprisoned for 3½ years for Quit India Movement1945: Married Abida on November 91952: Elected to Rajya Sabha1957-62: Served as a Congress member in Assam Assembly1961: Became a member of Delhi Golf Club and Delhi Gymkhana Club1962-67: Served as a Congress member in Assam Assembly1966: Joined Nehrus cabinet in January1967: Selected as President of All India Cricket Association1971: Won a Lok Sabha ticket from Barpeta constituency1974: Became the fifth President of India1975: Honored with a doctorate degree by the University of Pristina, Kosovo, Yugoslavia1977: Died in Rashtrapati Bhawan, New Delhi aged 71.
  • 174. Basappa Danappa JattiBorn: September 10, 1913, SavalgiDied: June 7, 2002, BangaloreBasappa Danappa Jatti was the 5thVice President of India.He also served as the Acting President for five months from February toJuly, 1977.Early LifeJatti was born on September 10, 1912 in Savalgi in Jamakhandi Taluk ofBijapur district in a Kannadiga Lingayat Banajiga family. He completed his graduation as a lawyer fromRajaram College, in Kolhapur, which was then affiliated with the University of Bombay.Political CareerBasappa Danappa Jatti entered Indian politics as a Municipality member at Jamakhandi in the year 1940and eventually became was appointed as its President.A graduate in law from Rajaram College, in Kolhapur when it was affiliated with the then University ofBombay, he practised for a brief period as a pleader in Jamakhandi.He was appointed minister of Jamakhandi state, and subsequently became its Chief Minister. On 8March 1948 after Jamakhandi was merged with Bombay state, he returned to legal practice andcontinued it for 20 months.Jatti was also nominated as member of the Bombay State Legislative Assembly to represent the mergedarea and within a week of his nomination, he was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the thenBombay Chief Minister, B G Kher. He worked in that capacity for a couple of years.After the 1952 general elections, he was appointed Minister of Health and Labour of the then BombayGovernment and held that post till the reorganisation of states.Jatti became member of the Mysore Legislative Assembly after the reorganisation and was Chairman ofthe Land Reforms Committee.He became Chief Minister of Mysore in 1958 and continued in that office until 1962.Re-elected from Jamkhandi constituency in the third general elections, Jatti was appointed FinanceMinister on 2 July 1962 in the S.Nijalingappa Ministry.He was re-elected to the fourth Assembly from the same constituency and appointed as Minister ofFood and Civil Supplies.Jatti subsequently moved onto the national scene and was appointed as Lieutenant Governor ofPondicherry in 1968.He became Orissa Governor in 1973 and, in 1974, assumed office as the fifth Vice-President until 1980.
  • 175. He became acting President for a brief period after the death of Fakruddin Ali Ahmed. After leaving theoffice as Vice-President, Jatti continued to be in the limelight as a keen observer of the political situationin the country.Religious ActivitiesA deeply religious man, Jatti was the founder president of the "Basava Samithi", a religious organisationwhich propagated the preachings of 12th century saint, philosopher and Hindu refomer Basaveshwara.He was also involved in various organisations concerned with social activities.He died on 7 May 2002 at the age of 88 years.
  • 176. Neelam Sanjeeva ReddyBorn: May 13, 1913, AnantapurDied: June 1, 1996, BangaloreNeelam Sanjiva Reddy was the 6thPresident of India, serving from 1977to 1982.He is the only person to be elected to the office without anyopposition.Early LifeNeelam Sanjiva Reddy was born in a well-to-do peasant family in thevillage of Illuru in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh. He received hisearly formal education at Theosophical High School at Adyar in Madras.He later joined the Government Arts College at Anantapur to pursue hishigher studies.It was Mahatma Gandhis visit to Anantapur in 1929 that changed thecourse of his life and left a great impact on Reddy. As a result, he left hisstudies midway and gave away his foreign clothes only to dress himselfin khadi.Association with CongressReddy joined the Indian independence movement in 1931. He joined the Congress Party and was activein the student Satyagraha.At a young age of 25 years, Reddy was appointed as the Secretary of Andhra Pradesh ProvincialCongress Committee in 1938. He remained in the office for 10 years. For most of the period from 1940-45, Reddy spent time in prison. Though he was released in March 1942, was re-arrested in August.During this tenure in Amraoti jail in Madhya Pradesh, he met Shri Prakasam, Shri Satyamurti, ShriKamaraj, Shri Giri and others, who along with him remained imprisoned until 1945.1946 was a turning point for Reddy when he was elected to the Madras Congress Legislature Party andbecame the Secretary of the Madras Congress Legislature Party in 1947.In the same year, he was elected as a member of the Indian Constituent Assembly.Reddy served as the Minister of Prohibition, Housing, and Forests in Madras from 1949 to 1951.He then resigned from this post in 1951 to contest for the election of the President ship of AndhraPradesh Congress Committee (APCC).Eventually, he won.First Chief Minister ofAndhra Pradesh &Youngest ever personto be electedpresident of India @65
  • 177. In the following year in 1952, he was elected as a member of Rajya Sabha. During this period, his 5-yearold son met with a tragic accident and died which left Reddy deeply shocked.He was so moved that he resigned from the post of President of APCC though he was forced towithdraw his resignation later on.He became the Deputy Chief Minister in the cabinet of T. Prakasam and became the leader of theCongress Legislature Party.In 1955, he was re-elected to the Legislature Assembly and assigned the post of Deputy Chief Ministerunder B. Gopala Reddis cabinet.Chief MinisterOn the declaration of a new state of Andhra Pradesh in 1956, Reddy became its first Chief Minister inOctober the same year.He was honored with the degree of Honorary Doctor of Laws by the Sri Venkateswara University,Tirupathi in 1958.However, he resigned from his post in 1959 to proceed over the President ship of Indian NationalCongress, a position he served from 1959 to 1962.Fortunately, he was again elected as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh in 1962.On June 9, 1964, Reddy was appointed as a member of the Union Cabinet, formed by Lal BahadurShastri, and was assigned with the portfolio of steel and mines. In November the same year, he waschosen as a member of Rajya Sabha.Other AchievementsReddy served as Union Minister of Transport, Civil Aviation, Shipping, and Tourism from January 1966to March 1967 under Indira Gandhis cabinet.He was elected to Lok Sabha from Hindupur constituency in Andhra Pradesh. He was chosen as thespeaker of Lok Sabha on March 17, 1967 that gave him immense recognition and admiration.Election of PresidentReddy was nominated as the official candidate of Congress party after President Dr. Zakir Hussainsdeath in 1969.Even though he was a strong candidate for the post of President of India, he resigned considering thathe was assumed to take advantage of the position since he was already holding a position in hand.Further, Indira Gandhi, knowing that it would be hard to make Reddy follow her line of belief andthought, asked the electors to vote for one person, amongst Reddy and V. V. Giri as to who was suitablefor the position.As a result, Reddy lost and Giri won the elections and become the fourth President of India.The 1969 Indian presidential election remains the most closely fought in independent Indias history.
  • 178. Post elections, Reddy devoted much of his time towards agriculture, his fore-fathers occupation.Return to the active politics & unopposed election to the presidency:But he re-entered politics in 1975, with support from Jayaprakash Narayan. He fought elections as aJanata Party candidate for Lok Sabha from Nandyal constituency in Andhra Pradesh in March 1977.Surprisingly, he was the only non-congress candidate to win from Andhra Pradesh and He wasunanimously elected Speaker of the Lok Sabha on 26 March 1977.He served his term dedicatedly and passionately that led him to the title of the best speaker ever in LokSabha of Indian parliament. He even stated that he would prove to be one of the most influential anddynamic presidents India has given.True to his statement, he was nominated for the post of President of India and won the elections in July1977.At 65, he became the youngest ever person to be elected President of India. He was also the onlyserious presidential candidate to have contested twice - in 1969 against V V Giri and in 1977.He was the fourth President to be elected from South India and the third from Andhra Pradesh.Personal LifeReddy married Shrimati Nagarathnamma on 8th June, 1935. The couple gave birth to one son and threedaughters.He authored a book, Without Fear or Favour : Reminiscences and Reflections of a President, publishedin 1989.DeathOn completion of his tenure as the Indian President, Reddy retired back to his village of Illuru andcontinued with agriculture. He passed away on June 1, 1996 in Bangalore, at the age of 83.His grandson is an Indian Revenue Service officer of the 1992 batch.In Reddys case:“He was the first person to formally resign from his political party after being elected tooffice.”Timeline1913: Born in Illuru, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh1929: Impressed and motivated by Mahatma Gandhis visit to Anantapur1931: Joined Congress party for Indian freedom movement1935: Married Shrimati Nagarathnamma1938: Selected as Secretary of Andhra Pradesh Provincial Congress Committee
  • 179. 1946: Elected into Madras Congress Legislature Party1947: Became Secretary of Madras Congress Legislature Party1949-51: Served as Minister of Prohibition, Housing, and Forests in Madras1951: Became the President of Andhra Pradesh Congress Committee1952: Became member of Lok Sabha1955: Selected as Deputy Chief Minister under B. Gopala Reddis cabinet1956-59: Served as first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh1959-62: Took over the Presidentship of Indian National Congress1962-64: Re-elected as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh1964: Appointed a member of Union Cabinet for steel and mines1964: Appointed a member of Rajya Sabha in November1966-67: Served as Union Minister of Transport, Civil Aviation, Shipping, and Tourism1967: Elected as speaker of Lok Sabha1977: Became the 6th President of India in July 19771982: Successfully completed his tenure of Indian President1996: Died in Bangalore on 1st June, aged 83.
  • 180. Giani Zail SinghBorn: May 5, 1916, PunjabDied: December 25, 1994, ChandigarhGiani Zail Singh was the 7thPresident of India, serving from 1982 to1987.Giani Zail Singh was the first Sikh to hold the position of the President ofIndia.His presidency was marked by Operation Blue Star, the assassination ofIndira Gandhi, and the 1984 anti-Sikh riots.Childhood & Early LifeSardar Zail Singh, also known as Jarnail Singh was born in 1916 to BhaiKishan Singh, a carpenter and Mata Ind Kaur in Sandhwan in the formerlyprincely state of Faridkot. He was the youngest of five brothers andsisters. He lost his mother at a very early age and was brought up by his mothers sister.He was a Sikh by religion, was given the title of Giani(which means one who is well versed in religioustexts), as he was educated and learned about Guru Granth Sahib at Shaheed Sikh Missionary Collegein Amritsar. However, he did not have formal secular education.Freedom StruggleAt the age of 15, Giani Zail Singh joined the Freedom Movement to liberate his country from foreignrule.In 1938 he joined the Riyasati Praja Mandal and was instrumental in establishing a branch of CongressCommittee in Faridkot. At that time Faridkot was ruled by Raja Harinder Singh and this did not go downwell with the Maharaja who had him arrested and sent to prison for five years. It was while in prisonthat he began to adopt the name Zail Singh.After his release from prison he was harassed by the Maharaja and so he had to spend a couple of yearsoutside the state. Heavily influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, in 1946 he launched the SatyagrahaMovement leading mass protests for freedom. He also campaigned against feudal rule and set up aparallel government in defiance of the Maharaja.After Independence:When Punjab was divided, the small princely states were grouped into a new state, Punjab and in theyear 1949 a non-party government was established in which Zail Singh was appointed the revenueminister.First Sikh President ofIndia
  • 181. In 1951, the first election was held and in the congress-led government, he was elected as theagricultural minister.In 1955, he was sworn in as the President of the state Congress and after serving as the agriculturalminister; he was elected to the Rajya Sabha in 1956 and served as a Member of Parliament till 1962.In 1956, Zail Singh was also elected as the Vice President of the Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee.Chief Minister of Punjab (1972-77)He contested the General Elections in 1972 and was elected as the Chief Minister of Punjab.In 1977 when Indira Gandhi was voted out of power, Zail Singh placed his full support behind her and in1980, when she came back to power; he was rewarded for his loyalty as she made him the minister ofhome affairs in the new government.So, in 1980, Zail Singh was elected to the 7th Lok Sabha, and appointed to join Indira Gandhis cabinetas Minister of Home Affairs.The same year, he was also elected to the lower house of Legislature, the Lok Sabha.President of India:In 1982 he was unanimously nominated to serve as the President. Nonetheless, some in the media feltthat the president had been chosen for being an Indira loyalist rather than an eminent person. “If myleader had said I should pick up a broom and be a sweeper, I would have done that. She chose me to bePresident,” Singh was quoted to have said after his election. He took the oath of office on July 25, 1982.Fall from Grace:When Singh was the President, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ordered the army to storm theGolden Temple to flush out the Sikh Extremists holed there. This hurt the sentiment of the Sikhs, as thetemple was considered to be their holiest shrine, and they accused Zail Singh of not stopping her, asthey thought that he had the power to do so, or resigning in protest. Since he continued acting as thePresident, it isolated him among his own community. Four months after the storming of the GoldenTemple, Indira Gandhis body guards assassinated her in 1984.Zail Singh immediately appointed her son, Rajiv Gandhi as the next Prime Minister.1984 anti-Sikh Riots:The 1984 Sikh Genocide or the 1984 Sikh Massacre was a pogrom directed against Sikhs in northernIndia in response to the assassination of Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards.Rajiv, who was sworn in as the Prime Minister after his mothers death, when asked about the riots said"when a big tree falls, the earth shakes".
  • 182. Later Term:His remaining term was full of controversies on account of his soured relations with prime minister RajivGandhi. During this time, he ensured that the prime minister adhered to protocols and forced him toremove KK Tewary, a congress MP who alleged on the floor of the Lok Sabha that the president hadsheltered terrorists in the Rashtrapati Bhawan.Singh refused assent to the "Indian Post Office (Amendment) Bill" in 1986 to show his opposition to thebill. The bill was later withdrawn by the V. P. Singh Government in 1990.Death:Giani Zail Singh passed away in 1994, in Chandigarh, at the age of 79 when he succumbed to his injuriesin a car accident while returning from a pilgrimage from Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib.Timeline1916: Zail Singh was born in the princely state of Faridkot.1938: Established a branch of Congress Commitee in his native town, for which he was sent to prison forfive years.1946: Launched the Satyagraha Movement in Faridkot and campaigned against feudal rule.1949: Appointed the Revenue Minister in the state government after independence.1955: Elected as the President of the State Congress.1956: Was elected to the Rajya Sabha.1972: Elected as the Chief Minister of Punjab.1980: Elected to the Lok Sabha and also appointed as the minister of home affairs.1982: Became the President of India.1994: Zail Singh passed away, aged 79.
  • 183. Ramaswamy VenkataramanBorn: December 4, 1910, ThanjavurDied: January 27, 2009, New DelhiRamaswamy Venkataraman was an Indian lawyer, Indian independenceactivist and politician who served as a Union minister and as the8thPresident of India.He was elected to Lok Sabha 4 times and served as Union Finance Ministerand Defence Minister.In 1984, he was elected the 7thVice-President of India and in 1987 hebecame the 8th President of India and served from 1987 to 1992. He alsoserved as a State minister under K. Kamaraj and M. Bhaktavatsalam.Early LifeVenkataraman was born in Rajamadam village near in Pattukottai, near Tanjore district in Tamil Nadu.He had his school education in Govt Boys Higher Secondary School, Pattukottai & College education inNational College Higher Secondary School at Trichy.Educated locally and in the city of Madras (now Chennai), Venkataraman obtained his Master Degree inEconomics from Loyola College, Madras. He later qualified in Law from the Law College, Madras.Venkataraman was enrolled in the Madras High Court in 1935 and in the Supreme Court in 1951.Political CareerIn 1950 he was elected to free Indias Provisional Parliament (1950–1952) and to the First Parliament(1952–1957).In the same year, he was re-elected to the Parliament, but resigned from his seat to join the ChennaiState Government as a Minister of Labor, Cooperation, Industries, Power, Transport and CommercialTaxes, on the invitation of K. Kamraj, and held the post till 1957.During his term of legislative activity, Venkataraman attended the 1952 Session of the Metal TradesCommittee of International Labour Organisation as a workers delegate. He was a member of the IndianParliamentary Delegation to the Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference in New Zealand.Venkataraman was also Secretary to the Congress Parliamentary Party in 1953-1954.Although re-elected to Parliament in 1957, Venkataraman resigned his seat in the Lok Sabha to join theState Government of Madras as a Minister. There Shri Venkataraman held the portfolios of Industries,Labour, Cooperation, Power, Transport and Commercial Taxes from 1957 to 1967. During this time, hewas also Leader of the Upper House, namely, the Madras Legislative Council.8th President of India
  • 184. As Minister of IndustriesVenkataraman was appointed a Member of the Union Planning Commission in 1967 and was entrustedthe subjects of Industry, Labour, power, Transport, Communications, Railways. He held that office until1971.In 1977, Venkataraman was elected to the Lok Sabha from Madras (South) Constituency and served asan Opposition Member of Parliament and Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee.From 1975 to 1977, Venkataraman edited the magazine Swarajya while pursuing his political activity.At various times, he served as a member of the Political Affairs Committee and the Economic AffairsCommittee of the union cabinet.In 1980, Venkataraman was re-elected to the Lok Sabha and was appointed Union Minister of Financein the Government headed by Smt. Indira Gandhi.He was later appointed Union Minister of Defence in 1983, here he is credited for initiating Indiasmissile programme, he shifted A P J Abdul Kalam from space programme to the missile programme, andconsolidated the entire missile system, naming it as Integrated Guided Missile Development Program.Venkataraman was, then, made the Vice President of India in 1984 (He was, simultaneously, Chairmanof the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), the Second Chamber of the Indian Parliament.), and later in July1987 he was sworn in as the President of India serving till 1992.During his tenure, Venkataraman had the distinction of working with 4 Prime Ministers among which hehimself had appointed three of them. It was also during his tenure that saw the advent of coalitionpolitics.United NationsVenkataraman, throughout the 50s and 60s, worked in various prestigious international organizations.He served a stint as the Governor of the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank forReconstruction and Development, and the Asian Development Bank.Venkataraman was a Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly in 1953, 1955, 1956, 1958,1959, 1960 and 1961.He was Leader of the Indian Delegation to the 42nd Session of the International Labour Conference atGeneva (1958) and represented India in the Inter Parliamentary Conference in Vienna (1978).He was a member of the United Nations Administrative Tribunal from 1955 to 1979 and was itsPresident from 1968 to 1979.Venkataraman was elected President for life of the United Nations Tribunal.
  • 185. AwardsThe Madras University, the Burdwan University, Nagarjuna University and Philippines Universitybestowed on Venkataraman the Honorary Doctor of Law. He is also an Honorary Fellow of the MadrasMedical College. He received the degree of Doctor of Social Sciences from the University of Roorkee.In recognition of his participation in the freedom movement, Venkataraman was awarded the “TamraPatra”.He received the Soviet Land Prize in 1967 for his travelogue on “Kamraj’s Journey to Soviet Countries”He was the recipient of a Souvenir from the Secretary-General of the United Nations for distinguishedservice as President of the U.N. Administrative Tribunal.The title of “Sat Seva Ratna” was conferred on him by His Holiness the Sankaracharya ofKancheepuram.DeathIn 2009, at the age of 98, Venkataraman passed away due to multiple organ failure at the Army Researchand Referral Hospital, where he was brought 15 days before with complaints of Urosepsis. He is survivedby his wife Janaki Venkataraman whom he married in 1938, and three daughters.Literary WorksRole of Planning in Industrial Development (1969)The Role of a Private Member of Parliament (1986)My Presidential Years - R Venkataraman (1995)R. Venkataraman on Contemporary Issues (1996)Relevance of Gandhi: And Other Essays (1998)Timeline1910: Ramaswamy Venkataraman was born in Tamil Nadu.1942: Participated in the Quit India Movement and was detained for two years.1947: Became the Secretary of the Madras Provincial Bar Federation.1949: Founded the Labor Law Journal.1951: Became a member of the Supreme Court.1953: Became the Secretary of the Congress Parliamentary Committee.1955: Appointed a member of the United Nations Administrative Tribunal.1977: Elected to the Lok Sabha.1980: Was re-elected to the Lok Sabha.1983: Became the Defence Minister of India.1984: Elected as the Vice President of India.1987: Elected as the President of India.2009: Venkataraman passed away at the age of 98.
  • 186. Shankar Dayal SharmaBorn: August 19, 1918, BhopalDied: December 26, 1999, New DelhiShankar Dayal Sharma was the 9thPresident of India, serving from1992 to 1997. Prior to his presidency, Dr. Sharma had been the 8thVicePresident of India, serving under President R. Venkataraman.He was also Chief Minister (1952–1956), and Cabinet Minister (1956–1967), holding the portfolios of Education, Law, Public Works, Industryand Commerce, National Resources and Separate Revenue.He was the President of the Indian National Congress in 1972–1974and returned to government as Union Minister for Communicationsfrom 1974 to 1977.Early LifeShankar Dayal Sharma was born on 19th August 1918 in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh to father KhushilalSharma and mother Subhadra Sharma. He received his education from various institutions. Starting withSt. Johns College, he then got educated at Agra College after which he studied at Allahabad University.He obtained L.L.M from Lucknow University, and obtained his Ph D in Law from Fitzwilliam College,Cambridge University. Later on he was awarded with a Diploma in Public Administration from LondonUniversity. If this wasnt enough, he also taught law at Lucknow University for 9 years and later atCambridge University (1946 to 1947). Sharma was a Bar-at-Law from Lincolns Inn and even became aFellow of the Harvard Law School. Not only was he good in studies, but he even excelled as a sportsmanin athletics, rowing, and swimming.He was Honored as “Proud Past Alumnus" in the list of 42 members, from "Allahabad University AlumniAssociation", Ghaziabad.Political CareerSharmas political career started during the 1940s when he patriotically involved himself in the Indianfreedom movement by participating in the historic Quit India Movement of 1942, initiated because ofMahatma Gandhis call for immediate independence. It was around the same time when he joined theIndian National Congress, a party under which he fought and was elected many times at numerouspositions and remained faithful to it till the very endIn 1952 he became the chief minister of the Bhopal state and served in that position until the statereorganization of 1956, when Bhopal state merged with several other states to form the state ofMadhya Pradesh.9th President of India
  • 187. He was Cabinet Minister, Government of Madhya Pradesh, holding the portfolios of Education, Law,Public Works, Industry and Commerce, National Resources and Separate Revenue (1956-1967).Dr. Sharma was the President of the Indian National Congress in 1972-1974.It was finally in the year 1974 that he was made the Union Minister for Communications under theleadership of Indira Gandhi and served till 1977.In 1971 and 1980 he won a Lok Sabha seat from Bhopal. Later on, he was given a variety of ceremonialposts.In 1984 he began serving as a governor of Indian states, first in Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, andMaharashtra in 1984, 1985, and 1986 respectivelyDuring this time, his daughter Geetanjali Maken and son-in-law Lalit Maken, a young member ofparliament and a promising political leader, were killed by Sikh militants. In 1985, he left Andhra Pradeshand became governor of Punjab during a time of violence between the Indian government and Sikhmilitants, many of whom lived in Punjab. He left Punjab in 1986 and took up his final governorshipin Maharashtra.He remained governor of Maharashtra until 1987 when he was elected for a 5-year term as the 8thVice-President of India and chairman of the Rajya Sabha.During his tenure as Vice-President of India he was Chancellor of Delhi University, Punjab University,Pondicherry University, Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed University), and Visitor of MakhanlalChaturvedi Rashtriya Patrakarita Vishwavidyalaya Sansthan, Bhopal. He was also Chairman of theCentral Sanskrit Board.Presidential ElectionHe served as the Vice President of India for a five-year long term till 1992, when he took over theproceedings from Ramaswamy Venkataraman and was made the 9thPresident of India.He received 66% of the votes in the electoral college, defeating George Gilbert Swell. During his lastyear as President, it was his responsibility to swear in three prime ministers. He did not run for a secondterm as President.Union ConferenceDr. Sharma led several official delegations to International Conferences including a ParliamentaryDelegation to the Inter-Parliamentary Union Conference at Oslo in 1980.A Special Delegation of veteran freedom fighters to Moscow in August, 1987 for the celebrations of the40th Anniversary of Indias Independence during the Festival of India in USSR, also led a SpecialDelegation of veteran freedom fighters to Jalalabad (Afghanistan) to pay homage to Khan Abdul GhaffarKhan in 1988.
  • 188. Honors and Honorable PositionsThe Shankaracharya of Sringeri bestowed Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma with the title of "Rashtra Ratnam".Another prestigious title of "Dharmaratnakara" was conferred upon him by the Pontiff ofShravanbelagola.For his striking contribution to the the legal profession and its obeisance, he was presented with TheLiving Legends of Law award from the International Bar Association.Dr. Sharma was accorded the degree of Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa) from (1) Vikram University; (2)Bhopal University; (3) Agra University; (4) Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati; (5) Devi AhilyaVishwavidyalaya, Indore and University of Sofia, Bulgaria. He was also accorded the degree of Doctor ofSocial Sciences (Honoris Causa) from the University of roorkee, the degree of Doctor of Civil Law(Honoris Causa) from the University of Mauritius (Port Louis), the degree of Doctor of Literature(Honoris Causa) from Meerut University, the degree of Doctorate (Honoris Causa) from Kiev StateUniversity, Ukraine, the degree of Vachaspati from the Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya SanskritVidyapeeth (Deemed University), New Delhi, the degree of Doctorate (Honoris Causa) from BucharestUniversity, Romania, the degree of Doctor of Letters (Honoris Causa) from Agra University and thedegree of Mahamahopadhyaya (Honoris Causa) from the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati.DeathIll health had got the better of Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma and during the last five years, it made lifedifficult for him. It was on 26th December, 1999 that Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma died of a major heartattack in New Delhi and was cremated at Karma Bhumi near Vijay Ghat.Timeline1918: Shankar Dayal Sharma was born.1940s: He was actively involved in the Indian Freedom Struggle and joined the Indian NationalCongress. Also, started his legal practice in Lucknow in the year 1940.1946: Started teaching law in the Cambridge University.1950: Got married to Vimla Sharma.1950-52: Served as the President of Bhopal Congress Committee.1952-56: Served as the Chief Minister of Bhopal.1960s: Supported Indira Gandhis quest for leadership of the congress party.1967-68: Served as the President of Madhya Pradesh Congress Committee.1968-72: Served as the General Secretary to Indian National Congress.1972-74: Served as the President of the Indian National Congress.1974-77: Served as the Union Minister for Communications.1984: Became the Governor of the state of Andhra Pradesh.1985: Became the Governor of the state of Punjab.1986: Became the Governor of the state of Maharashtra.1987-92: Served as a Vice President.
  • 189. 1992-97: Served as the 9th President of India.1999: Died at the age of 81.
  • 190. K. R. NarayananBorn: October 27, 1920, KeralaDied: November 9, 2005, New DelhiKocheril Raman Narayanan was the 10thPresident of India.He was the first Dalit and the first Malayali to become President.K.R. Narayanans biography is a story that effectively illustrates "hard workand talent brings success even in adversity".The only Dalit and only Malayali to have held the post of presidency,Narayanan described himself as a "citizen President" and a "workingPresident".He was regarded as "the best diplomat of the country" by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1955.Childhood & Early LifeK.R. Narayanan was born as Kocheril Raman Narayanan in a small thatched hut in the village ofUzhavoor in Perumthanam in Travancore in the present Kottayam district of Kerala state.He was born as the fourth of seven children to Kocheril Raman Vaidyar and PunnaththuraveettilPaappiyamma. His family was extremely poor and belonged to the Paravan caste, who were required topluck coconuts according to the caste system.However, his father was highly respected since he was a learned physician of traditional Indian medicalsystems of Siddha and Ayurveda.Educational BackgroundNarayanan attained his early formal education at Government Lower Primary School at Kurichithanam in1927 and later went to Our Lady of Lourdes Upper Primary School at Uzhavoor from 1931-35.Due to his familys weak financial status, Narayanan walked 10-15 km daily to reach school throughpaddy fields. And often, he attended his lectures by standing outside the class due to his inability to paythe school fees on time. His brother, K.R. Neelakantan who was confined to home due to asthma helpedNarayanan with his studies by borrowing books and copying down notes for him.Narayanan went to St. Johns High School, Koothattukulam from 1935-36 and later matriculated from St.Marys High School, Kuravilangad in 1937. He completed his intermediate studies from CMS College,Kottayam in 1940 through the support of a merit scholarship. In 1943, he attained his BA (Hons) and MAdegrees in Literature from University of Travancore (now University of Kerala), with first position in the10th President of India
  • 191. university. With this, became the first Dalit to complete his degree with first class. However, he refusedto accept the degree and job offered by the college since he belonged to a lower caste.With a meritorious result in hand, Narayanan set out to Delhi to pursue a career but due to the poorconditions went back home.He worked as a journalist for The Hindu and The Times of India from 1944-45, but was keen on studyingabroad. During this period, he even interviewed Mahatma Gandhi in Bombay on 10th April 1945.However, the fees demanded were extremely high, particularly for a guy like Narayanan, and there wereno scopes for scholarships during those days.As such, he wrote a letter to JRD Tata requesting him to support with his financial needs. Tata came tohis rescue and Narayanan traveled to London to study political science at the prestigious London Schoolof Economics in 1945.He was honored to study under the guidance of renowned scholar Harold Laski.He took active participation in the India League under V.V. Krishna Menon.He served as the London correspondent of Social Welfare Weekly that was published by K.M. Munshi.He was fortunate to share his room with K.N. Raj and Veeraswamy Ringadoo (who became the firstPresident of Mauritius). He even befriended Pierre Trudeau who later became the Prime Minister ofCanada.Diplomatic & Academician CareerOn his attainment of B.Sc (Hons) in Economics with specialization in political science, Narayananreturned to India in 1948.His professor, Laski gave a letter of introduction addressed to Jawaharlal Nehru, following which Nehruinterviewed Narayanan for full 20 minutes.He was offered a job in Indian Foreign Service (IFS) which he joined in 1949 and went to Burma. Here, hewas allocated with some interesting assignments, serving as a diplomat in embassies of Rangoon, Tokyo,London, Canberra, and Hanoi.He even worked as the Indian ambassador to Thailand (1967-69), Turkey (1973-75), and PeoplesRepublic of China (1976-78).During his tenure in IFS, Narayanan taught at Delhi School of Economics in 1954, served as JawaharlalNehru fellow from 1970-72, and became as the secretary to the Minister of External Affairs in 1976.On his retirement from IFS in 1978, he became the Vice-Chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University in1979 until 1980.
  • 192. However, he was offered by the then Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to serve as Indian ambassadorto United States of America from 1980-84.Narayanans tenures as Indian ambassador to China, the first such high level Indian diplomatic posting inthat country after the 1962 Sino-Indian War, and to the USA where he helped arrange Ms. Gandhislandmark 1982 visit to Washington during the Reagan presidency helped mend Indias strained relationswith both these countries.Nehru, who had also been the Minister for External Affairs during his 16 years as PM, held that K. R.Narayanan was "the best diplomat of the country."(1955)Political CareerOn request from Indira Gandhi, Narayanan joined politics in 1984 and served as a member of Lok Sabhafrom Ottapalam constituency in Kerala on three consecutive terms in 1984, 1989, and 1991.He fought elections from a Congress ticket. Later in 1985, he became the Minister of State in the UnionCabinet under Rajiv Gandhi and looked after Planning portfolio in 1985, External Affairs in 1985-86, andScience and Technology in 1986-89.He sat in the opposition benches when the Congress was voted out of power during 1989–91.Narayanan was not included in the cabinet when the Congress returned to power in 1991.However, on the proposal of the then leader of Janata Dal party V.P. Singh, Narayanan was elected asthe 9thVice President of India on August 21, 1992, under presidency of Shankar Dayal Sharma. Heserved his entire 5-year term from 1992 to 1997.He described the demolition of Babri Masjid in 6 December 1992 as "the greatest tragedy India hasfaced since the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi".Tenure as PresidentK. R. Narayanan was elected to the Presidency of India (17 July 1997). This is the only Presidentialelection to have been held with a minority government holding power at the centre.T. N. Seshan was the sole opposing candidate, while Seshan alleged that Narayanan had been electedsolely for being a Dalit.He was sworn in as the President of India (25 July 1997) by Chief Justice J. S. Verma in the Central Hall ofParliament.With this, Narayanan became the first Dalit and first Malayali to be sworn as President of India.
  • 193. Golden Jubilee of Independence:It was during his tenure that India completed 50 years of independence and celebrated the GoldenJubilee.Participation in the electionsIn the general elections of 1998, K. R. Narayanan became the first sitting President to vote (16 February1998), casting his vote at a polling booth in a school within the Rashtrapati Bhavan complex afterstanding in a queue like an ordinary citizen.By doing so, he set another new precedent that no Indian president had ever done.K.R. Narayanan FoundationThe K.R. Narayanan Foundation (KRNF) was established in December 2005 in the loving memory ofNarayanan.The foundation has been working on a documentary on the life of Narayanan titled "The Footprints ofSurvival", in his honor. Directed by senior journalist Sunny Joseph, the script of the documentary isbased on the biography penned by Eby J. Jose, the General Secretary of KRNF.The Foundation General Secretary Eby J. Jose has written a biography of the late president titled K. R.Narayanan Bharathathinte Suryathejassu. It is written in Malayalam, the mother tongue of Dr. K. R.Narayanan.Personal LifeDuring his job in Rangoon, Burma, Narayanan met Ma Tint Tint, an activist in YWCA. Since Ma Tint Tintwas a foreigner and Narayanan an IFS, he required a special dispensation from Nehru as per the Indianlaw to marry a foreigner. The two got married on June 8, 1951 in Delhi. Ma Tint Tint adopted the nameUsha and became an Indian citizen.She is the only woman of foreign origin to become the First Lady in India. The couple had twodaughters, Chitra and Amrita.DeathNarayanan fell ill with pneumonia and consequent renal failure during his older days. He breathed hislast on November 9, 2005 at Army Research and Referral Hospital, New Delhi. He was 85 years old then.
  • 194. Timeline1920: Was born in Uzhavoor village, Perumthanam, Travancore1937: Completed matriculation from St. Marys High School, Kuravilangad1940: Finished schooling from CMS College, Kottayam1943: Obtained BA (Hons) and MA degrees in Literature from University of Travancore1944-45: Worked as journalist for The Hindu and the Times of India1945: Went to London School of Economics, London with support from JRD Tata1948: Received B.Sc (Hons) in Economics and returned to India1949: Joined Indian Foreign Service (IFS) and went to Burma1951: Married Ma Tint Tint on June 81954: Taught at Delhi School of Economics1967-69: Served as Indian ambassador to Thailand1973-75: Served as Indian ambassador to Turkey1976: Became secretary to the Minister of External Affairs1976-78: Served as Indian ambassador to China1978: Retired from IFS1979-80: Served as Vice Chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University1980-84: Became Indian ambassador to United States of America1984: Elected as Lok Sabha member from Ottapalam constituency on Congress ticket1989: Elected to Lok Sabha for the second time1991: Elected to Lok Sabha for the third time1992: Became ninth Vice President of India on August 211997: Successfully completed his tenure as Vice President and became tenth President of India2002: Completed his presidency tenure2005: Died on November 9 in Delhi, aged 85; K.R. Narayanan Foundation was established in December
  • 195. Pandit Govind Ballabh PantBorn: 10 September 1887, AlmoraDied: 7 March, 1961, Uttar PradeshPandit Govind Ballabh Pant, popularly known as Pandit Pant, was arenowned Indian freedom fighter, Indian statesman and independenceactivist. He was also one of the most important political leaders fromUttarakhand (earlier known as United Provinces). Govind Ballabh Pantwas also one of the leaders of the movement that established Hindi asthe official language of the nation. Pandit Pant was honoured with theBharat Ratna award for his contributions.Early Life of Govind Ballabh PantPandit Govind Ballabh Pant was born on 10 September 1887 in thevillage of Khoont in Shyahi Devi hills in Almora District. He was born tofather Manorath Pant and mother Govindi. After he completed his education, Pant continued his higherstudies and acquired a degree in Law. While he worked as a lawyer in Kashipur, Pandit Pant activelyparticipated in the Indian freedom struggle against the rule of the British Empire in India in the year1914. He supported a village council or parishad in their successful dispute of a law that required thelocals to provide free transportation of the luggage of traveling British officials. Pant entered the worldof politics in the year 1921 and was eventually elected to the Legislative Assembly of the UnitedProvinces of Agra and Oudh.Govind Ballabh Pant in Freedom StruggleIn the year 1930, Govind Ballabh Pant was arrested by the British Indian Police and was sentenced toimprisonment for many weeks as a result for organizing a Salt March. Later in 1933, he was againarrested and sent to jail and imprisoned for a period of 7 months for participating in a session of theprovincial Congress, which was banned at the time. After the ban was rescinded in 1935, Ballabh Pantbecame a member of the new Legislative Council. During World War II, he acted as the mediatorbetween the groups who supportedMahatma Gandhi`s views the British Government of India in their war effort and the views of NetajiSubash Chandra Bose that sought to take advantage of the situation to drive out the British by anymeans.In the year 1934, the Indian National Congress Party culminated its boycott of the legislatures and putup candidates. Govind Ballabh Pant was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly. He won theadmiration of the leaders of the Congress Party through his political skills. Eventually Pandit Pant wasappointed as the deputy leader of the Congress party in the Assembly.
  • 196. Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant was arrested by the British Police in 1940 and was sentenced to rigorousimprisonment for his involvement in the organization of the Satyagraha movement. In the year 1942, hewas again arrested for signing the Quit India resolution and was jailed for around 3 years in AhmednagarFort, along with other prominent members of the Congress Working Committee until March 1945. Laterhe was released after the requests of Jawaharlal Nehru.Govind Ballabh Pant as Chief MinisterThe provincial elections were held in the year 1937 due to the Government of India Act 1935. After theNawab of Chhatari, the leader of National Agriculturist Parties, was invited to establish a minoritygovernment on 1st April 1937, the Indian National Congress Party accepted to form the governmentunder Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant who was appointed as the Chief Minister on 17 July 1937. He servedoffice till 1939 when all ministries in Congress resigned.In the year 1945, the new British Labour government ordered new elections to the Provinciallegislatures. The Indian National Congress Party won a majority in the elections held in 1946 in theUnited Provinces. Pandit Pant was again appointed as the Chief Minister and served even after thenation attained independence from the British in the year 1947.He served as the first Chief Minister of the state of Uttar Pradesh in Independent India. During histenure as the Chief Minister, Pant abolished the zamindari system.Govind Ballabh Pant as Union Home MinisterPandit Govind Ballabh Pant or Pandit Pant was appointed as the Union Home Minister of India in theyear 1955 and served in the position till 1961. As the Home minister, he re-organised the States alonglinguistic lines.Pant was also responsible for the establishment of Hindi as an official language of the centralgovernment and other Indian states. In the year 1955, Pant was honoured with the Bharat Ratna Award.Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant died on 7th March 1961, after his health deteriorated and spending severaldays in a coma.
  • 197. Chittaranjan DasBorn: November 5, 1870, KolkataDied: June 16, 1925Chittaranjan Das or C. R. Das was an Indian politician and leader ofthe Swaraj (Independence) Party in Bengalunder British rule.He is popularly called Deshbandhu "Friend of the country"Personal LifeHe belonged to the famous Das family of Telirbagh, in Bikrampur,Dhaka (now in Bangladesh). He was the son of Bhuban Mohan Das, andnephew of the Brahmo social reformer Durga Mohan Das. Some of hiscousins were Satish Ranjan Das, Sudhi Ranjan Das, Sarala Roy and LadyAbala Bose. His eldest grandson was Siddhartha Shankar Rayand hisgranddaughter is Justice Manjula Bose.CareerEducated in England, where he became a Barrister, his public career began in 1909 when he successfullydefended Aurobindo Ghosh on charges of involvement in the previous years Alipore bomb case.He was a leading figure in Bengal during the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1919-1922, and initiatedthe ban on British clothes, setting an example by burning his own European clothes andwearing Khadi clothes.He brought out a newspaper called Forward and later changed its name to Liberty to fight the BritishRaj. When the Calcutta Corporation was formed, he became its first Mayor. He resigned his presidencyof the Indian National Congress at the Gaya session after losing a motion on "No Council Entry"to Gandhis faction. He then founded the Swaraj Party, with veteran Motilal Nehru and young HuseynShaheed Suhrawardy, to express his immoderate opinions .He was a believer of non-violence and constitutional methods for the realisation of nationalindependence, and advocated Hindu-Muslim unity, cooperation and communal harmony andchampioned the cause of national education. His legacy was carried forward by his disciples, and notablyby Subhas Chandra Bose.He is generally referred to by the honorific Desh Bandhu meaning "friend of the nation."In 1925, Dass health began to fail and in May he withdrew to a mountain home in Darjeeling,where Mahatma Gandhi visited him. On 16 June 1925, with a severe fever, he died.The funeral procession in Calcutta was led by Gandhi, who said:Deshbandhu
  • 198. Deshbandhu was one of the greatest of men... He dreamed... and talked of freedom of India and ofnothing else... His heart knew no difference between Hindus and Mussalmans and I should like to tellEnglishmen, too, that he bore no ill-will to them.Legacy & CommemorationA few years before his death Das gifted his house and the adjoining lands to the nation to be used forthe betterment of the lives of women. Today it is a huge hospital called Chittaranjan Seva Sadan and hasgone from being a womens hospital to one where all specialties are present. The Chittaranjan CancerHospital which was established in these premises in 1950 is now the Chittaranjan National CancerInstitute.Chittaranjan Park is a locality adjoining Greater Kailash II in South Delhi, which housesmany Bengalis who fled to India during partition.
  • 199. Ashfaqulla KhanBorn: October 22, 1900, ShahjahanpurDied: December 19, 1927Ashfaqulla Khan was a freedom fighter in the Indian independencemovementwho had given away his life along with Ram Prasad Bismil.Bismil and Ashfaq, both were good friends and Urdu poets (Shayar).Bismil was the pen name or Takhallus of Ram Prasad whereas Ashfaqused to write poetry with the pen name of Hasrat. Both were hangedon the same day, date and time but in different jails.Early LifeAshfaq ullah Khan was born on 22 October 1900 in Shahjahanpur, ahistorical city of Uttar Pradesh. His father, Shafiq Ullah Khan belonged to a Pathan family who wasfamous for militancy. His maternal side was more knowledgeable where so many members had servedin the police and administrative services of British India. His mother Mazhoor-Un-Nisa Begum was anextremely glamorous lady. Ashfaq ullah was the youngest amongst all his four brothers. His elderbrother Riyasat Ullah Khan was a class mate of Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil. When Bismil was declaredabsconder after the Mainpuri Conspiracy, Riyasat used to tell his younger brother Ashafaq about thebravery and shayari Urdu poetry of Bismil. Since then Ashfaq was very keen to meet Bismil, because ofhis poetic attitude. In 1920, when Bismil came to Shahjahanpur and engaged himself in business Ashfaqtried so many times to contact him but Bismil paid no attention.In 1922, when Non-cooperation movement started and Bismil organised meetings in Shahjahanpur totell the public about the movement, Ashfaq ullah met him in a public meeting and introduced himself asa younger brother of his class mate. He also told Bismil that he wrote poems under the pen-names ofWarsi and Hasrat. Bismil listened to some of his couplets in a private get- together at Shahjahanpurand since then they became good friends. Ashfaq often wrote something and showed it to Bismil whoimmediately corrected or improved the same. Thus a very good poetic alignment between Ashfaq andBismil developed and it was so familiar that whosoever listened to them in any of the poeticconferences called Mushaira in Urdu language was overwhelmed with surprise.Friendship with BismilWhen Mahatma Gandhi withdrew the Non-Cooperation Movement after the Chauri Chaura incident in1922, so many Indian youths were left dejected. Ashfaq was also one of them. He felt that India shouldbecome free as soon as possible and so he decided to join therevolutionaries and also win the friendshipof Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil, a famous revolutionary of Shahjahanpur.Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil, an active member of Arya Samaj, Shahjahanpur was eager to explain thegreatness of the Hindu religion to those belonging to other religions, although he never bore in mind anyprejudice against any religious community. This was the only reason behind it that won the heart of
  • 200. Ashfaq and he became a confident friend of Bismil. Although Ashfaq was a devout Muslim yet both ofthem had the common objective of a free and united India. They sacrificed their lives on the same day of19 December 1927 asmartyrs for India, but in different jailsof Faizabad and Gorakhpur.Kakori train RobberyThe revolutionaries felt that soft words of non violence could not win India its Independence andtherefore they wanted to make use of bombs, revolvers and other weapons to instill fear in the heartsof the Britishers living in India. Although the British Empire was large and strong yet very fewEnglishmen had conquered India due to its untrained armies and political divisiveness. The withdrawalof the non cooperation movement by so-called leaders of Congress united revolutionaries scatteredthroughout the country. But the newly started revolutionary movement required money to support itsneed. One day while traveling on a train from Shahjahanpur to Lucknow Pandit Ram Prasad Bismilnoticed every station master bringing money bags into the guards cabin which was kept there in cashchest. This cash chest was handed over to the station superintendent of Lucknow junction. Bismildecided to loot the government money and utilise it against the same government who had beencontinuously looting India for more than 300 years. This was a beginning of a Dacoity called Kakori trainrobbery.To give a fillip to their movement and buy arms and ammunition to carry out their activities, therevolutionaries organised a meeting on August 8, 1925 at Shahjahanpur. After a lot of deliberations itwas decided to loot the government treasury carried in the 8-Down Saharanpur - Lucknow passengertrain. On 9 August 1925, Ashfaqulla Khan and eight other revolutionaries looted the train under theleadership of Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil. They were Rajendra Lahiri from Varanasi, Sachindra NathBakshi from Bengal, Chandra Shekhar Azad from Unnao, Keshab Chakravorthy from Calcutta, BanwariLal from Rai Bareli, Mukundi Lal from Etawah, Manmath Nath Gupta from Benaras and Murari Lal fromShahjahanpur. These facts are given here from the book Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya KaItihas.Conspiracy case filedBritish Government was astonished at the courage of revolutionaries. The Viceroy deployed theScotlandYard Police to investigate the case. Within a month the C.I.D. collected the clues and decided to arrestalmost all the revolutionaries overnight. On the morning of 26 September 1925, Pandit Ram PrasadBismil and others from Shahjahanpur were arrested by the police but Ashfaq was the only one untracedby the police. Ashfaq went into hiding and moved to Banaras, from there he went to Bihar where heworked in an engineering company for about ten months. He also wanted to go abroad and meet LalaHar Dayal for his concrete help in the freedom struggle. He went Delhi to find out the ways how to moveout of the country. In Delhi, he took the help of one of his Pathan friend who in turn betrayed him byinforming the police who arrested Ashfaq.Tasadduk Husain, the then superintendent of police tried to play communal politics between Bismil andAshfaq. He also tried to win the confidence of Ashfaq by provoking him againstHinduism but Ashfaq wasa strong willed Indian who surprised the S.P. Tasadduk Husain Khan by saying- "Khan Sahib!, I knowPandit Ram Prasad better than you, he is not such a person as you say but even if you are right then I am
  • 201. also quite sure that a Hindu India will be much better than your British India to whom you are servinglike a servant."Ashfaqulla Khan was detained in the Faizabad jail. A case was filed against him. His brother Riyasat UllaKhan deployed Kripa Shankar Hajela, a senior advocate to plea his case as a counsellor. Mr Hajela foughtthe case till the very end but he could not save his life. While in jail, Ashfaq daily performed fivetimes Islamic prayer (in Urdu Namaz) and reciting the verses from Quran to convince Allah in favour ofhis revolutionary activities. The case of the Kakori conspiracy was concluded by awarding deathsentence to four dare devils viz. Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri and ThakurRoshan Singh. The sixteen others were awarded the rigorous punishment varying from four years up tolife sentence.By an eyewitness account, on a Wednesday, four days before he was hanged, two English officerslooked into the solitary cell where Ashfaqulla Khan was lodged. He was in the middle of his namaz. "I’dlike to see how much of that faith remains in him when we hang the rat", quipped one of them. ButAshfaq continued his prayer as usual and both of them went away murmuring like a winds way.On Monday, 19 December 1927, Ashfaqulla Khan is known to have taken two steps at a time, as hewalked up to the post. When his chains were released, he reached for the hanging rope and kissed it bysaying these words: "My hands are not soiled with the murder of man. The charges framed against meare a bare false. Allah will give me the justice." And at last he recited in Urdu the shahada. The noosecame around his neck and the movement lost one of its shining stars in the sky.Few words from Ashfaq’s DiaryAshfaq was a very good Urdu poet who wrote beautiful couplets and ghazals with the pen-name ofWarsi and Hasrat. But very few people know that he had also written in Hindi as well as in English.While he was confined in the solitary cell of Faizabad Jail, he started writing a diary. Few words ofEnglish are reproduced hereunder from his diary:• Patrotism brings with him all sort of troubles and pains, but a man who chooses it, all the troublesand pains become comforts and ease for him. That is why we remain cheerful up to our aim.• Only for the love of our country I suffer so much.• There is no dream, and if there is, there is only one to see you my children struggling for the sameand for which I am expected to be finished.• Brothers and friends will weep after me but I am weeping over their coldness and infidelity towardsour motherland.• Weep not children, weep not elders; I am immortal ! I am immortal !!In another letter written to his beloved mother, sisters and nephews he writes: "We too had done someof the works which we could, but those were the days, we had the glamour on face and strength in thechest. But now is the hope only hope from you, you are now grown up and we are at the verge of settinglike a sun in the west." In Urdu he had written:
  • 202. "kiye the kaam hamane bhii, jo kuchh bhii hamse ban paaye; ye baatain tab ki hain aajaad the aur thashabaab apanaa. magar ab to jo kuchh bhii hai ummiiden bas vo tumase hain, javaan tum ho labe-baam aa cukaa hai aafataab apanaa."" कये थे काम हमने भी जो कु छ भी हमसे बन पाये,ये बात तब क ह आज़ाद थे और था शबाब अपना;मगर अब तो जो कु छ भी ह उ मीद बस वो तुमसे ह,जबाँ तुम हो लबे-बाम आ चुका है आफताब अपना."Last Night of AshfaqAshfaq was a devout Muslim and his affection to his motherland is unmatching. A Hindi poet AgniveshShukla had written a very good poem titled Ashfaq ki aakhiri raat (en. the last night of Ashfaq) in whichhe had depicted the real sentiments of this great son of India. The original poem has been given in HindiWikipedia whereas its English translation by an Indian poet laureate Krant M. L. Verma is reproducedhereunder along with its original Hindi version inDevnagri script:"I will go empty-handed, but this woe will accompany me;Independent my country Hindostan would ever be.Bismil is Hindu he utters- "Time again I will come,O Motherland! you dont worry, I will bestow you freedom."Me too prevails but religious binding are preventing me,Being Muslim for a rebirth may not think ever I.In case if I got God face to face then certainly,In place of heaven I will beg rebirth in this country.""जाऊँ गा खाल हाथ मगर ये दद साथ ह जायेगा, जाने कस दन ह दो तान आज़ाद वतनकहलायेगा?बि मल ह दू ह कहते ह " फर आऊँ गा, फर आऊँ गा, फर आकर के ऐ भारत माँ तुझको आज़ादकराऊँ गा".जी करता है म भी कह दूँ पर मजहब से बंध जाता हूँ,म मुसलमान हूँ पुनज म क बात नह ं करपाता हूँ;हाँ खुदा अगर मल गया कह ं अपनी झोल फै ला दूँगा, और ज नत के बदले उससे एक पुनज मह माँगूंगा."Popular media portrayalThe actions of Ashfaq Ullah Khan and his compatriots have recently been depicted in an AmirKhan starrer hit Bollywood movie Rang De Basanti, where his character role was played by the filmactor Kunal Kapoor.
  • 203. Krishan KantBorn: February 28, 1927, AmritsarDied: July 27, 2002, New DelhiKrishan Kant (28 February 1927 – 27 July 2002) was the tenth Vice Presidentof India from 1997 until his death.Kants first brush with politics came when he plunged into the Quit Indiamovement, while he was still a student in Lahore. He took part in the IndianIndependence Movement as a youth and continued to be involved inpolitics, eventually being elected to Parliament of India. He was part of the"Young Turk" brigade of Indian National Congress party during the timeof Indira Gandhi.He held prominent offices in the Parliamentary and Organisational wingsof Indian National Congress and later the Janata Party and the Janata Dal. Hewas a member of the Executive Council, for several years, of the Institute forDefence Studies and Analyses.Krishan Kant was the founding general secretary of the Peoples Union for Civil Liberties and DemocraticRights, of which Jayprakash Narayan was the President in 1976. He was expelled from the IndianNational Congress in 1975 for his opposition to the Emergency. He was later a member of Lok Sabha till1980. He was the chairman of Committee on Railway Reservations and Bookings from 1972 -1976.He with Madhu Limaye was also responsible for the collapse of the Morarji Desai government installedby that coalition, by insisting that no member of the Janata Party could be the member of RashtriyaSwayamsevak Sangh (RSS).This attack on dual membership was directed specifically at members of the Janata Party who had beenmembers of the Jan Sangh, and continued to be members of the right-wing RSS, the Jan Sanghsideological parent. The issue led to fall of Morarji Desai government in 1979, and the destruction of theJanata coalition.A strong protagonist of India going nuclear, Krishan Kant was a member of the executive council of theInstitute of Defence Studies and Analysis.Kant was appointed governor of Andhra Pradesh by the V.P. Singh government in 1989 and served inthat position for seven years, becoming one of Indias longest-serving governors. He stayed at that posttill he was elevated as Vice-President of India.He was elected vice-president by Parliament as the joint candidate of the Indian NationalCongress and United Front. He died in New Delhi.He is the only Indian Vice President to die in office.10th Vice Presidentof India
  • 204. Surjit Singh BarnalaBorn: October 21, 1925 (age 87), AteliSurjit Singh Barnala (born 21 October 1925) is an Indian politician. Duringhis career in Indian politics, he has been Governor of four states (TamilNadu, Orissa, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh) and Two times UnionMinister, Chief Minister of Punjab and a vice-presidential candidate.Early LifeBarnala was born in Ateli, Haryana. Born of a well-to-do family (his fatherwas a magistrate), Barnala passed Law from Lucknow University in 1946.In Lucknow, he was involved in the Quit India Movement of 1942.Subsequently he practised law for some years, and became politicallyactive in the late 60s, rising through the ranks of Akali Dal. Though, hefirst stood for election in 1952 but lost by a meagre 4 votes.PoliticsSurjit Singh Barnala started his political career vigorously in the late1960`s. He was elected as MLA from Barnala Assembly Constituency in the year 1967, and thusdelineated the Constituency till 1999.In the year 1969, Barnala was made the Education Minister of Punjab in the Justice Gurnam SinghGovernment and during his tenure; he played a subservient role in establishing Guru Nanak DevUniversity in Amritsar.In 1977 he was elected to the Indian Parliament and was inducted in the Morarji Desai Cabinet as theAgriculture Minister at the time when the Ministry included Irrigation Water Resources, Food,Environment and Forests, Consumer Affairs, Power and Chemical And Fertilizers and RuralDevelopment.In 1978 Barnala signed the historic Ganga Waters Agreement (Farakka Agreement) with Bangladesh. In1979 during the turmoil in the national govt when PM Morarji Desai resigned the then President NeelamSanjiva Reddy toyed with the idea of appointing an interim Govt with Barnala as Prime Minister but hadto drop the idea at the last moment fearing horse trading by a top member of the Cabinet, and DeputyPrime Minister Chaudhary Charan Singh assumed Prime Minister ship.Barnala served as Chief Minister of Punjab from September 29, 1985 until May 11, 1987. Barnala, amember of the Sikh political party Shiromani Akali Dal (Longowal) served as Chief Minister during aperiod of terrorism in Punjab. The state had under in Barnalas chief ministership from 1985 to 1987,and after nearly two years in office, Presidents Rule was imposed.Second longest servingGovernor in IndianHistory
  • 205. Governor of several statesSince then, Barnala has served as a Governor of several states.He first served as Governor of Tamil Nadu from 1990 to 1991 for about nine months. Barnala refused torecommend the dismissal of the Tamil Nadu government, and when he was later transferred asGovernor of Bihar he choose to resign.He served as the lieutenant governor of Andaman and Nicobar Islands from December 1990 to 18March 1993.He was the First Governor of Uttarakhand from its creation in 2000 until 2003, and Governor of AndhraPradesh from 2003 to 2004 during this time he also held additional charge of Orissa as Governor forsome time, and was Governor of Tamil Nadu till 31 August 2011 during his Tamil Nadu years he alsoheld additional charge of Puduchery for a few months.He is the second longest serving Governor in Indian History after Dr.A R Kidwai and the only Governorto have served three terms in the history of Madras(Tamil Nadu) State of 300 Years.Barnala also contested for the post of the Vice-President of India in the year 1997, but was defeated byKrishna Kant.In 1996 Barnala once again came close to becoming Prime Minister. In 1996 General Elections with nopolitical party getting mandate it was a good time for a regional party to have its Prime Minister.Regional Parties accounted about 80 MPs in the Lok Sabha The Assam Gana Parishad of Praful KumarMahanta and TDP of Chandra Babu Naidu including The Left parties zeroed on Barnala but last minuteBarnalas parent party SAD led by Barnalas supposedly close friend Parkash Singh Badal withoutinforming Barnala joined hands with the BJP hence Barnala yet again missed being Prime Minister.In 1997 Barnala was a candidate of the BJP and its Allies in the election of the Vice-President of India.In 1998 Barnala was again elected to Parliament and became Chemical Fertlizers Food and ConsumerAffairs in the Vajpayee CabinateAt present he is the Patron of a four party alliance Sanja Morcha in PunjabLike few other anti Congress leaders of his time he has spent about Three and a Half years in jail as apolitical prisoner including 11 months in solitary confinement. With over 65 years of political life behindhim his integrity and honesty has never been in question despite of holding high and powerful positions.A feat not replicated by many of his contemporaries in the same positions.AuthorHe has authored a book "Story of an Escape" which has been translated from English to Punjabi, Hindiand Urdu. His second book that was released in December 2007, is titled "My Other Two Daughters".Painting is his hobby and four exhibitions of his works have been held. The proceeds from his recentexhibitions went to charity.
  • 206. Barnala FamilySurjit Singh Barnala is married to Surjit Kaur Barnala. In August 2009, Bibi Surjit kaur become thePresident of the Shiromani Akali Dal (Longowal).They are the parents of three sons and a daughter. The eldest son, Jasjit singh Barnala, is a businessmanwho runs Barnas International Pvt Ltd. The second son, Ganganjit Singh Barnala, has followed in hisfathers foot steps and ventured into politics. The youngest son, Neelinder Singh Barnala, died tragicallyin a car accident in 1996. Their daughter, Sardarni Amrit Kaur also expired after a battle with cancer inOct 2012, she was married to Major Adesh Pal Singh Sandhu, an officer (now retired) in the Indian Army.The Barnalas have eight grand-children.
  • 207. Akhlaqur Rahman KidwaiBorn: July 1, 1920 (age 92)Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai was the former governor of the state Haryanaand Bihar. This academician has submitted over 40 Original ResearchPapers in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry in National andInternational Journals. As a scientist and researcher in the fields ofOrganic and Natural Products, Chemistry and Biochemistry, he hasdistinguished himself. He has also been engaged in Education for over 35years.He was a member of the Rajya Sabha, upper house of the Indianparliament from 2000-2004 Throughout his career in the field ofeducation he has dealt with problems of Higher Education, especially inthe fields of Science and technology, research, education technology,non-formal method of education and vocational education. He served asex-officio Chancellor of all Universities during the tenure of Governor ofBihar and West Bengal. In these two states, he took keen interest in theworking and development of university education. He made special efforts to bring up to dateMadarasas Education by integrating them with modern education and technical training. The KhudaBaksh Oriental Public Library of Patna, at his commencement was modernized with facilities ofInformation Technology as an important reference library for advanced studies and research.Early Life of A. R. KidwaiA. R. Kidwai was born on 1st July 1920 to Late Shri Ashfaqur Rahman Kidwai and Late ShrimatiNasimunnisa at Vill. Baragaon, Barabanki District (Uttar Pradesh.). He did his B.A., M.S., and Ph.D fromJamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, University of Illinois and Cornell University, U.S.A.A. R. Kidwai`s Life as a Freedom FighterDr. A.R. Kidwai took part in the Indian Freedom Struggle when he was just a student. He took part in allfreedom movements initiated by Mahatma Gandhi from 1930 onwards. He also took active part in thehistoric August 1942 Quit India Movement and attended the Congress Session in Bombay. He wasclosely associated with the underground socialist leaders like Shri S.M. Joshi, Shri Ashok Mehta andShrimati Aruna Asaf Ali. He has also played an active role in the publication of the Congress NewsBulletin and broadcasting news through Azad Radio in Mumbai.On Celebration of Mahatma Gandhi`s 125th Birth Anniversary in Bihar, Dr. Kidwai, as the Chairman ofthe Committee initiated a programme of marking out villages and ashrams where Mahatma Gandhidynamically worked for the education and development among the oppressed people. He undertookthe development and construction of the monuments of Gandhiji`s ashram. These centres wereLongest servingGovernor in IndianHistory
  • 208. connected into a "Gandhi Circuit" so that the younger generations could visit them in order to getinspiration. For Gandhian Studies, a centre was set up at Bhagalpur University.Political CareerKidwai was Chairman of Union Public Service Commission-UPSC, Government of India from 1974 to1977.He was Governor of Bihar twice, from 1979 to 1985 and 1993 to 1998, and Governor of WestBengal from 1998 to 1999.He was Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, from 1983 to 1992 and has also been thedirector of the Jammu & Kashmir Bank.Kidwai was a member of the Rajya Sabha from January 2000 to July 2004.He was the Governor of Haryana from 7 July 2004 to 27 July 2009. After Pratibha Patils resignationas Governor of Rajasthan in June 2007, he was asked to take over that position as well, serving asGovernor of the state until S. K. Singh took office on September 6, 2007.Dr. A.R. Kidwai as Part of Important Committees, organizations and institutions of the country• National Committee on Science and Technology, 1968-75• Perspective Science and Technology Plan Committee of the Department of Science andTechnology and the Planning Commission• Council and the Governing Body of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) 1970-73• Board of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Governing Bodies of CentralDrug Research Institute, Lucknow and Central Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad.• Regional Imbalances Enquiry Commission, Jammu and Kashmir State, 1979• State Planning Board and Heavy Industries Plan Committees, Government of Uttar Pradesh• University Grants Commission (UGC) and Chairman of the Central Universities ReviewCommittee, 1985-86• Central Advisory Board of Education• Central Council of Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)• Committee on New Education Policy, 1986 and Chairman of its Sub-Committee on Non-FormalMethods of Education• Member and Patron Delhi Public School Society (1968-continued)• Honorary Fellow of the Institution of Engineers, India• Chairman, Review Committee on Unani Medicine, Ministry of Health, Government of India• Chairman, Selection Board of Scientists Pool (1968-79)• Chairman of the Board of Assessment of Educational and Technical Qualification forEmployment, Ministry of Education, Government of India (1967-79)• The American, British and Indian Chemical Societies• American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • 209. Important Government Posts Held by A. R. KidwaiDr. Kidwai initiated many special schemes and projects for the employment of the educatedunemployed youth in urban centres and rural employment through incorporated farming and self-employment schemes in Bihar. The Department of Institutional Finance and Commercial Banks is alsoactively involved in it. He also Re-organized the Red Cross Society to endow with:• polyclinics for free medical advice and treatment to the poor;• facilities for free clinical testing and diagnosis,• treatment and rehabilitation of physically handicapped• Pre-Disaster Preparedness Centres in flood prone areas. Many the important centres were setup to supply free maternity and child welfare services, advice and treatment for family welfareprogrammes under the auspices of Maternity and Child Welfare Society, Bihar with the supportof Department of Family Welfare.He also introduced the computerized system to expedite the selection and promotion process in theUnion Public Service Commission. Dr. Kidwai also replaced the English language, which was once theonly medium of examination for the All India and the Central Services. He introduced a multilingualexamination system to ensure the equality of opportunity for all.Personal Life of A.R. KidwaiDr. A.R. Kidwai married to Late Shrimati Jamila Kidwai on December, 1941. The couple has two sons andfour daughters.Dr. A.R. Kidwai re-modified the Bharatya Niritya Kala Mandir, Patna as leading centres of traditionalIndian and Tribal Dances. He initiated the set up of two important centers of performing arts at activitiesShantiniketan and Kolkata and established a programme of coordinated cultural in each of themembers` states of the Eastern Zone as the Chairman of North Eastern Zonal Cultural Council.Dr. Kidwai also took part in a number of technological and educational conferences in countries likeGermany, France, USA, Finland, UK, Japan, and Sweden and also toured extensively to the southern andWest Asian countries.
  • 210. Saifuddin KitchlewBorn: January 15, 1888, AmritsarDied: October 9, 1963, DelhiSaifuddin Kitchlew was an Indian freedom fighter, barrister and an IndianMuslim nationalist leader. An Indian National Congress politician, he firstbecame Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee (Punjab PCC) head and laterthe General Secretary of the AICC in 1924. He is most remembered for theprotests in Punjab after the implementation of Rowlatt Act in March 1919,after which on April 10, he and another leader Dr. Satya Pal, were secretlysent to Dharamsala. A public protest rally against their arrest and that ofGandhi, on April 13, 1919 at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, led to theinfamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre.He was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize (now known as Lenin Peace Prize) in 1952.Early LifeSaifuddin Kitchlew was born to the Kashmiri Muslim family of Azizuddin Kitchlew and Dan Bibi onJanuary 15, 1888, in Amritsar, Punjab. His father owned a pashmina and saffron trading business andoriginally belonged to a Brahmin family of Baramulla. As it was his ancestor, Prakash Ram Kitchlew, whohad converted into Islam and later his grandfather, Ahmed Jo migrated from Kashmir in mid 19thcentury to Amritsar after of the great Kashmir famine of 1871.Kitchlew went to Islamia High School in Amritsar, and later obtained a B.A. from Cambridge University,and a Ph.D. from a German university, and began practicing law in India.CareerOn his return he established his legal practice in Amritsar, and soon came in contact with MahatmaGandhi. In 1919, he was elected the Municipal Commissioner of the city of Amritsar. He took part inthe Satyagraha (Non-cooperation) movement and soon left his practice, to become part of the freedommovement, as well as the All India Khilafat Committee.Political CareerJallianwala BaghDr. Kitchlew was first exposed to Indian nationalism when the whole country was outraged bythe Rowlatt Acts. Kitchlew was arrested with Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Satyapal for leading protests inPunjab against the legislation. To protest the arrest of the trio, a public meeting had gathered atthe Jallianwala Bagh, when Gen. Reginald Dyer and his troops fired mercilessly upon the unarmed,civilian crowd. Hundreds of people were killed, and hundreds more injured. This act, the worst caseof civilian massacre since the Indian rebellion of 1857 outraged the nation, and riots broke out allthroughout the Punjab.
  • 211. Political mainstreamKitchlew rose in the Indian National Congress, first heading its Punjab unit, and then rising to the postof AICC General Secretary, an important executive position in 1924. Kitchlew was also the chairman ofthe reception committee of the Congress session in Lahore in 1929-30, where on January 26, 1930, theIndian National Congress declared Indian independence and inaugurated an era of civil disobedienceand revolution aimed to achieve full independence.Kithclew was also a founding leader of the Naujawan Bharat Sabha (Indian Youth Congress), whichrallied hundreds of thousands of students and young Indians to nationalist causes. He was also themember of the Foundation Committee of Jamia Millia Islamia, which met on 29 October 1920 and led tothe foundation of Jamia Millia Islamia University.He started an Urdu daily “Tanzim” to uplift the Muslims and was instrumental in establishmentof Swaraj Ashram in January 1921 at Amritsar to train young men for the national work and to promoteHindu-Muslim unity. Throughout the 1930-1934 struggles, Kitchlew was repeatedly arrested, and in allspent fourteen years behind bars.Post IndependenceDr. Kitchlew was opposed to the Muslim Leagues demand for Pakistan and later in the 1940s becamePresident of the Punjab Congress Committee. In 1947 he strongly opposed the acceptance ofthe Partition of India by the Congress Party. He spoke out against it at public meetings all over thecountry, and at the All India Congress Committee session that ultimately voted for the resolution. Hecalled it a blatant "surrender of nationalism for communalism". Some years after partition andIndependence, he left the Congress. He began to come closer to the Communist Party of India.He was the founder president of the All-India Peace Council and also remained President of 4thCongress of All-India Peace Council, held at Madras in 1954, besides remaining Vice President of theWorld Peace Council.Dr. Kitchlew moved to Delhi after their house was burnt down during partition of India riots of 1947,thereafter he spent the rest of his years working for closer political and diplomatic relations withthe USSR, and received the Stalin Peace Prize in 1952, which was renamed for Lenin Peace Prizeunder De-Stalinization. In 1951, a Government Act made him, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Maulana AbulKalam Azad, life trustees of the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Trust.He died on October 9, 1963, survived by a son, Toufique Kitchlew, who now lives in a Lampur village onthe outskirts of Delhi, and five daughters all of whom were married in Pakistan, (two survive to date),except Zahida Kitchlew, who was married to M. B. Sreenivasan, Malayalam music director.LegacyIndian Post released a special commemorative stamp featuring him in 1989. The Jamia Milia Islamiacreated a Saifuddin Kitchlew Chair at the MMAJ Academy of Third world Studies in 2009.
  • 212. Sardar Swaran SinghBorn: August 19, 1907, PunjabDied: October 30, 1994, New DelhiSardar Swaran Singh was an Indian politician. He was Indias longestserving union cabinet minister.Early LifeSaradar Swaran Singh was born on 19th August 1907 in Shankar Villagein Jalandhar district of Punjab. He was born into an agricultural family.He completed his intermediate (High school) at RandhirCollege in Kapurthala. He then joined Government College, Lahore andcompleted a degree in Physics with honors.He then worked as a lecturer in Physics in Lyallpur Khalsa College. Afterleaving this job he studied law in Government law college in Lahore andreceived his L.L.B in 1932. He started a law practice near his birth villagein the nearby town of Jallandhar - he specialised in criminal suits.Political CareerThe early daysIn 1930s he joined the Akali Dal political party and by the mid forties he was a prominent leader in themid 1940s. He played an important role in the compromise between the Indian national congress partyand the Akali Dal in the early 1940s.Just before the 1946 elections, the panthic party was formed with Baldev Singh as the leader and SardarSwaran Singh was elected its deputy leader. In 1946 he was elected a member of the Punjab legislativeassembly. He then became parliamentary secretary to the Punjab Coalition government.He was a member of the Punjab Partition Committee where he played an important role.On 15th August 1947, the day of Indian Independence he was sworn in as Home Minister in the cabinetof the state of Punjab. At the same time the capital of the Punjab was shifted from Shimla to Jallandhar.On 13th May 1952 he resigned his position here when Jawaharlal Nehru included him in the centralcabinet.Indias longest servingUnion Cabinet Minister
  • 213. In the central governmentHe entered the cabinet of Indias first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in 1952, and was thatgovernments last surviving member. He remained in successive governments until he resigned inNovember 1975.He was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1957, 1962, 1967 and 1972.Cabinet positionsTo this date he is the longest-serving union cabinet minister in India.Ministry DateWorks, Housing and Supplies 1952–1957Steel Mines and Fuel 1957–1962Agriculture 1962Railways 1962–1963External Affairs 1964–1966Defense 1966–1970External Affairs 1970–1974Defense 1974–1976He is best known for his role as Indias foreign minister.He was also president of the National Congress in 1969, and 1978.External Affairs MinisterHe visited the USSR in July 1966 along with then Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi.Swaran Singh CommitteeSardar Swaran Singh was chairperson of the committee entrusted with the responsibility of studyingthe Constitution of India in 1976 during the national emergency. Soon after the declaration of thenational emergency, Indira Gandhi constituted a committee under the Chairmanship of Sardar SwaranSingh to study the question of amending the constitution in the light of past experiences. Based on itsrecommendations, the government incorporated several changes to the Constitution including thePreamble, through the Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India (passed in 1976 and cameinto effect on 3 January 1977)
  • 214. AwardsHe was awarded Padma Vibhushan award in 1992. Sardar Swaran Singh was also the Uncle to BalbirSingh Purewal, former MP of Jalandhar and President of Lyallpur Khalsa College, Jalandhar.
  • 215. M. O. Hasan Farook MaricarBorn: September 6, 1937, KaraikalDied: January 26, 2012, ChennaiM. O. Hasan Farook Maricar was a three time Chief Minister of theUnion Territory of Pondicherry, then Pondicherry.He was the youngest chief minister of any state of India.He served from April 9, 1967 to March 6, 1968 and March 17, 1969 toJanuary 3, 1974 and from 1985 to 1990. He was thrice elected to theLok Sabha from Pondicherry in 1991, 1996 and 1999 and served as aUnion Minister of State for Civil Aviation and Tourism during June1991- December 1992.He participated in the struggle for liberation of Pondicherry as astudent, during 1953-54 when Pondicherry was a French colony and served as a Member of the CentralHaj Committee in Mumbai from 1975 to 2000. He was appointed as the Indian Ambassador to SaudiArabia in September 2004.In 2010, Farook was appointed as Governor of Jharkhand. He was appointed as Governor of Kerala on 25August 2011. He took office on 8 September 2011, but died in office a few months later, on 26 January2012 at 9:10pm at Apollo Hospital in Chennai, due to multiple myeloma and kidney and other ailments.He is the second governor who died in office, after Sikander Bakht, and is the shortest served governorof Kerala.Youngest chief minister ofany state of India (@ 30y)
  • 216. Sikander BakhtBorn: August 24, 1918, DelhiDied: February 23, 2004Sikander Bakht (August 24, 1918 – February 23, 2004) wasa politician from India and Indian Freedom Fighter. He was one of theIndian statesman and one of tallest leaders of the Bharatiya JanataParty (BJP).Early LifeSikander Bakht was born in Delhi, India in 1918. He attendedthe Anglo Arabic Senior Secondary School, Delhi and completed hisBachelor of Science from the Anglo-Arabic College (now knownas Zakir Husain College) in Delhi. During his school and college dayshe was a keen hockey player and represented Delhi University andDelhi in various tournaments. He also played and captained theIndependents Hockey Club. He once said he is proud member of BJPand always maintained that India is land of secularism and supported the ethos of India.Political CareerIn 1952 Bakht was elected to the Municipal Corporation of Delhi as a Congress candidate. In 1968 hewas elected as the Chairman of Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking. In 1969 the Congress party split andBakht stayed with Congress (Organisation). Bakht was then elected to The Metropolitan Council of Delhias a Congress (O) candidate.On June 25, 1975 Emergency was declared by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, Bakht along with otheropposition leaders was imprisoned on June 25, 1975. He was lodged in The Rohtak Jail until his releasein December 1976. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ordered General Elections in March 1977. As soon asthe opposition leaders were released, they merged all opposition parties to form The Janta Party.In March 1977 Bakht was elected to the Lok Sabha (the lower house of Indian Parliament) as a JanataParty candidate, from Chandni Chowk in New Delhi. Morarji Desai was appointed Prime Minister and heappointed Bakht as a Cabinet Minister for Works, Housing, Supply and Rehabilitation. He served in thiscapacity till July 1979.In 1980 the Janta Party split and Bakht opted to be with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). He wasappointed as General Secretary of BJP. In 1984 he was made the Vice President of BJP. In 1990 Bakhtwas elected to the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of the Indian Parliament). In 1992 he became theOldest Governor of India@ 83y
  • 217. Leader of Opposition in the Rajya Sabha. (The Leader of Opposition is equivalent to Cabinet Ministerspost.) In 1996 he was reelected to the Rajya Sabha.In May 1996, Atal Bihari Vajpayee offered Bakht the post of Minister of Urban Affairs when he formedhis government. Bakht, however, demanded a higher post, and on May 24 he was given the additionalpost of Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Vajpayee Government lasted only 13 days. Bakht was ForeignMinister for little more than a week, as he was forced to resign when Vajpayees government collapsedon June 1, 1996. After the collapse of the Vajpayee government, Bakht became The Leader of theOpposition in the Rajya Sabha once again.In 1998 Vajpayee was again appointed Prime Minister and Bakht was appointed Industry Minister. Inaddition he was appointed as the Leader of the House in Rajya Sabha.AwardsIn 2000 Bakht was awarded the Padma Vibhushan. This is the second highest Indian civilian award. Theonly other person in the BJP to be awarded the Padma Vibhushan is Atal Behari Vajpayee.DeathBakht finished his term in Rajya Sabha on April 9, 2002. 9 days later, Bakht was sworn in as Governor ofKerala, succeeding Sukhdev Singh Kang.At the age of 83 years, 237 days, he was the oldest Governor.He was highly popular and served in this post until his death. Bakht died in the Medical CollegeHospital in Keralas capital city Thiruvananthapuram on February 23, 2004, from complications ofintestinal surgery which was performed on February 19.He was the first Governor who died in office.He was replaced two days later by Karnataka governor T. N. Chaturvedi. There is growing concern,particularly among BJP members, that Bakht may have died because of medical negligence, but nothinghas yet been proven. Serving Chief Minister A. K. Antony, at the time of Sikander Bakht death, had togive into popular demand to order an inquiry to examine if there was any lapse on part of Doctors orany other motive.Then President of India, Shri A. P. J. Abdul Kalam said "In his death we have lost a prominent publicpersonality and a statesman." And Prime Minister of India at that time, Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee said"Mr. Bakht was a freedom-fighter. He struggled for democracy and the nationalist cause with courageand conviction. He rendered distinguished service as a member of my Cabinet for sometime.
  • 218. C F AndrewsBorn: February 12, 1871Died: 1940Charles Freer Andrews was an English priest of the Church of England and aChristian missionary and social reformer in India.He was an educator and participant in the campaignfor Indian independence, and became a close friend and associateof Mahatma Gandhi. He was instrumental in convincing Gandhi to returnto India from South Africa, where Gandhi had been a leading light in itsIndian civil rights struggle. C. F. Andrews was affectionately dubbed ChristsFaithful Apostle by Gandhi, based on his initials. For Andrewss contributionsto the Indian Independence Movement Gandhi and his students at St.Stephens College, Delhi named him Deenabandhu, or "Friend of the Poor".Early LifeCharles Freer Andrews was born on 12 February 1871 at 14 Brunel Terrace, Newcastle uponTyne, England. His father was a minister in the Catholic Apostolic Church in Birmingham, but the familyhad suffered from a financial misfortune because of the duplicity of a friend, and had to work hard tomake ends meet. Andrews studied at King Edwards School, Birmingham, and afterwards beganstudying Classics at Pembroke College, Cambridge. During this period he moved away from the views ofhis familys church and was accepted for ordination in the Church of England.In 1896 Andrews became a deacon, and took over the Pembroke College Mission in south London. Ayear later he became a priest, and became Vice-Principal of Westcott HouseTheological College inCambridge.In IndiaAndrews had been involved in the Christian Social Union since college, and was interested in exploringthe relationship between a commitment to the Gospel and a commitment to justice, through which hewas attracted to struggles for justice throughout the British Empire, especially in India.In 1904 he joined the Cambridge Brotherhood in Delhi and arrived there to teach philosophy at St.Stephens College, where he grew close to many of his Indian colleagues and students. Increasinglydismayed by the racist behavior and treatment of Indians by some British officials and civilians, hesupported Indian political aspirations, and wrote a letter in the Civil and Military Gazette in 1906 voicingthese sentiments. Andrews soon became involved in the activities of the Indian National Congress, andhe helped to resolve the 1913 cotton workers strike in Madras.With Gandhi, Tagore and Sree Narayana GuruDeenabandhu
  • 219. Known for his persuasiveness, intellect and moral firmness, he was asked by senior Indian politicalleader Gopal Krishna Gokhale to visit South Africa and help the Indian community there to resolve theirpolitical disputes with the Government. He met there a young Gujarati lawyer, Mohandas Gandhi, whowas attempting to organize the Natal Indian Congress and the Indian community to protest against theracial discrimination and police legislation that infringed their civil liberties. Andrews was deeplyimpressed with Gandhis knowledge of Christian values and his espousal of the concept of ahimsa, non-violence - something that Gandhi mixed with inspiration from elements of Christian anarchism. Hehelped Gandhi organize an Ashram in South Africa in Natal and publish his famous magazine, The IndianOpinion.Following the advice of several Indian Congress leaders and of Principal Susil Kumar Rudra of St.Stephens College, Andrews was instrumental in persuading Gandhi to return to India with him in 1915.In 1918 Andrews disagreed with Gandhis attempts to recruit combatants for World War I, believing thatthis was inconsistent with their views on nonviolence. In Mahatma Gandhis Ideas Andrews wrote aboutGandhis recruitment campaign: "Personally I have never been able to reconcile this with his ownconduct in other respects, and it is one of the points where I have found myself in painfuldisagreement."Later Andrews was elected President of the All India Trade Union in 1925 and 1927. He accompaniedGandhi to the second Round Table Conference in London, helping him negotiate with the Britishgovernment on matters of Indian autonomy and devolution.While working for Indian independence Andrews developed a dialogue between Christians and Hindus.He spent a lot of time at Santiniketan in conversation with the poet and philosopher, RabindranathTagore. He also supported the movement to ban the ‘untouchability of outcastes’. In 1925, he joined thefamous Vaikom Satyagraha, and in 1933 assisted B.R. Ambedkar in formulating Dalit demands.Once C.F. Andrews,along with Rabindranath Tagore, visited Sree Narayana Guru, The supreme SpiritualLeader from Kerala, South India. Then he wrote to Romain Rolland; that "I have seen our Christ walkingon the shore of Arabian sea in the attire of a hindu sanyasin".In FijiWhen news reached India, through the writings of Christian missionaries J.W. Burton, Hannah Dudley,and R. Piper and a returned indentured labourer, Totaram Sanadhya, of the mistreatment of Indianindentured labourers in Fiji, the Indian Government in September 1915 sent Andrews and W.W. Pearsonto make inquiries. The two visited numerous plantations and interviewed indentured labourers,overseers and Government officials and on their return to India also interviewed returned labourers. Intheir "Report on Indentured Labour in Fiji" Andrews and Pearson highlighted the ills of the indenturesystem; which led to a stop of further transportation of Indian labour to the British colonies. In 1917Andrews made a second visit to Fiji, and although he reported some improvements, was still appalled atthe moral degradation of indentured labourers. He called for an immediate end to indenture; and thesystem of Indian indentured labour was formally abolished in 1920.
  • 220. In 1936, while on a visit to Australia and New Zealand, Andrews was invited to and visited Fiji again. Theex-indentured labourers and their descendents wanted him to help them overcome a new type ofslavery, by which they were bound to the Colonial Sugar Refining Company, which controlled allaspects of their lives. Andrews, however, was delighted with the improvements in conditions since hislast visit, and asked Fiji Indians to "remember that Fiji belonged to the Fijians and they were there asguests."Later LifeAbout this time Gandhi reasoned with Andrews that it was probably best for sympathetic Britons likehimself to leave the freedom struggle to Indians. So from 1935 onwards Andrews began to spend moretime in Britain, teaching young people all over the country about Christ’s call to radical discipleship.Gandhis affectionate nickname for Andrews was Christ’s Faithful Apostle, based on the initials of hisname, "C.F.A". He was widely known as Gandhis closest friend and was perhaps the only major figure toaddress Gandhi by his first name, Mohan.Charlie Andrews died on 5 April 1940, during a visit to Calcutta, and is buried there.CommemorationHe is widely commemorated and respected in India. Two undergraduate colleges of the University ofCalcutta, the Dinabandhu Andrews College, and the Dinabandhu Institution commemorate his name.The Dinabandhu Andrews College was constituted with an aim of disseminating higher education to ahuge number of children of the displaced persons from erstwhile East Pakistan, presently Bangladesh.He was a major character, portrayed by British actor Ian Charleson, in the 1982 film, Gandhi, by RichardAttenborough. He is honored with a feast day in the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church in theUnited States of America on February 12.His Publications• The Relation of Christianity to the Conflict between Capital and Labour (1896)• The Renaissance in India: its Missionary Aspect (1912)• Christ and Labour (1923)• What I Owe to Christ (1932)• The Sermon on the Mount (1942)
  • 221. Barindranath GhoseBorn: January 5, 1880Died: April 18, 1959Barindra Ghosh or Barindranath Ghose, or, popularly, Barin Ghosh wasan Indian revolutionary and journalist. He was one of the foundingmembers of Jugantar, a revolutionary outfit in Bengal. Barindra Ghoshwas a younger brother of Aurobindo Ghose (aka Sri Aurobindo).Early LifeBarindra Ghosh was born at Croydon, near London on 5 January 1880.His father, Dr. Krishnadhan Ghosh, was a physician and district surgeon.His mother Swarnalata was the daughter of the Brahmo religious andsocial reformer, scholar Rajnarayan Basu. Revolutionary and aspiritualist in later life, Aurobindo Ghosh was Barindranaths third elder brother. His second elderbrother, Manmohan Ghose, was a scholar of English literature, a poet and professor of Englishat Presidency College, Calcutta and at Dhaka University.Barindranath attended school in Deoghar, and after passing the entrance examination in 1901,joined Patna College. He received military training in Baroda. During this time, (late 19th century – early20th century) Barin was influenced by Aurobindo and drawn towards the revolutionary movement.Revolutionary ActivitiesBarin came back to Kolkata in 1902 and started organizing several revolutionary groups in Bengal withthe help of Jatindranath Mukherjee. In 1906, he started publishing Jugantar, a Bengali weekly and arevolutionary organization named Jugantar soon followed. Jugantar was formed from the inner circleof Anushilan Samiti and it started revolutionary activities.Barin and Bagha Jatin were instrumental in the recruitment of many young revolutionaries from acrossBengal. The revolutionaries formed the Maniktala group in Maniktala, Kolkata. It was a secret placewhere they started manufacturing bombs and collected arms and ammunition.Following the attempted killing of Kingsford by 2 revolutionaries Khudiram and Prafulla on April 30,1908, the police intensified its investigation which led to the arrest of Barin Ghosh on May 2, 1908 alongwith many of his comrades. The trial (known as the Alipore Bomb Case) initially sentenced Barin Ghoshto death. However, the sentence was reduced to life imprisonment, and Barin was deported tothe Cellular Jail in Andaman in 1909 (released in 1920).Release and Other activitiesBarin was released during a general amnesty in 1920 and returned to Kolkata and started a career injournalism. Soon he left journalism and formed an ashram in Kolkata. In 1923, he left
  • 222. for Pondicherry where his elder brother Aurobindo Ghosh had formed the famous Sri AurobindoAshram. He was influenced by Aurobindo towards spirituality and sadhana, but Barin Ghosh was adisciple of Sri Sri Thakur Anukulchandra. Sri Sri Thakur had guided his followers to help secure release ofBarin who was using the code name Golghar (after a monument in Patna) for his revolutionaryactivities. Barin returned to Kolkata in 1929 and again took up journalism. In 1933 he started an Englishweekly, The Dawn of India. He was associated with the newspaper The Statesman, and in 1950, hebecame the editor of the Bengali daily Dainik Basumati. He died on 18 April 1959.WorksThe following are books by Barindra Ghosh:• Dvipantarer Banshi• Pather Ingit• Amar Atmakatha• Agnijug• Rishi Rajnarayan• The Tale of My Exile• Sri Aurobindo
  • 223. Nellie SenguptaBorn: 1886Died: 1973Nellie Sengupta was an Englishwoman who fought for Indian Independenceand was elected President of the Indian National Congress.FamilyBorn Edith Ellen Gray, she was the daughter of Frederick and Edith HenriettaGray. She was born and brought up in Cambridge, where her father workedat a club. As a young girl, she fell in love with Jatindra Mohan Sengupta, ayoung Bengali student at Downing College who lodged at her parental home.Despite parental opposition, she married Jatindra Mohan and returnedto Calcutta with him. Nellie as she was known and Jatin had two sons Sishirand Anil.Non-Cooperation MovementOn returning to India, Nellies husband Jatindra Mohan started a very successful career asa lawyer in Calcutta . However in 1921 he joined the Indian freedom struggle and was MahatmaGandhis right hand man in Bengal apart from being the Mayor of Calcutta for three terms and the headof the Legislative Assembly. Nellie joined her husband in participating in the Non-CooperationMovement of 1921. After his imprisonment during the Assam-Bengal Railwaymens strike, she forcefullyprotested against the District authorities imposition of a ban on assembly, addressed mass meetings andcourted arrest. She defied the law by selling Khadi(hand spun cloth) door to door. In 1931 she sufferedfour months imprisonment at Delhi for addressing an unlawful assembly. Jatin was imprisonedin Ranchi and died in 1936.Congress PresidentDuring the turmoil of the Salt Satyagraha many senior Congress leaders were imprisoned. Pandit MadanMohan Malviya the President elect of the Congress was arrested before the Calcutta Session of 1931.Nellie Sengupta became the third woman, and the second European-born woman to be elected in hisplace.She was also elected as an Alderman to the Calcutta Corporation in 1933 and 1936. She was also electedon a Congress ticket to the Bengal Legislative Assembly in 1940 and 1946. During the Second WorldWar she drew attention to the misbehaviour of foreign troops.Third WomanPresident of the IndianNational Congress
  • 224. Post IndependenceAfter independence, she chose to live in East Pakistan, in her husbands hometown of Chittagong on thespecific request of the then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru who asked her to look after theinterests of the Hindu minority in East Pakistan. She was elected unopposed to the East PakistanLegislative Assembly. She was a member of the Minority Board and remained an active social activist.When Bangladesh came into being in 1971 she continued to live on in Chittagong and was well cared forby the Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rehman. In 1972 she broke her hip and through theintervention of Indira Gandhi she was brought to Calcutta where she was operated on and all medicalexpenses were paid for by the Indian Govt. She was accorded a tremendous welcome in Calcutta andhonoured by both the Govt and the people for her contribution to both the Indian Freedom strugglealong with her husband Deshapriya Jatindra Mohan Sengupta and her work for the minoritiesin Bangladesh. She died in Calcutta in 1973.
  • 225. Jayee RajguruBorn: 29 October 1739Died: 6 December 1806Jayee Rajguru was an Indian freedom fighter. His original name was Jaykrushna Mahapatra. He wasborn on October 29, 1739 near Puri in Orissa to father Shri Chandra Rajguru and mother Smt. HaramaniDebi. He came to be known as Jayee Rajguru after his appointment as `Rajguru` to the king. He grew upto be an outstanding Sanskrit scholar and intellectual of the 18thcentury. Later he fought for hismotherland against the British. Rajguru not only proved to be a great royal priest but also anaccomplished Commander-in- Chief and a freedom fighter.He was the first martyr in the national freedom struggle from Orissa.Early Life of Jayee RajguruJayee Rajguru belonged to a very scholarly family and his forefathers served the king of Khurda as hislegal advisors and spiritual teachers. They were thus bestowed with the title `Rajguru`. Rajguru at a veryearly age became well versed with the Vedas, Indian Puranas and other scriptures.He is credited with writing thousands of shlokas and very soon became a renowned scholarly personamong many pundits. Jayee Rajguru was given the position of a scholar in the royal court of the kingafter the death of his father Chand Rajguru. At this time Orissa was facing severe drought problems.Many small kingdoms fought among themselves. During such confused state the king Dibyasingha Deb-IIleaving behind his young son, Mukund Deb-II as the heir. However, as the king`s son was very young torule Jayee Rajguru shouldered the responsibility of carrying the fairs of the state and managing thethrone in 1798. He carried out well all the administrative duties and also brought about many significantchanges.Later Life of Jayee RajguruDuring his rule the British were ruling the country. They had issued a notice stating that the rulers of allthe smaller kingdoms had to accept their subjugation. Taxes were also levied on them. However, JayeeRajguru rejected the notice. He requested all the residents not to bow down before the British but tofight for the honour of their motherland. He was also successful in gathering the support of the peopleof the neighbouring kingdoms. He gathered all the people together and carefully planned a defencestrategy against the British.His zeal and vigour drew the attention of many people and many people began coming forward for help.With time it almost became a mass movement with every household contributing a solider called Paika.These were well trained in different war skills.Under the leadership of Jayee Rajguru the group of men were properly trained. Rajguru not only provedto be a great scholar and visionary but also an immensely talented soldier. He was a wise strategist whowas well versed with all the knowledge of weaponry.
  • 226. His warfare skills were outstanding and he was probably the first to have employed the guerrilla warfaretechnique against the British.He was well aware about the superior quality of weaponry of the British and drawbacks of theconventional weapons of his army men. Thus he supported the development of firearms in villages. On1804 he along with his troops attacked the British force on the banks of Mahanadi River. They all foughtvery bravely that resulted in a serious set back for the British. The British soldiers thus arranged manyother soldiers from Chennai to reinforce its troop. On December 1804 the final `Battle of Barunei` tookplace on the foothills of Barunei.In the battle the Paikas with their war skills and valour defeated the 7000 strong British army. The Britishofficials finally resorted to Divide and Rule policy. They offered a few of the locals, large tax free landholding. In return they asked for information on Jayee Rajguru and also about his battle plan. JayeeRajguru was thus captured and arrested. He moved the King to a safe hideout and himself surrenderedto the British. After his arrest the British officials took Rajguru to Medinipur. After a prolonged period oftrial session he was given capital punishment for going against the state and the British officials. JayeeRajguru fearlessly accepted the punishment as he thought that fighting for one`s freedom and for thehonour of the motherland was not a crime. He was killed in a very brutal manner On December 6, 1806.His legs were tied to two different branches of a banyan tree and the branches were let off splitting hisbody in to two parts. This led to the end of the patriotism and courage of Jayee Rajguru.
  • 227. Ammu SwaminadhanAmmu Swaminadhan (1894–1978) was an Indian social worker and a prominent political activist duringthe Indian independence movement. After independence, she served as a member of the ConstituentAssembly of India and later, as a member of the Rajya Sabhafrom Madras State. She was the matriarchof a family that includes people of such diverse fame as Captain Lakshmi, Mrinalini Sarabhai, MallikaSarabhai and Subhashini Ali.Ammu Swaminadhan was born to Govinda Menon in Palghat district of Kerala. She was the youngestchild of her parents. At 13, she married Dr. Subbarama Swaminadhan, a distinguished barrister ofMadras. Subbarama studied at Edinburgh and LondonUniversities before obtaining a doctorate in lawfrom the prestigious Harvard University. Ammus life transformed after her marriage to Dr.Swaminadhan who was more than 20 years her senior. She had four children, twodaughters Lakshmi and Mrinalini, and two sons, Govinda and Subbarama.She took active part in Indias struggle for independence and became a close disciple (though notuncritical) of Mahatma Gandhi. She was elected a Member of Parliament in 1952 and was associatedwith many cultural and social organizations. She went to Ethiopia, China, USA and USSR as a goodwillambassador.She served as President of the Bharat Scouts and Guides from November 1960 to March 1965.She was also selected as Mother of The Year in 1975 on the inauguration of International WomensYear.
  • 228. Basanti DeviBasanti Devi was the first Indian woman to be arrested during thenoncooperation movement for selling khadi. She received affection andblessings from leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Motilal Nehru and SarojiniNaidu. Basanti Devi was a mother figure for the youths devoted to the causeof the nation.Subhash Chandra Bose addressed her as `Ma` (mother). Basanti Debipresided over the state-level Congress Conference at Chittagong. Hereloquent speech enables one to get a glimpse of her integrated personality.She called upon the people of Bengal to make politics an integral part oftheir life. She believed that human excellence in its totality only couldenable one to get near the truth.Basanti Devi was born on 1880. She was the daughter of Baroda Nath Halder, a rich and well-knownperson. She was married to Chittranjan, a lawyer , when he was struggling for for his debts to be repaid.She loved her husband whole-heartedly without any complaint.Basanti Devi carried on the work of Chittaranjan with utmost potential when he was arrested for hisleadership of non-cooperation movement. She edited the journal brought out by him. She showedextreme valor and boldness in publishing the famous revolutionary poem of Kazi Nazrul Islam andreceived appreciation of the youths. She lost her husband at a very young age, after which she retiredfrom politics. She founded the Chittaranjan SevaSadan for the welfare of the needy mothers at the siteof their historic house on Russa Road.Tragedy again overtook her with the death of only son, a year after her husband`s death. Basanti Deviremained firm for she had to look after her son`s wife along with his three daughters. Subash ChandraBose repeatedly en-treated her to join politics to manage the disorganization in the political scenariobut she refused to enter active politics. However she worked among the people East Bengal as a part ofthe `Harijan` movement headed by Mahatma Gandhi.Though death has claimed her, Basanti Devi will forever remain in the hearts of all Indians.
  • 229. Jethinben Tulsidas SiphilmalaniJethinben Tulsidas Siphilmalani was a veteran freedom fighter, a devoted social worker, an enlightenedleader, and an able legislator. Jethinben Tulsidas Siphilmalani was a woman of innate humility andsobriety. She was of the view that religion meant, "Serving the lowliest". Jethinben Tulsidas Siphilmalaniwas one of the distinguished colleagues in the freedom-struggle and she took to khadi at a very earlyage and stuck to it till the end. She dedicated her life for the poor and the destitutes. Her heart bled forthe displaced persons who had no roof over their heads. Jethiben was a cosmopolitan in her outlook andwas strongly opposed to linguism, parochialism and regionalism. She was under the influence of BrahmoSamaj, and actively advocated inter religious dialogue and friendship.Jethinben Tulsidas Siphilmalani was born on February 6, 1906 in Hyderabad (Sindh). She was educatedat the Kundamal Girl`s High School at Hyderabad and thereafter at the Indian Girl`s High School atKarachi.She passed her Matriculation examination in 1925. At college she came in contact with Gandhiji andother important national leaders, including Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Acharya Kripalani,Jairamdas Daulat Ram, Acharya Givdani, and Annie Besant. She even led a student procession againstthe Simon Commission. She courted imprisonment during the Salt Satyagraha in 1930. She also activelyparticipated in the 1942 Quit-India movement and was imprisoned.Jethinben Tulsidas Siphilmalani was attracted by Gandhiji`s teachings advising women to oppose evilcustoms like child-marriage and dowry. She rejected offers of marriage and preferred to lead a life ofservice to the nation instead of living under the protection of a husband who can`t accept her without adowry. She sarcastically commented that she did not want to buy a husband.Jethinben Tulsidas Siphilmalani was an active member in politics. She was elected to the KarachiMunicipal Corporation at the early age of 24. Later, she became the member of the Municipal SchoolBoard. When Sindh was separated from the Bombay Presidency and a separate Legislative Assembly wasformed for Sindh, Jethiben was elected to the Assembly and she became its Deputy Speaker.After the partition of the country in 1947, she became the Deputy Speaker of the Bombay LegislativeCouncil and, afterwards, in Maharashtra. She earned the goodwill of her colleagues belonging todifferent political parties.Jethinben Tulsidas Siphilmalani founded the Navjivan Housing Cooperative Society to give solace andcomfort to the destitutes and the poor. This was a unique contribution of Jethiben to the cause of therehabilitation of displaced persons. The Navjivan Society established a Happy home for handicappedchildren in Kutch.Jethinben Tulsidas Siphilmalani considered education as an instrument means of social transformation.She emphasized the need for technical education and helped people to start technical schools and gavescholarships to students, specially in engineering, medical and commerce faculties, especially to womenstudents.She was interested in women`s welfare and their empowerment. Jethiben wanted girls to
  • 230. become self-dependent and provided a Hostel for working women, at Gandhigram. Deprived patients inhospitals were provided with medicines, nourishing diet and financial help. Thus, the Navjivan Societycatered to promote all-round development of the needy and the neglected sections of the society.Jethinben Tulsidas Siphilmalani travelled world wide to carry out her mission. She attended theInternational Students Conference in Holland. She participated in the Commonwealth ParliamentaryAssociation in England, as an Indian Delegate. Jethinben Tulsidas Siphilmalani also visited Japan. Thus,Jethiben left behind her a rich legacy of dedicated social and political work. Her statue was installed atMahim to commemorate her innumerable work for humanity. She was laid to rest on 1978. She willforever remain in the heart of all Indians.
  • 231. Dr. Muthulakshmi ReddiBorn: July 30, 1886, Princely stateDied: July 22, 1968, ChennaiDr. Muthulakshmi Reddi was an eminent medical practitioner, social reformerand Padma Bhushan awardee in India.She was the first women legislator in India.Muthulakshmi Reddy, was appointed to the Madras Legislative Council in 1927.For her, this nomination marked the beginning of her lifelong effort to "correctthe balance" for women by removing social abuses and working for equality inmoral standards. She was one of the women pioneers who stood for the causeof liberating India from the British. She was a women activist and a socialreformer too.Muthulakshmi had many firsts to her recognition:• She was the first girl student to be admitted into a Mens College,• the first woman House Surgeon in the Government Maternity and Ophthalmic Hospital,• the first woman legislator in British India,• the first Chairperson of the State Social Welfare Advisory Board,• the first woman Deputy President of the Legislative Council and• The first Alderwoman of the Madras Corporation.Early LifeMuthulakshmi Reddi was born in the princely state of Pudukottai of Tamil Nadu. In spite of variousconstraints faced by girls in India of her time, she could complete her higher education, and wasadmitted into medical profession. In 1907, she joined the Madras Medical College, where she achieved abrilliant academic record. With several gold medals and prizes to her credit, Muthulakshmi graduated in1912 to become one of the first woman doctors in India. Soon thereafter, she came under the influenceof Annie Besant, and then ofMahatma Gandhi.Her father was S. Narayanasami of Iyer community, and the principal of Maharajas College. Her motherwas Chandrammal, born to theIsai Vellalar community. S. Narayanasami broke with tradition and sentMuthulakshmi to school. The childs enthusiasm for learning was so great that Muthulakshmis teachersdecided to instruct her in subjects beyond those approved by her father. At the onset of puberty shewas obliged to leave school, but tutoring continued at home. Chandrammal wanted to search for abridegroom but Muthulakshmi had different aspirations. She expressed a need to be a different womanThe first womenlegislator in India
  • 232. from the common lot. She pitied women for their subordination to men and inwardly rebelled whenevershe heard people say that only boys needed education.When Muthulakshmi passed the matriculation exam she applied for admission to Maharajas College buther application was not welcomed by the principal at the time or the parents of other students. Hergender was a factor and so was her background. The principal thought she might "demoralize" the malestudents. The somewhat enlightened Maharaja of Pudukottai ignored these objections, admitted her tothe college, and gave her a scholarship. Her father suggested she become a school teacher but she hadhigher aspirations. She entered Madras Medical College, completed her studies in 1912, and becamehouse surgeon in the Government Hospital for Women and Children in Chennai. She later married Dr.Sundara Reddy on the demand that he promised to "always respect me as an equal and never cross mywishes." In 1914, when she was twenty-eight years of age, they married in accordance with the 1872Native Marriage Act.She is the aunt of famous Tamil actor Gemini Ganesan and she was quoted as an inspiration by Geminiearly in his life.Influences on Muthulakshmi ReddyDuring her college years, Muthulakshmi met Sarojini Naidu and began to attend womens meetings. Shefound women who shared her personal concerns and addressed them in terms of womens rights. Thetwo great personalities who influenced her life were Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Annie Besant. Theypersuaded her to devote herself for the upliftment of women and children. She worked for womensemancipation at a time when women were confined in the four walls of their room.Reform works of MuthulakshmiMuthulakshmi went to England for higher studies and she gave up her rewarding practice in medicine inresponse to a request from the Womens Indian Association (WTA) to enter the Madras LegislativeCouncil. She was elected unanimously as its Deputy President. She led the agitation for municipal andlegislative franchise for women. She was concerned about the orphans, especially girls. She arranged forthem free boarding and lodging and started the Avvai Home in Chennai.Muthulakshmi was the author of numerous social reforms. Her book `My Experience as a Legislator`records all her services in the Legislature. She passed a resolution to establish a special hospital forwomen and children. The then Government accepted her suggestion and opened a childrens section inthe maternity hospital. She recommended systematic medical inspection of students in all schools andcolleges, run by municipalities as well as other local bodies. Kasturba Hospital at Triplicane is amonument to her efforts.Muthulakshmi Reddy was the President of the All-India Womens Conference. She passed the Bill for thesuppression of brothels and immoral trafficking in women and children. A home for rescued girls andwomen were opened through her efforts to provide shelter to women and girls rescued from brothels.Due to her efforts a hostel for Muslim girls was opened and scholarships were given for Harijan girls. Sherecommended to the Government that the minimum age for marriage be raised to at least 21 for boysand 16 for girls.
  • 233. Muthulakshmi also started the Cancer Relief fund. This has now developed into an all-India institutioncombining therapy and research on cancer and attracting patients from all over India. She became thefirst Chairperson of the State Social Welfare Board. Her work on the Hartog Education Committee, whichincorporated a study of educational progress in India, is a great achievement. As a member of theHartog Committee she travelled extensively and studied the progress of womens education throughoutthe country. She was the only woman member of the committee and brought about manyimprovements. She was also the editor of Roshini, an important journal of AIWC.Muthulakshmi Reddy continued to fight for her cause till the end of her days and never let anythingcome in her way. Even at the age of 80, she was energetic and vibrant. Her human preoccupations tookher away from politics and she stuck to her mission and Gandhian ways. She was awarded the PadmaBhushan by the President of India in 1956. Her two outstanding monumental gifts for humanity remainthe Avvai Home (for children) and the Cancer Institute.Political CareerShe was nominated to the Madras Legislature as a member of legislative council in 1926, and becamethe first woman to be a member of any legislature in India. When she was elected as the DeputyChairperson of the legislative council, she became the first woman in the world to become the Vice-President of a Legislature.She was the prime mover behind the legislation that abolished the devadasi system in 1929 and played akeen role in rising the minimum marriage age for women in India. In 1930, she resigned from theMadras Legislature as a protest following the imprisonment of Mahatma Gandhi. Under the influence ofGandhi and Periyar E.V.Ramasamy, she argued for the removal of devadasi system that was widelyprevalent in Tamil Nadu at that time against stiff resistance from the Congress lobby led bySathyamoorthy Aiyar. She was the founder-president of the Women’s Indian Association (WIA) andbecame the first alderwoman of the Madras Corporation.Dr Reddy was actively involved with several orphanage homes and women’s welfare organisations, andinitiated measures to improve the medical facilities given to slum dwellers. In 1930, she founded AvvaiHome, a home for destitute women and orphans at Besant Avenue, Adyar. As an MLC, she introduced ascheme of free education for girls up to class eight.Adyar Cancer InstituteDuring her address at the Centenary celebration of the Madras Medical College in 1935, DrMuthulakshmi Reddy first expressed her desire to start a hospital for cancer patients. With theoverwhelming support of like-minded people, the foundation stone for Adyar Cancer Institute was laidby Jawaharlal Nehru in 1952. The hospital which started functioning on June 18, 1954, was only thesecond of its kind in India and the first in south India. It is today a world-renowned institution offeringtreatment to nearly 80,000 cancer patients every year.Awards and BooksHer book named My Experience as a Legislator recounts her initiates in respect of social reforms takenby her in the Madras Legislature.
  • 234. Government of India conferred on her Padma Bhushan in 1956 in recognition of her meritorious servicesto the nation.
  • 235. Syed Ata Ullah Shah BukhariBorn: September 23, 1892, PatnaDied: August 21, 1961, MultanSyed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, also known by his pseudonym Shah Jee,was an Indianpolitician, independence activist, Muslim scholar andreligious leader of the former undivided India under the rule of theBritish Empire in India.He was one of the founders and leaders of the Majlis E Ahrar Ul Islam.He was also a founder of Majlis E Ahrar Ul Islam, also known as Majlis EAhrar E Islam or simply as Ahrar, was an Indian conservative SunniMuslim political party that existed during the rule of the British Empirein India. The party played a significant role in the Indian politicalscenario before to the Partition of India. He evoked substantial antiBritish feelings amongst the Indian Muslims.Early Life of Syed Ata Ullah Shah BukhariSyed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari was born on 23 September 1892 in Patna, British India. He initially receivedreligious education from Gujarat and was taught the Holy Quran from his father Hafiz Syed Ziauddin.When he was 22 years old, Bukhari went to Amritsar in the year 1914. After the completion of hiseducation, he remained associated with the Deoband School in the district of Saharanpur.Career of Syed Ata Ullah Shah BukhariSyed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari started his career as a religious preacher in a minor mosque in Amritsar,Punjab and taught the sacred Quran. He began his political career in the year 1916. He was considerablyinfluenced by the massacre at Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, which had escalated mutinous feelings withinhim. Bukhari delivered an inspiring speech at the Khilafat Conference which was held in December 1919at Amritsar. As the initial step of his political career, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari actively participated inthe activities of the Indian National Congress Party at Calcutta (now Kolkata) in the year 1921. There alsohe delivered a motivating speech. Within a short period of time, Ata Ullah Shah gained much popularityamongst Indian revolutionaries and became a well known and eminent political leader. He was arrestedon 27 March 1921 because of his anti British speeches.Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari believed in acquiring national independence through the non violent andconstitutional means. He toured the nation as an emissary of Mahatma Gandhi (MohandasKaramchand Gandhi) as an active member of the Indian National Congress Party. Later he establishedthe Majlis E Ahrar Ul Islam, also known as Majlis E Ahrar E Islam or the Ahrar Party, along with Maulana
  • 236. Zafar Ali Khan, Maulana Mazhar Ali Azhar, Maulana Habib Ur Rehman Ludhianvi, Master Taj Uj DinAnsari, Chaudhry Afzal Haq and Sheikh Hissam Ud Din in 29th December 1929.As Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari played a significant role in the Indian freedom struggle, he was chosen asthe Ameer E Shariat by the chief religious figures in the year 1930. He was also the founding father ofMajlis E Ahrar Ul Islam, which was an Indian nationalist Muslim political movement.Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari died on 21 August 1961 at the age of 69 in Multan, Pakistan.
  • 237. Ram Prasad BismilBorn: 1897 Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaDied: December 18, 1927Ram Prasad Bismil, also known as Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil became oneof the most popular revolutionaries of India after participating in theKakori train robbery in Lucknow. He was one of the most importantmembers of the Arya Samaj and the Hindustan Republican Association inBritish India. Ram Prasad Bismil was always known for his courage andfearlessness in carrying out dangerous activities against the colonialrulers in India. Ram Prasad Bismils name is also associated with a coupleof patriotic poems written before Indias independence, poems whichinspired the Indians to come out and participate in the struggles forfreedom. Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna, one of the most heard poems in the Hindi language is said to havebeen immortalized by Ram Prasad Bismil.Bhagat Singh praised him as a great poet-writer of Urdu and Hindi, who had also translated thebooks Catherine from English and Bolshevikon Ki Kartoot from Bengali.ChildhoodRam Prasad Bismil was born in the year 1897 at Shahjahanpur in Uttar Pradesh. His forefathers wereresidents of the British dominated state of Gwalior. Ram Prasad Bismils father was an employee of themunicipality board of Shahjahanpur. His earnings were, however, not sufficient to run the expenses ofthe basic requirements of his two sons, Ram Prasad Bismil and his elder brother. As such, due to scarcityof adequate funds, Ram Prasad Bismil had to leave his studies after the eighth standard. However, hisknowledge of the Hindi language was profound and this helped him to continue with his passion ofwriting poetry.Life as a RevolutionaryLike several youth of his generation, Ram Prasad Bismil was also moved by the hardships and torturethat the common Indians had to face in the hands of the British. Therefore he decided to dedicate hislife to the freedom struggle of the country at a very young age. With his education complete by theeighth standard, Ram Prasad Bismil became a member of the Hindustan Republican Association when hewas a very young boy. It was through this revolutionary organization that Ram Prasad Bismil cameacross other freedom fighters like Chandrashekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Ashfaqulla Khan,Rajguru, Govind Prasad, Premkishan Khanna, Bhagawati Charan, Thakur Roshan Singh and Rai RamNarain.Bismil formed a revolutionary organization called Matrivedi (Altar of Motherland)
  • 238. On 28 January 1918, Bismil published a pamphlet titled Deshvasiyon Ke Nam Sandesh (A Message toCountrymen), which he distributed along with his poem Mainpuri Ki Pratigya (Vow of Mainpuri).Soon after, Ram Prasad Bismil joined hands with nine revolutionists also working for the HindustanRepublican Association and carried out the looting of government treasury through the Kakori trainrobbery. The Kakori Conspiracy of August 9, 1925, as the incident popularly came to be known as, wasthe mastermind of Ram Prasad Bismil and his colleague Ashfaqullah Khan. The nine revolutionarieslooted the train transporting government money close to Lucknow, to use the same for purchasingweapons for Indias armed struggle. This incident created a furor among different sections of authoritiesin the British government and therefore, the revolutionaries were punished. The names of Ram PrasadBismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Rajendra Lahiri and Roshan Singh were identified in the Kakori train robberyand all of them were sentenced to death.As a LitterateurRam Prasad Bismil wrote a number of Hindi poems, most of them patriotic. His love for his country Indiaand his revolutionary spirit that always wanted the freedom of India from the colonial rulers even at thecost of his own life were his chief inspirations while penning patriotic poems. The poem Sarfaroshi KiTamanna is the most well known poem attributed to Ram Prasad Bismil, though many are of theopinion that the poem was originally written by Bismil Azimabadi. Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil penned hisautobiography while he was in prison after the indictment in the Kakori train robbery incident.DeathAfter being named guilty in the Kakori Conspiracy, the British government ruled that Ram Prasad Bismilwill be hanged until death. He was kept behind bars at Gorakhpur and then hanged to death onDecember 19, 1927 at a very young age of 30. His death robbed the country of one of the chiefrevolutionaries of the Indian freedom struggle. Bismils body was taken to the Rapti River for a Hinducremation, and the site became known as Rajghat.Film Adaptations on the RevolutionaryFreedom fighter Ram Prasad Bismils life was the subject of a number of films made in the Indian filmindustry. The most popular among them are The Legend of Bhagat Singh, released in 2002, where RamPrasad Bismil is shown as the character who is responsible for inspiring Bhagat Singh to adopt the pathof struggle in Indias freedom. Ram Prasad Bismil was played by Ganesh Yadav in The Legend of BhagatSingh. 2006 Bollywood production Rang De Basanti projects Ram Prasad Bismil as on of the chiefcharacters of the film, depicted onscreen by actor Atul Kulkarni.Timeline1897: Ram Prasad Bismil is born.1925: Executes the Kakori train robbery incident on August 9.1927: Hanged to death after being held guilty in the robbery case on December 19.
  • 239. 2002: Depicted as one of the characters in Bollywood film The Legend of Bhagat Singh.2006: Depicted as one of the characters in Bollywood film Rang De Basanti.
  • 240. Rash Behari BoseBorn: May 25, 1886 Subaldaha Village of Burdwan District, West BengalDied: January 21, 1945He was one of the key organizers of the plan to assassinate Lord CharlesHardinge. He played a crucial role in the Ghadar conspiracy, a conspiracy toattack British army from the inside. Both times he managed to escape theauthorities, owing to his camouflaging skills. He was the master of disguise.He fled to Japan under fake identity and changed his residence seventeentimes. He was the founding father of Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauz)that Subhash Chandra Bose capitalized on later. He received second gradeOrder of the Rising Sun from the Japanese Government. He was Rash BehariBose, a revolutionary leader born in a small village of West Bengal.Early LifeRash Behari Bose was born on 25th May 1886 in the Subaldaha Village of Burdwan District, West Bengalof British India. At the age of three, his mother passed away in 1889 and he was thus, brought up by hismaternal aunt Vama Sundari. His early education was under his grandfather, Kalicharan, in the village ofSubaldaha itself. For further education he joined Dupleix College at Chandannagar, which was under theFrench rule. As a result, both British and French culture and sensibilities had their play in shaping RashBeharis future. It was his teacher in the college, Charu Chand, a man possessed with some radicalnotions that inspired Rash Behari to think along the lines of revolutionism. Consistently shifting throughdifferent jobs as a copy holder in press, guardian tutor, and as a clerk didnt allow his college educationto be completed. However, education was never his forte; it was the revolutionary thinking towardswhich he was more interested.Revolutionary ActivitiesIt was during the partition of Bengal (1905) that Rash Behari got involved in the revolutionary activities.Rash Behari Bose, along with Aurobindo Ghosh and Jatin Banerjee, led the public outburst against theBritish but had to flee from Bengal following an act gone wrong. The incident went on to be known asthe Alipore Bomb case. In 1912, a plan was made to take down the Governor General and a Viceroy toIndia, Lord Charles Hardinge, in Delhi. On December 23rd 1912, when the possession of Lord Hardingereached Chandni Chowk (Delhi), a bomb aimed at Hardinge ended up killing a man to his right and 20other spectators. Basanta Kumar Bisbas, who threw the bomb disguised as a lady was arrested andhanged in Ambala jail. But Rash Behari, one of the conspirators, managed to avoid arrest owing to cleverdisguise. He was also one of the leading figures involved in the Ghadar Conspiracy, a plan by whichIndian sepoy would infiltrate the British army and attack from the inside; loot the treasure and free theprisoners, all at the same time. However this plan could not transform into action following a spy who
  • 241. managed to pass the information to the police. Many of the suspects were arrested but Rash Beharimanaged to escape yet again.Indian National ArmyIt was on 12th May 1915 that Rash Behari left Calcutta and went to Japan. From 1915-1918, he changedhis residence seventeen times and lived like a fugitive. In 1918, he married Tosiko, daughter of Pan-Asian supporters Soma Aizo and Soma Kotsuko, who were supportive of Rash Beharis efforts andbecame a Japanese citizen in 1923. Rash Behari and Tosiko had a son, Masahide, and a daughter,Tetaku. It was his relation with the Japanese that helped him in persuading the authorities to stand byIndian Nationalists and actively support Indias freedom struggle from abroad. Following a conferenceheld in Tokyo on 28th March 1942, it was decided to establish the Indian Independence League. After afew days it was decided to make Subhash Chandra Bose as its president. The Indian prisoners that werecaptured by the Japanese in Malaya and Burma were encouraged to join the Indian IndependenceLeague and the Indian National Army. It was the efforts of Rash Behari, along with Captain Mohan Singhand Sardar Pritam Singh, due to which Indian National Army came into existence on September 1, 1942.It was also known as Azad Hind Fauz.DeathIt was on 21st January 1945 that Rash Bihari Bose got killed in Tokyo before the end of World War II.HonorHe was honored with Order of the Rising Sun (2nd Grade) by the Japanese government.Timeline1886: Rash Behari Bose was born on 25th May.1912: Masterminded the plan to assassinate Lord Charles Hardinge, the Viceroy to India.1915: He, along with Sachin Sanyal and other Ghadarites, planned to organize a coordinated effortagainst the British forces. He also left Calcutta and went to Japan.1918: Got married to Tosiko, daughter of Pan-Asian supporters Soma Aizo and Soma Kotsuko.1923: Became a Japanese citizen.1942: Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauz) was formed following the efforts of Rash Behari, along withCaptain Mohan Singh.1945: Rash Behari Bose died on January 21.
  • 242. S. SatyamurtiBorn: August 19, 1887 Thirumayam, Madras Presidency, BritishIndiaDied: March 28, 1943It takes uncommon and almost superhuman efforts to stand andoppose what the major portion of the population is followingwhole heartedly. Satyamurti was a patriot and an Indian politician.It was the high level of courage and an article of faith that S.Satyamurti had in his repertoire that made itself evident when heopposed the Gandhian sensibilities in the 1920s for notparticipating in the legislature. It was his ability to not withdrawfrom the situation at hand but to face it with a hearty dedicationthat escorted him to the safe shores; early, when his father diedand the responsibility of taking care of the family was on him, andon many other other occasions afterwards: for the society and the nation. "He was a born freedom-fighter, a leadmine fighter as the Scots say to whom the fight was the thing." - The Hindu.Early LifeS. Satyamurti was born on 19th August 1887 in Thirumayam, Madras Presidency, British India in anorthodox Brahmin family. His father, Surendur Sastriar was a scholar and a pleader by profession.Satyamurti was one of the nine children and was the eldest among his brothers. When his father passedaway, the responsibility of taking care of his mother and siblings fell on him. He completed hisintermediate from Puddukottah Maharajas College and then joined Madras Christian College in 1906for his B.A. in History. Bright and diligent student that he was, he continued in the same college but thistime as a tutor. He further pursued his education in law by joining the Madras Law College. Prior to hisparticipation in the national movement, he had the honor of practicing law under Mr. V.V SreenivasaIyengar and later with the former President of the Indian National Congress, Shri S. Sreenivasa Iyengar.Political CareerThough Satyamurti had plunged into politics early after he had won college elections, officially, hispolitical career started in 1919 when he was made the secretary of the Congress delegation that went tothe Joint Parliamentary Committee in UK to protest the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms and the RowlattAct. In 1926, he was again sent to UK to present the Indian point of view to the British public. While hewas there, he was also the London correspondent of The Hindu newspaper. Just as with many otherpatriots and freedom fighters, Satyamurti wasnt left behind from landing behind the bars on severaloccasions. It was in 1930 that he was arrested for lifting the Indian flag on top of the ParthasarathyTemple in Madras. Along with C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru, he was one of the leading Swarajists who laid
  • 243. the foundation stone for the parliamentary democracy in India. In 1937, it was result of Satyamurtispersistent efforts that congress romped home in elections to the Madras Legislative Assembly.In 1939, Satyamurti was appointed as the Mayor of Madras and it was during his tenure that hesucceeded in convincing the British government to accept Madras Corporations proposal forconstruction of reservoir in Poondi (50 km west of the city) to increase the water supply position in lightof an acute water shortage and World War II. It was the unceasing efforts of Satyamurti and his refinedadministrative abilities that the proposal was accepted and the foundation stone was laid in a matter ofeight months. This Poondi Reservoir Scheme is now called the Satyamurti Sagar. He was also activelyinvolved in the Swadeshi Movement and in 1940 that he was arrested and imprisoned again for a periodof eight months following his participation in the Individual Satyagraha. On his way back to Madras fromthe Congress Committee Meeting in Bombay, he was arrested yet again before he could reach back. Thiswas in 1942 during the times of Quit India Movement.As a MentorSatyamurti, during his lifetime, was the mentor of Kumaraswami Kamaraj, who was the Chief Minister ofthe state of Tamil Nadu between 1954 and 1963. He found Kamaraj "an efficient, loyal, indefatigableworker and skillful organizer". The two of them grew fond of each other with each passing day and theirbond became stronger and tougher. Also, they complemented each others skills. In 1936, whenSatyamurti was elected President of the Provincial Congress Committee, he appointed Kamaraj as theGeneral Secretary. Four years later they swapped positions. Such was their passion that the party basewas strengthened with their relentless effort. Kamarajs devotion towards his mentor was such thatwhen India gained independence, he first went to Satyamurtis house and hoisted the Indian flag there.On his election as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, Kamaraj went to Satyamurtis house and garlanded hisphoto and paid his respects to the leaders widow. Additionally, he got the headquarters of the TamilNadu Congress Committee named after Satyamurti as Satyamurti Bhavan in recognition of the tirelesswork done by the latter for the Tamil Nadu Congress and for Indias independence. Also, Kamaraj got thethe Poondi reservoir named after Satyamurti as Satyamurti Sagar.DeathFollowing a spinal cord injury that he got from the privations in the Amravathi jail in Nagpur, Satyamurtidied on 28th March 1943, in Madras General Hospital.HonorsThe Hindu newspaper dedicated a whole column to S. Satyamurti under the title of "Tribune of thepeople".His fearless and unrelenting efforts had earned him a title of "Dheerar".His efforts in making the Britishers accept the proposal to build a reservoir gave him the honor of thereservoir being named after him - Satyamurti Sagar.Headquarters of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee was named Satyamurti Bhawan in his honor.
  • 244. Timeline1887: S. Satyamurti was born.1906: Joined the Madras Christian College to pursue his graduation in B.A.1919: Was made the secretary of the congress delegation that was sent to UK to protest the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms.1926: Was again sent to UK present the Indian point of view to Britishers.1930: Was arrested for hoisting the Indian Flag on top of Parthasarathy Temple in Madras.1939: Was appointed the Mayor of Madras.1940: Was arrested and detained again for a period of eight months following his participation in theindividual Satyagraha.1942: Was imprisoned when coming back to Madras from Congress Working Committee meeting inBombay.1943: S. Satyamurti died at the age of 55.
  • 245. Shyamji Krishna VarmaBorn: October 4, 1857 Mandvi, Kutch, IndiaDied: March 30, 1930Shyamji Krishna Varma, also known as Shyamji Krishna Nakhua, wasone of the greatest revolutionaries that the Indian independencemovement witnessed. A lawyer and a journalist professionally,Shyamji Krishna Varma was also an expert in the Sanskrit language. Infact, he had a deep knowledge about several other languages spokenin India. However, it is his revolutionary spirit that Shyamji KrishnaVarma is best remembered for. He laid the foundation of the IndianHome Rule Society and the India House which worked towardsinspiring youngsters in Britain to take up revolutionary activitiesagainst their own representatives in India. Having completed hisgraduation from the Balliol College under the University of Oxford inEngland, Shyamji Krishna Varma escaped to England when differences arose between him and theBritish rulers in India. Dayanand Saraswati and Herbert Spencer were his chief inspirations on the pathto revolution.Early YearsShyamji Krishna Varma was born on October 4, 1857 in the city of Mandvi, located in the Kutch provinceof Gujarat. He was born as Shyamji Krishna Nakhua, a surname that was used for his community duringthe old days. Shyamji Krishnas parents passed away when he was just 11 years old, leaving him in thecare of his grandmother. Shyamji Krishna Varma was a student at a local school in the Bhuj district ofGujarat. He later shifted to Mumbai to complete his education after studying the elementary years in hishome state. It was in Mumbai that Shyamji Krishna Varma developed a love for Sanskrit and other Indianlanguages. In the year 1875, Shyamji Krishna Varma married Bhanumati, a girl hailing from a richbusiness family of Gujarat and also the sister of one of his school friends.The very next year, in 1876, Shyamji Krishna Varma was deeply moved by the reformist teachings of theguru of the Vedas, Swami Dayananda Saraswati and from the very same year adopted his principles andteachings to nurture his own nationalistic dreams for the country. The year 1877 saw Shyamji KrishnaVarma give a public speech on Vedic philosophy and religion on the lines of his guru Swami DayanandaSaraswati. He came to be regarded as such a wonderful orator that the Pandits of Kashi bestowed uponhim the title of Pandit in 1877. His deep knowledge of the Sanskrit language caught the attention ofMonier Williams, a professor of the subject in Oxford University. Williams offered Shyamji KrishnaVarma the post of his assistant in Oxford and this marked Shyamji Krishnas first trip abroad.
  • 246. Education in OxfordShyamji Krishna Varma landed in England on April 25, 1879 and immediately enrolled in the BalliolCollege under the University of Oxford, following the suggestion of professor Monier Williams. ShyamjiKrishna Varma also became the Indian representative at the Berlin Congress of Orientalists after hisarrival in Britain in the year 1881. After completing his graduation in the year 1883, Shyamji KrishnaVarma delivered a lecture on the origin of writing in India in front of a large audience in the RoyalAsiatic Society of England. Everyone in the gathering was so impressed with Shyamji Krishna Varmasspeech that he became a non-resident member of the Royal Asiatic Society.Return to IndiaShyamji Krishna Varma returned to India in the year 1885 and started professional legal practice in thecountry. He was elected the Diwan (modern day Chief Minister) of Ratlam in Madhya Pradesh, a postwhich he had to quit following a deteriorating health condition. Shyamji Krishna Varma then shiftedbase to the city of Mumbai, but left the place to move to Ajmer in Rajasthan, where he started hispractice as a lawyer in the British Court of Ajmer. Shyamji Krishna Varma invested part of his earningsfrom his term as Diwan of Ratlam in cotton presses of Ajmer and received returns, which would ensure amonetarily sound future for the lawyer. Shyamji Krishna Varma later served as a council member to theMaharaja of Udaipur and was also the Diwan of Junagadh in the period between 1893 and 1897.However, an argument with a British agent forced him to resign from his administrative post, followingwhich he actively participated in the freedom struggle of India. Apart from Swami Dayananda Saraswatiand Herbert Spencer, Shyamji Krishna Varma was also impressed with the works of Lokmanya Tilak.Therefore, he provided Tilak all the support that he could when the former was involved with the Age ofConsent Bill controversy. Shyamji Krishna Varma was against the moderate policies adopted by theCongress in India and it is for this reason that he considered it best to move out from India and settle inBritain in the year 1897 to realize his plans to achieve Indias independence.Return to EnglandShyamji Krishna Varma settled in London after his return to England in 1897. Herbert Spencers writingswere his chief inspiration during these days. Shyamji Krishnas house in London became a frequenthaunt of several political leaders from India during this time, the most popular among them beingLokmanya Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Though he remained dedicated to the causeof Indian independence, Shyamji Krishna Varma never became sympathetic towards the Indian NationalCongress, choosing to take sides with the free thinkers, Irish republicans, socialists, rationalists andsocial democrats.At the same time Shyamji Krishna Varma took care that the cause of education in England for Indians didnot suffer. While he contributed 1000 pounds for the establishment of a lectureship dedicated toHerbert Spencer in University of Oxford, Rs 2000 fellowships were distributed to Indians who wanted tocomplete their graduation from England. In addition Shyamji Krishna Varma also started the SwamiDayananda Saraswati fellowships. In the year 1905, he started spreading his propaganda for Indias
  • 247. freedom struggle. His ideas were brought to India with the publishing of The Indian Sociologist, amonthly magazine which spread the political, social and religious reforms of Shyamji Krishna Varma.Political ActivismShyamji Krishna Varmas revolutionary spirit manifested itself through the establishment of the IndianHome Rule Society and the India House. The Indian Home Rule Society was set up on February 18, 1905with the objective of achieving Home Rule for India, to prepare an organized propaganda and spread thesame in Britain making everybody aware of the atrocities that India faced at the hands of the British andto unify the Indians and prepare them for freedom struggle.On July 1, 1905, Shyamji Krishna Varma established the India House, a hostel for Indian students comingto England for education. Shyamji Krishna was aware of the racism that the Indians had to face in analien land, and therefore he decided to bring them together under one roof very close to his ownresidence in London. The house at 65 Cromwell Avenue in Highgate, London came to be known as theIndia House.Though Shyamji Krishna Varma got the support of the common people of England, the Britishgovernment was far from happy with his growing popularity. As a consequence, Shyamji was dismissedfrom the list of members of the Inner Temple in England on April 30, 1909 because he had written anti-British articles in The Indian Sociologist. The British government used the press as their weapon to curbthe nationalistic spirit of Shyamji Krishna Varma.RefugeBy this time, Shyamji Krishna Varma had already arrived in Paris to seek refuge in fear of his lifefollowing the allegations made against him by the British government. He landed in Paris in the year1907 and Britain tried to convince France to extradite him from the French territory after Shyamji wasgradually gaining popularity among politicians there. Through his works, Shyamji Krishna Varma was notonly able to gain the confidence of the French politicians, but also that of others across Europe and evenRussia.However, Shyamji Krishna Varma had to flee to Geneva in the year 1914 because the Frenchgovernment had invited King George V for a political event in Paris. It was gradually becomingimpossible for Shyamji Krishna Varma to stay in touch with his old friends and aides. He trusted a mannamed Dr Briess but later realized that he was tricked as the latter was a secret British agent. In fact theSwiss government almost always acted on the instructions of the British government. This came as ashock to Shyamji Krishna Varma who gradually grew disillusioned and ill with each passing day.DeathEven during days when he had to survive without political support, Shyamji Krishna Varma alwaysexpressed his feelings through The Indian Sociologist. His last writing was in the month of September,1922, after which Shyamji was too sick to continue writing work. Shyamji Krishna Varma died on March
  • 248. 30, 1930 in hospital. His death was a great loss to India, as he was one of the greatest revolutionariesthat ever lived. Shyamji Krishna Varmas body was burnt in Britain and although he had set directions forhis ashes to be carried to India after the countrys independence, Congress leaders who came to powerafter 1947 never bothered to bring the remains back from Britain. The ashes of Shyamji Krishna Varma,along with that of his wife who had also died in Britain after her husbands death, returned to India onAugust 22, 2003 after 55 years since Indias independence.Timeline1857: Shyamji Krishna Varma is born on October 4.1868: His parents passed away.1875: He was married to Bhanumati.1877: Shyamji is conferred the title Pandit by the Pandits of Kashi.1879: He joins the Balliol College, Oxford University on April 25.1883: Delivered a lecture at the Royal Asiatic Society.1885: Returned to India and becomes a lawyer.1897: Resigned from post of Diwan following argument with British agent.1897: Went back to England to settle in London.1905: Started The Indian Sociologist.1905: Set up the Indian Home Rule Society on February 18.1905: Established the India House on July 1.1907: Fled to Paris from London after allegations made against him by British government.1909: Dismissed from Inner Temple on April 30 for writing anti-British articles in The Indian Sociologist.1914: Moved from Paris to Geneva.1922: Wrote his last article for The Indian Sociologist.1930: Shyamji Krishna dies on March 30.2003: His and his wifes ashes are brought to India on August 22.
  • 249. V. O. Chidambaram PillaiBorn: September 5, 1872 Ottapidaram, Tamil Nadu, IndiaDied: November 18, 1936V. O. Chidambaram Pillai, popularly known by his initials V.O.C, was oneof the most prominent lawyers in 19th century British India. While V. O.Chidambaram Pillai provided a strong leadership to trade unionsfunctioning in his native state Tamil Nadu and also fought for Indiasfreedom from the British, he is best remembered as the man who set upthe first indigenous shipping service between Tuticorin and Colombo.Owing to V. O. Chidambaram Pillais rebellious attitude and his courageto act against the British government, the English stripped the title ofbarrister associated with his name. It was his brave nature that wonV.O.C the name Kappalottiya Tamilian in Tamil Nadu, which translates to The Tamil Helmsman inEnglish.Posthumously, Chidambaram is known by the titles "Kappal’ottiya Thamizlan" ("the Tamizlan who drovethe ship") and "Chekkiluththa Chemmal" ("a great man who pulled the oil press in jail for the sake of hispeople").Childhood and Legal CareerV. O. Chidambaram Pillai was born on September 5, 1872 in the town of Ottapidaram in Tuticorin districtof Tamil Nadu. His father Olaganathan Pillai was one of the most important lawyers of the country and itwas in his fathers footsteps that V.O.C followed after completion of his education. V. O. ChidambaramPillai enrolled in schools in his native Ottapidaram and nearby Tirunelveli. V.O.C started working in theOttapidaram district administrative office after the end of his school education. It was only a few yearslater that he enrolled in law school and completed law studies to become a lawyer like his fatherOlaganathan Pillai.Though his father was his biggest inspiration in the profession of law, there was a basic difference in theworking styles of V. O. Chidambaram Pillai and Olaganathan Pillai. While his father catered to theproblems of only the affluent in the society, V.O.C was sympathetic towards the poor people whosecases he sometimes took up against the wishes of his influential father. A case in which V OChidambaram Pillai proved that three sub-magistrates in Tamil Nadu were guilty of corruption chargeswon him attention and fame as a lawyer.Career in PoliticsV. O. Chidambaram Pillai entered into active politics in the year 1905 by becoming a member of theIndian National Congress. The Swadeshi movement in India was already at its hilt during this time and
  • 250. leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak were trying their best to put an end to BritishImperial coercion of trade. The same cause which would also ensure the safety of traditional Indianindustries and communities dependent on them was being championed by Aurobindo Ghosh,Subramanya Siva and Subramanya Bharathi through the Madras Presidency. V.O.C then decided to jointhe Indian National Congress and fight along with other members of the Madras Presidency. He laterpresided over the Salem District session of the INC.Shipping CompanyAfter joining the Indian National Congress, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai wholeheartedly immersed himselfinto Swadeshi work to secure independence for India. Part of his Swadeshi work was to put an end tothe monopoly of British shipping in the coasts of Ceylon. Inspired by freedom fighter Ramakrishnananda,he set up the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company on November 12, 1906. With the help of otherSwadeshi members Aurobindo Ghosh and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, V.O.C bought two steamships S. S. Gaeliaand S. S. Lawoe to start his shipping company. Much to the annoyance of the British government andBritish traders, V.O.Cs ships started regular services between Tuticorin and Colombo. His shippingcompany was not only a commercial venture, it was also the first comprehensive shipping service set upby an Indian in British India. The Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company gave stiff competition to theBritish India Steam Navigation Company, due to which the latter had to reduce fares per trip. WhileV.O.C responded by reducing his rates even further than that of the British India Steam NavigationCompany, he could not afford their tactics of offering free rides and umbrellas to passengers, thus takingthe Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company on the verge of bankruptcy.Nationalistic SpiritV. O. Chidambaram Pillai aimed at expanding the reach of Swadeshi in the country and making thecommon Indian man aware of the faulty British government. It is for this purpose that V.O.C took thesupport of workers of Coral Mills in Tirunelveli. The British authorities had already taken a dislikingtowards Pillai and this act compelled them to arrest V.O.C on March 12, 1908 on charges of seditionagainst the government. Violence erupted in the state after the arrest of V.O.C. Clashes between policeand common men followed, leading to the death of four people. Though his actions were vehementlycondemned by British authorities, V.O.C got the support of the press in the country which praised hisnationalistic spirit elaborately. While the British were trying their best to prosecute V.O.C, Indians in thecountry as well as in South Africans were accumulating funds to free him from prison. Mahatma Gandhi,then staying in South Africa, also had collected money and sent it to India to fund the defense of V O C.After his arrest, Pillai was housed at the Central Prison in Coimbatore from July 9, 1908 to December 1,1910. The British had slapped a sentence of life imprisonment on V.O.C, clearly indicating that they wereafraid of his rebellious spirit.During his days in prison, V O Chidambaram Pillai did not receive the treatment shown to other politicalprisoners; rather he was made to engage in hard labor in prison just like other convicts. The hard worktook a toll on his health and the gradual deterioration of his condition forced the British authorities torelease him from prison on December 12, 1912. While in prison, V O Chidambaram Pillai continued with
  • 251. his Swadeshi activities through legal petitions. Cruel circumstances struck him when V O ChidambaramPillai was released from prison. Instead of a large gathering of supporters which he had expected infront of the jail gates, there was an eerie silence. The title of barrister was taken away from him,meaning that V.O.C could not practice law anymore. The Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company was alsoliquidated in the year 1911, so V.O.C was left a poor man. V O Chidambaram Pillai settled in Madras withhis wife and two children and became the leader of various trade unions and labor welfare organizationsin Madras. In the year 1920, V O Chidambaram Pillai presided over the Calcutta session of the IndianNational Congress.Literary WorksApart from his works as an eminent lawyer and a politician, V O Chidambaram Pillai was also a scholar.He started his autobiography while in prison and completed it soon after his release in the year 1912. VO Chidambaram Pillai was the author of a couple of novels; he translated several James Allen works inTamil and made compilations of important Tamil works like the Thirukural and the Tolkappiam.Personal LifeV O Chidambaram Pillai married Valliammai in the year 1895, but she died prematurely in the year 1901.He married Meenakshi Ammiar a few years later. The couple had four sons and four daughters. Hiseldest son died when still a child, the second son was a politician, the third son was the employee of theAmerican Embassy in Madras and the fourth son, still alive is settled in Madurai. All his daughters hadbeen married in Madras. The descendants of V.O.C Pillai still live in various places across Tamil Nadu.DeathV O Chidambaram Pillai spent such an impoverished lifestyle after he was released from prison thatJustice Wallace who sentenced V O C to prison restored his bar license. But V O C was never successfulin repaying his debts and lived in poverty till the end of his life on November 18, 1936. V OChidambaram Pillai breathed his last at the Indian National Congress office in Tuticorin.CommemorationsVallinayagam Olaganathan Chidambaram Pillai is remembered as one of the most important figures inIndias struggle for independence. He is much loved and celebrated in the Tamil Nadu society till today.• He was given the title of Kappalottiya Tamilan’, or the Tamil Helmsman; or one who drives theship and shows the direction.• The Tuticorin port was renamed as V.O.C Port after independence in fond remembrance ofV.O.C.• V.O.C has a college in Tuticorin named after him.
  • 252. • A special postage stamp was released by the Indian Posts & Telegraphs department to mark thebirth centenary of Vallinayagam Olaganathan Chidambaram Pillai on September 5, 1972.• V.O.C Park and V.O.C Grounds are the most important public park and meeting ground inCoimbatore.• The Central Prison in Coimbatore where the revolutionary was housed has a monumentconstructed inside the prison premises dedicated to him.• The connecting bridge between Tirunelveli and Palayamkottai has been named the V.O.CBridge.• The 1961 Tamil movie Kappal’ottiya Thamizlan’ is based on the life story of VallinayagamOlaganathan Chidambaram Pillai. It stars Sivaji Ganesan in the lead role.Timeline1872: Vallinayagam Olaganathan Chidambaram Pillai was born on September 5.1895: Married Valliammai.1901: His wife died of illness.1905: Joined politics by becoming a member of the Indian National Congress.1906: Started his shipping company Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company on November 12.1908: Was arrested on charges of sedition on March 12.1908: Sent to the Central Prison in Coimbatore on July 9.1911: His shipping company Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company is liquidated.1912: Released from prison on December 12.1920: Presided over the Calcutta session of INC.1936: Died on November 18.
  • 253. V. K Krishna MenonBorn: May 3, 1896 Panniyankara in Kozhikkode, KeralaDied: October 6, 1974V. K Krishna Menon was considered to be one of the mostinfluential public figure during his career as a diplomat andpolitician and also, certainly the most reviled, for though hemarked his career as a diplomat he was far from being diplomaticand his famous brusque behavior earned him the ire of both thewestern media and the Indian diplomatic and political elite. But hisclose friendship with Jawaharlal Nehru ensured that he could tideover his detractors, and when he was made the defense ministerhe even ruled the countrys armed force. As Nehrus petRottweiler, he was the most vocal advocate of the Non-AlignedMovement and the harshest critique of the United States. Nowonder he was the favorite enemy of the West as he went onsupporting the other side at the height of the Cold War. In all this hullabaloo of his domineeringcharacter many tend to forget his immense contributions to the nation particularly in the military.Though many blame him for the loss of face in the 1962 Indo-China war, it is his policies that guided theIndian military to the strength it is at present.ChildhoodVengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon was born in Kerala in the then British Malabar in a Vengalil family in1896 to Komathu Krishna Kurup and Smt Vengalil Lakshmikutty Amma. His father was a wealthy lawyerand the son of the Raja of Kadathanadu. He received his early education from Thalassery MunicipalSchool and Kozhikode Native School. He completed his intermediate from Samuthiri College andreceived his B.A degree from the Presidency College, Chennai. He then enrolled at the Madras LawCollege where he became actively involved with Annie Besant and her Home Rule Movement. He alsotook an active interest in Theosophy. He became a leading member of the Brothers of Service foundedby Annie Besant who also helped and encouraged him to travel to England in 1924.In England, Menon enrolled himself at the London School of Economics as well as the University Collegefrom where he received his Masters. Soon after, he received his law degree from Glasgow University.He also started to advocate Indias freedom, vociferously and passionately. After completing hiseducation, Menon worked as a journalist. From 1929 to 1947, he worked as a secretary of the IndiaLeague where he came into contact and became associated with Jawaharlal Nehru. In 1934 he wasadmitted to the English Bar and joined the Labor Party and was elected the borough councilor of St.Pancras, London and served from 1934 to 1947. Menon was conferred upon with the Freedom of theBorough from St. Pancras, becoming the second person to be so honored. He was instrumental in
  • 254. influencing the Labor Party to send a fact finding mission to India, which was headed by the Labor MPEllen Wilkinson. Menon served as the secretary and edited the report titled "Conditions in India" basedon their findings. During this period, he founded the Penguin and Pelican paperback books with AllenLane, which would later become Penguin Books, working as one of its editors and also at the TwentiethCentury Library.Later LifeMenon was appointed the High commissioner to the United Kingdom after the independence of India in1947. He served in this post till 1952 after which he led the Indian Delegation to the United Nations till1962. At the United Nations he was noted for his criticisms of the United States and adopted the policyof non-alignment. On 23rd January, 1957 he delivered what is considered to be longest speech ever inthe United Nations Security Council, which went on an unprecedented seven hours and forty eightminutes defending Indias stand on Kashmir. In 1953, Krishna Menon was elected to the Rajya Sabha andthree years later he joined the Union Cabinet albeit as a minister without a portfolio. In 1957, Menonwas elected to the Lok Sabha from Bombay and the same year he was appointed the Minister ofDefense in the government formed by Jawaharlal Nehru. The reputed Sainik schools were his brainchild,and till date the Sainik School Society runs around 24 schools across India. In 1962, after Indiashumiliating defeat at the hands of the Chinese, Menon resigned from his post as Defense Minister. In1967, he contested for a parliamentary seat but lost. However, he was re-elected 1969 from Midnaporeand again in 1971 from Trivandrum.DeathIn October 6, 1974, Menon passed away in Delhi. He was conferred upon with the Padma Vibhushanaward thus, becoming the first Malayalee to be so honored. The V.K. Krishna Menon Foundation, basedin London was instituted in his memory and till date, works towards the eradication of illiteracy and thepromotion of Indian arts and culture.Western publications routinely referred to him as "Indias Rasputin" or "Nehrus Evil Genius".Timeline1896: Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon was born in a Vengalil family.1924: Moved to England to pursue higher education.1934: Was admitted to the English Bar.1947: Was appointed the High commissioner to the United Kingdom.1952: Was appointed Indias representative to the United Nations.1953: Was elected to the Rajya Sabha.1956: Appointed a minister in the government.1957: Nehru appointed him the Defense Minister of India.1962: Resigned as Defense Minister after Indias humiliating defeat against China.1974: Breathed his last
  • 255. Vithalbhai Jhaverbhai PatelBorn: September 27, 1873 Nadiad, GujaratDied: October 22, 1933Mahatma Gandhi was the soul of the Indian political movement. SardarVallabhbhai Patel was its strength and Vithalbhai Patel was its character.Although Vithalbhai is a lesser known politician in the Indian freedomstruggle than his brother Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, popularly known as the"Iron Man of India", he, nevertheless, surely holds a great role and aneminent position in the entire freedom movement. By entering into politicsmuch before his renowned brother, Vithalbhai established the Swaraj Partythat aimed at forming self-government and achieving freedom for the Indian people from the British Raj.He strongly opposed Mahatma Gandhis decision to abandon the Non-Cooperation Movement with theoccurrence of the Chauri Chaura tragedy.Early LifeVithalbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was born as the third of the five Patel brothers in Nadiad district in theIndian state of Gujarat. He was four years elder to Vallabhbhai Patel, a prominent Indian freedomfighter. Being raised and brought up in Karamsad, he attained self education at Nadiad and Bombay. Toearn his education and living, he worked as a pleader, or junior lawyer, at Godhra and Borsad. He wasmarried off to a girl from Diwaliba village at a very young age. Following his footsteps, his youngerbrother Vallabhbhai Patel also educated himself and worked as a pleader. Since both were ambitious,they dreamt to study in England. To fulfill his dream, Vallabhbhai Patel had accumulated enough moneyand ordered for his passport and ticket to England. However, the parcel delivered by the postman wasaddressed to "Mr. V.J. Patel, Pleader".Though the parcel was meant for Vallabhbhai Patel, but Vithalbhai insisted on traveling on his passportand tickets on the pretext of preventing social criticism of an elder brother following the lead of theyounger one. Left with no option and considering it to be his fate, Vallabhbhai let his elder brother travelto England. Additionally, he even paid for his stay during the entire study course. Vithalbhai studied atthe Middle Temple Inn in London and completed the 36-month course in just 30, thereby appearing asthe topper of his class. He came back to India in 1913 and started working as a barrister in courts ofBombay and Ahmedabad. While his professional life was moving on smoothly, he met with a personalcrises in 1915 when his wife died, leaving him a widower for the rest of his life.Political CareerMuch before Vallabhbhai Patel could enter politics; Vithalbhai got into the political world and became aprominent name in the Indian independence movement. He managed to win a seat in BombayLegislative Council with the help of a band of supporters. Though the body did not have any real
  • 256. functions, Vithalbhai tried working hard for one year but failed to achieve anything for nationalindependence, self-government, or public welfare. After the incident of Chauri Chaura and the end ofNon-cooperation Movement in 1922, Vithalbhai left Congress and established his own party calledSwaraj Party, along with Chittaranjan Das and Motilal Nehru.The basic aim of the party was to enter the councils and abolish the government run by the British.However, the party could get success in dividing the Congress and later itself as well. He became popularamongst the masses through his oratorical and witty speeches. Thereafter, he was elected to the CentralLegislative Assembly in 1923 and later in 1925, became the Assemblys president. Despite notcompletely in sync with Mahatma Gandhis philosophy and practices, Vithalbhai joined Congress andbegan his struggle for Indias independence. He did not receive major support from any specific region,but still managed to get popular and influence people with this fiery and powerful speeches and articlespublished in the newspapers.Later YearsIn 1929, several supporters of the Government of India made attempts to remove Vithalbhai from thepresidentship of Imperial Legislative Assembly, or Central Legislative Assembly, but were stopped by theViceroy Lord Irwin who was trying to win the support of many important nationalists. On failing to do so,Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930 resulting in Vithalbhai resigning from his theCentral Legislative Assembly on the pretext of support the movement. He declared Purna Swaraj(complete independence) and re-entered Congress. For this, he was even imprisoned but was releasedin 1931 due to his declining health. For the same, he traveled to Europe to get himself medically treated.With the end of Salt Satyagraha, Vithalbhai yet again stood against Gandhi and joined Subhas ChandraBose. Both met in Vienna in 1933 when Bose was released from Bhowali Sanitorium and set to Viennafor treatment, while Vithalbhai also went to Vienna to get himself treated. Sharing similar political viewsand desire for Indias freedom, both got closer to each other and traveled extensively throughoutEurope gathering funds and political support.DeathWhile touring Europe, Bose started showing improvement in his health, but Vithalbhai started decliningfurther. On finding his immense support for the political work, Vithalbhai handed over the residual partof his property amounting to Rs. 1, 20,000 to Bose considering that the latter had no private means toearn nor would he receive a single penny from Congress. Vithalbhai passed away on October 22, 1933 inGeneva, Switzerland. His body was brought back to India and cremated in Bombay on November 10. Hewas 60 years old.Timeline1873: Born in Nadiad, Gujarat1913: Completed higher studies from Middle Temple Inn, London and returned to India1915: Wife died1922: Left Congress and formed the Swaraj Party
  • 257. 1923: Elected to Central Legislative Assembly1925: Became president of the Assembly1930: Resigned from presidentship, declared Purna Swaraj, and imprisoned1931: Released from prison and went to Europe for medical treatment1933: Met Subhas Chandra Bose in Vienna1933: Died in Geneva, Switzerland on October 22, aged 6
  • 258. Purushottam Das TandonBorn: August 1, 1882 Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaDied: July 1, 1962Purushottam Das Tandon, the Punjabi Khatri from pre-independent UttarPradesh in India, was one of the most popular advocates of freedom for thecountry from British rule. Purushottam Das Tandon worked in associationwith the Congress party and took part in several events to show his protestsagainst the British rulers. He was dedicated to the well being of his countryeven after independence and thus, remained attached with politics afterAugust 1947. However, his years within the folds of the Congress were notfree of controversies, largely because of his deteriorating relationship withJawaharlal Nehru after Indias independence. Purushottam Das Tandon is best remembered for hiscontribution towards helping to make Hindi the official language of India and for his participation inparty meetings held at the Lok Sabha in spite of the fact that he was the Speaker and was expected toremain neutral and impartial in his opinions and views.He is widely remembered for his efforts in achieving the Official Language of India status for Hindi. Hewas customarily given the title Rajarshi (Etymology: Raja + Rishi = Royal Saint). He was awardedthe Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian award, in 1961.Early LifePurushottam Das Tandon was born on August 1, 1882 in the city of Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh in British-dominated India. After completing school, Purushottam Das Tandon obtained a degree in Law andanother master’s degree in History before setting on a professional life. The year 1906 was his first yearin law practice after which Purushottam Das Tandon joined the bar of the Allahabad High Court. In theyear 1908, he joined as a junior to prominent lawyer Tej Bahadur Sapru. For the next few yearsPurushottam Das Tandon practiced law before finally quitting in the year 1921 to concentrate on politicsand freedom struggle.Role in Freedom StrugglePurushottam Das Tandon was dedicated towards achieving freedom for India since his student days.Even while he was studying, he became a member of the Congress party in the year 1899 and foundtime to be a part of some activities undertaken by the party for the welfare of India. In 1906, whenPurushottam Das Tandon also started practicing law, he represented his native Allahabad at the All IndiaCongress Committee. He was also involved in the workings of the Lok Sevak Sangh and the committeeinstituted for studying the Jallianwala Bagh incident of 1919.After he left law practice in 1921, Purushottam Das Tandon courted arrest because of his involvement in
  • 259. the Non Cooperation Movement of the 1920s and the Satyagraha incident of the 1930s. PurushottamDas Tandon was elected the president of the Provincial Kisan Sabha in Bihar in the year 1934 and it wasduring his term and leadership that several farmers movements started in pre independent India.Purushottam Das Tandon was elected to the Constituent Assembly of India in the year 1946 andremained in office of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh for a period of 13 years,spanning pre and post independence times from July 31, 1937 to August 10, 1950.After Independence PoliticsPurushottam Das Tandon contested for the post of President of the Congress party in the year 1948 butlost to Pattabhi Sitaramayya. However he was successful in securing the same position after two years in1950 defeating Acharya Kriplani to head the Nagpur session of Congress the same year. PurushottamDas Tandon became a member of the Lok Sabha in the year 1952 and joined the Rajya Sabha in 1956.After 1956, Purushottam Das Tandon gradually became ill and had to quit from active politics to takecare of his health.Controversies and ContradictionsAs mentioned earlier, the career of Purushottam Das Tandon was marked with many a controversy.Firstly, though it was the freedom fighter himself who spoke about the similarities between the Hindusand the Muslims, his actions showed that Purushottam Das Tandon was inclined towards the Hindus, afact which also resulted in securing for him the name of soft Hindu nationalist. He was associated withthe Radha Soami cult and always tried to incorporate Hindu religious ideals in politics. Purushottam DasTandon was one politician who spoke out vehemently against the concept of religious conversion, evenvoicing his thoughts in the constituent assembly of the country.Purushottam Das Tandon also spoke out against the partition of India after independence. He was oneof the rare members of the AICC who protested before ratifying the resolution that would lead topartition. However many people were of the opinion that his unwillingness to share power with theMuslim League after the 1937 elections actually led to the partition of India after 1947. The relationshipbetween Jawaharlal Nehru and Purushottam Das Tandon was good as long as the former commendedthe latter on his No Tax campaign. It was during the 1940s that the first signs of dissent began toappear. Purushottam Das Tandons success in bagging the post of president of the Congress partyagainst favorite Acharya Kriplani annoyed Jawaharlal Nehru more and destroyed their relationshipfurther.Advocating the Hindi LanguagePurushottam Das Tandon worked furtively with the Hindi Prachar Sabhas to bring the Hindi language atthe forefront and establish it as the official language of the country. However, in his efforts to promoteHindi, Purushottam Das Tandon completely ignored other Indian languages and was labeled achauvinist. While leaders like Mahatma Gandhi voted for Hindustani, a mixture of Hindi and Urdu to bedeclared the national language, Purushottam Das Tandon spoke against the Urdu script, voting for theDevanagari script instead. This was a further cause for the deterioration of his relationship with
  • 260. Jawaharlal Nehru. Purushottam Das Tandon was for the Sanskritisation of the Hindi language and hisargument while promoting the Hindi language in the constituent assembly was that the mother tongueshould be used as the medium of instruction. It was largely due to Purushottam Das Tandons effortsthat Hindi became the national language of India.Anecdotes on Purushottam Das TandonPurushottam Das Tandon was always different from the other freedom fighters during his time in termsof his pattern of work and attitude. Here are some popular anecdotes which made the rounds onPurushottam Das Tandon:• He was a staunch believer of ahimsa or non violence and therefore used only rubber chappalsinstead of leather ones.• While Speakers used to avoid party meetings in order to maintain their stance of impartiality,Purushottam Das Tandon attended all of them and also said that he would resign from hisposition as Speaker if the house lacks confidence in his actions. No members of the house daredspeak about this issue.• Purushottam Das Tandon was also known for his philanthropic nature. He often asked a clerkresponsible for handling the salaries of the members of parliament to drop his cheques to apublic service fund. His argument was that he got enough money from his seven sons, all ofwhom were earning and all of whom sent him one hundred rupees per month. Therefore he didnot require his own salary and could thus use it for the welfare of the needy. His completedisinterest in money and possessions earned him the title of Rajarshi’.Awards and Recognition• Purushottam Das Tandon earned the tile Rajarshi’ which means Royal Saint’ in Sanskrit for hisgiving and unselfish nature.• He was presented the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award of India in the year 1961, just ayear before his death.Timeline1882: Purushottam Das Tandon was born on August 1.1899: Became a member of the Congress party.1906: Started practicing law.1908: Joined the bar of Allahabad High Court.1908: Joined as a junior to lawyer Tej Bahadur Sapru.1919: Joined as part of the Congress party committee to study the Jallianwala Bagh insicent.1921: Gave up law practice to join active politics.1934: Elected president of Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha.1937: Elected Speaker of Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh on July 31.
  • 261. 1946: Elected to Constituent Assembly of India.1947: Refused to sign partition of India resolution on June 14.1948: Was defeated in Congress party President Election against Pattabhi Sitaramayya.1950: End of his term as Speaker on August 10, Was successful in Congress party President Electionagainst Acharya Kriplani.1952: Became member of the Lok Sabha.1956: Became member of the Rajya Sabha.1961: Was awarded the Bharat Ratna.1962: Left for the heavenly abode on July 1.
  • 262. Jivatram Bhagwandas KripalaniBorn: November 11, 1888 Hyderabad, SindDied: March 19, 1982A passionate freedom fighter, a partisan socialist, a Gandhian by heart,and a competent teacher; these are the terms that are often related tothe name that is Acharya Jivatram Bhagwandas Kripalani. Although mostremembered for holding the presidency of the Indian National Congressduring the turbulent period of 1947, his contribution is much, muchmore. Getting himself into the strikes during the college days for Indiansbeing called liars; he had given the sign of things to come early. He wasan ardent follower of Mahatma Gandhi and his philosophies remainedexactly that, even when Gandhi’s philosophies were getting adjusted in the background. He actively andpassionately participated in Indian Freedom Movement, taught at a few universities, took responsibilityof caring for Gandhi’s ashrams, became the president of Indian National Congress, and last but not theleast - he contributed his time to a lot of environmental and social causes. A contribution that cannot beforgotten!Early LifeJivatram Bhagwandas Kripalani was born on 11th November, 1888 in Hyderabad, Sind (presently inPakistan) to an upper middle-class Hindu Kshatriya Amil family. His father, Kaka Bhagwandas was aTahsildar (revenue and judicial officer) in government service. It was in Sind itself that Jivatramcompleted his matriculation and moved to Bombay for further education from the Wilson College. Asthere was a state of unrest within the students due to the partition of Bengal and the troubles createdby Jivatram at that time forced him to move to a quieter atmosphere of D.J. Sind College at Karachi. Buthere too he could not keep himself away from causing a situation when the principal of that collegeindiscreetly called Indians as Liars. The strike that followed after that comment had Jivatram rusticatedfrom the college. After the incident he couldn’t get admission in any other college in Bombay and had tomove to Pune to pursue his studies. It was in 1908 that he completed his B.A from Fergusson College inPune and later took up M.A in History & Economics. For the following years, he worked as the professorof English and History at the Muzaffarpur College in Bihar, taught at the Benares Hindu University, andalso served as the Principal of Gujarat Vidyapeeth founded by Mahatma Gandhi. It was here that thetitle of Acharya was popularly attached to him.Political CareerIt was Jivatram’s second meeting with the Mahatma in 1917 during the Champaran Satyagraha that hecame to hold Mahatma Gandhi and his ideologies in the highest regards and even converted himself intoa Gandhian and remained so till the last breath. Though he had got involved in mild upheavals during hiscollege days, it was in 1920 that his political career took a turn when he participated in the Non-
  • 263. Cooperation Movement led by none other than - Mahatma Gandhi. From there on, he got himselfinvolved in Congress work and actively participated in Salt Satyagraha and Quit India Movement andeven went to jail on several occasions. From 1934 to 1945, he served as the General Secretary of IndianNational Congress and was made the President of the party in 1946 and looked after the transfer ofpower during the disruptive period of partition and independence.After the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi in 1948 and because of a prevalent disagreement betweenJawaharlal Nehru and Jivatram on the issue whether the congress party should be considered before alldecisions or not; Jivatram resigned from the post of President of Indian National Congress, andeventually resigned from the Congress party itself in 1951. He then started a new political party knownas Krishak Majdoor Praja Party, which eventually merged with the Socialist Party of India to form thePraja Socialist Party. It was in 1954 that he resigned from the Praja Socialist Party as the rules andobligations of being in a party tested his patience. By then, he had grown into an experienced and wellrespected parliamentarian and was elected to Lok Sabha in the years 1952, 1957, 1962, and 1967. In1971, his parliamentary career came to an end when nobody supported him during the elections.Later YearsWhile remaining active in politics, Jivatram started working on social and environmental causes. All thiswhile, he along with Vinoba Bhave remained the last of advocates of Gandhian philosophies. Jivatramalso wrote a few books on Gandhian Philosophies; few of them being: “Non Violent Revolution”, “TheGandhian Way”, “The Indian National Congress”, “The Fateful Years”, “The Politics of Chakra”, “TheFather of the Congress”, and “The Gandhian Critique”. During 1972-1973, he resented the ever growingauthoritarian style of Nehru’s daughter Indira Gandhi and was first to be arrested during the Emergencythat was declared in 1975 following the vocal protest that was started by him. Jivatram was also closelyassociated to the Janta Party that came to power in 1977.In the 1982 film Gandhi by Richard Attenborough, J.B. Kripalani was played by Indian actor Anang Desai.His autobiography “My Times" was released 22 years after his deathPersonal LifeIt was in the year 1936 that Jivatram got married to Sucheta Majumdar and the two shared the mostunderstanding relationship for more than four decades. Sucheta Kripalani also went on to become thefirst Female Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. Though the husband and wife differed on the politicalideologies during the post independence period, it did not affect their personal life.DeathJivatram Kripalani died on 19th March 1982 at the age of 94.
  • 264. Timeline1888: J.B. Kripalani was born.1908: Completed his graduation from Fergusson College in Pune.1912-1917: Worked as a professor of English & History at Muzaffarpur College in Bihar.1919-1920: Taught at Benares Hindu University.1920-1927: Served as a Principal of the Gujarat Vidyapeeth.1934-1945: Served as the General Secretary of Indian National Congress.1936: Got married to Sucheta Majumdar.1946-1947: Served as the President of Indian National Congress.1951: Resigned from the Indian National Congress.1954: Resigned from the Praja Socialist Party.1975: Was arrested following the protest he caused against Indira Gandhi’s authoritarian style ofleadership.1982: Jivatram Kripalani died at the age of 94.
  • 265. Chaudhary Devi Lal SihagBorn: September 25, 1914 Sirsa, HaryanaDied: April 6, 2001Right from the Indian freedom struggle to opposing the Emergency period toforming Haryana state to serving as the Deputy Prime Minister of India,Chaudhary Devi Lal has several credits to boast of. He was a notablepersonality who did not think twice before jumping into the freedommovement and left his studies in the middle. Post independence, Devi Lalemerged as a leader of farmers and made several efforts for the bettermentand upliftment of common people. Elected twice as the Chief Minister ofHaryana, Devi Lal was constantly involved with improving the conditions of rural people and farmers. Itwas his popularity and generosity towards the common man that earned him the title of “Tau” (elderuncle) amongst masses. He is best remembered for forming the state of Haryana and grooming severalnormal people into good politicians who served not only in Haryana, but on national level.Early LifeChaudhary Devi Lal Sihag was born as Devi Dayal in the village of Teja Khera in Sirsa district of Haryanastate. He was born to Chaudhary Lekh Ram Sihag and Shugna Devi. He belonged to a wealthy Jat clan ofBagris with his father being the landlord of Chautala village and owner of 2750 bighas of land. Dayalreceived his education up till middle school and was actively involved in wrestling at an “Akhara” inBadal village in Punjab.Indian Freedom MovementChaudhary Devi Lal was a fervent adherent of Mahatma Gandhi and hence, took active participation inthe Indian freedom struggle right from the British Raj. When Gandhi sent a call for freedom movement,both Chaudhary Devi Lal and his elder brother, Chaudhary Sahib Ram, left their studies midway andplunged into the struggle. For this act of his, Devi Lal was even imprisoned for one year at Hissar Jail onOctober 8, 1930. But this did not lessen his passion and enthusiasm for Indian freedom movement. Thisbecame evident when he participated in the 1932 movement for which he was yet again sent behindbars at Sadar Delhi Thana. In early 1938, he was elected as a delegate of All India Congress Committee.Later in March the same year, his brother Chaudhary Sahib Ram was appointed as MLA in a by-electionon a Congress ticket.Being a true satyagrahi’, Sahib Ram was arrested in January 1940 with Devi Lal and over ten thousandpeople forming witness to this incident. He was fined with Rs. 100 and was imprisoned for nine months.With the Quit India Movement at its peak, both Devi Lal and Sahib Ram were arrested on October 5,1942 and sent to Multan jail for 2 years on the pretext of participating in the freedom struggle. AfterDevi Lal was released from prison in October 1943, he got his brother Sahib Ram released on parole.
  • 266. Viewing both the brothers’ eagerness and keenness for the Indian freedom movement, Sir Chhotu Ram,the then Revenue Minister, along with Lajpat Rai Alakhpura, visited Chautala village and tried topersuade the brothers to quit Congress and join the Unionist Party. However, they refused to leaveCongress Party at any cost.Post Independence PoliticsSince Devi Lal belonged to a farming village, he gained immense popularity after India becameindependent. He became a leader of the farmers and even began a farmer’s movement for which hewas arrested, along with 500 workers. After a while, the then Chief Minister, Dr. Gopi Chand Bhargawamade an agreement with Devi Lal, leading to the amendment of Muzzara Act. In 1952, Devi Lal waselected as a member of Punjab Assembly, and in 1956, he became the Congress President of Punjab. It isbelieved that Devi Lal was one of the strong reasons and support behind the formation of Haryana as aseparate state. He was elected to the Assembly from Sirsa in 1958. After serving in the Congress Partyfor 39 years, Devi Lal quit in 1971. Later in 1974, he stood from Rori constituency against Congress andwas successfully elected.When Indira Gandhi declared the Emergency in 1975, Devi Lal was one amongst the opposition leadersto be imprisoned for 19 months in Hissar Jail and Mahendergarh Fort. After the Emergency period wascalled off in 1977, general elections were held and Devi Lal contested on a Janata Dal ticket. He won andbecame the Chief Minister of Haryana. He was popularly known as “Sher-e-Haryana” (Lion of Haryana)for his brave opposition to Emergency and dictatorial misrule. He served as the Member of Parliamentfrom 1980 to 1982 and was elected to the State Assembly from 1982 to 1987. During this period, heformed Lok Dal and began Nyaya Yudh under “Haryana Sangharsh Samiti”. This led to his immensepopularity amongst the general public. In the 1987 state elections, his party won a phenomenal 85 seatsamongst the total 90 member house. Surprisingly, congress could manage to fetch only 5 seats. Thus,Devi Lal became the Chief Minister of Haryana for the second time in 1987.Deputy Prime Minister of IndiaWhen the parliamentary elections took place in 1989, Devi Lal successfully won from Sikar in Rajasthanand Rohtak in Haryana. Thus, he became the Deputy Prime Minister of India on October 19, 1989. Heserved in the office till June 21, 1991. Later in August 1998, he was elected in Rajya Sabha.DeathChaudhary Devi Lal died on April 6, 2001 at the age of 86 years. His last rites were performed at KisanGhat, where the Samadhi of another former Prime Minister of India Chaudhary Charan Singh lies, on thebanks of River Yamuna.Timeline1914: Born in Tej Khera village, Sirsa, Haryana1930: Joined Indian freedom movement and imprisoned for one year1932: Sent to jail for the second time for his participation in the freedom struggle
  • 267. 1938: Elected to All India Congress Committee1942: Imprisoned in Multan jail for 2 years on October 51943: Released from prison in October1944: Refused to join the Unionist Party1952: Elected member of Punjab Assembly1956: Became Congress President of Punjab1958: Appointed in Assembly from Sirsa1971: Quit Congress Party1975: Sent to jail for 19 months during Emergency1977: Elected Chief Minister of Haryana on Janata Dal ticket1980: Served as Member of Parliament till 19821982: Served as member of State Assembly till 19871987: Became Chief Minister of Haryana for the second time1989: Appointed as Deputy Prime Minister of India on October 191998: Selected in Rajya Sabha2001: Died on April 6, aged 86
  • 268. Chempakaraman PillaiBorn: September 15, 1891 Thiruvananthapuram, TravancoreDied: May 26, 1934Chempakaraman Pillai was one of the greatest Indian revolutionarieswho brought glory to our motherland with his undying efforts andspirits, but the nation had somehow forgotten to honor the greathero. He was one of the unsung heroes and patriots who went abroadand organized his own army to fight for India’s freedom from theBritish Raj with support from the Germans, another enemy of theEnglish. Though brought up on a foreign land, Chempakaraman didnot let his passion and enthusiasm lower even by a percentage anddedicated his entire life fighting for the freedom of Bharat Mata. He was one of the few people whowished to join hands with the common enemy to drive away the British from his homeland and organizean armed attacked from outside. Such was his influence and power that even Germans were urged totrust and believe him.Early LifeC Pillai was born in an average middle-class family to Chinnaswami Pillai and Nagammal inThiruvananthapuram in the state of Travancore in southernmost India. His family was of Tamil origin andhad settled in Thiruvananthapuram, since his father was a police head constable in Travancore StateGovernment Service. He received his primary and high school education at Model School, Thycaud inThiruvananthapuram. During his school days, Chempakaraman was fortunate to meet a British biologist,Sir Walter Strickland, who made visits to the city for botanical specimens. On one of his visit, he offeredChempakaraman and his cousin, Padmanabha Pillai, to come along with him. However, Padmanabha leftmidway at Colombo and ran back to Thiruvananthapuram. Chempakaraman continued the journey andlanded in Europe. This proved to be a turning point in his life. Strickland got him admitted in a school inAustria from where Chempakaraman completed his high schooling.Life in EuropeOn the completion of his schooling, Chempakaraman joined a Technical Institute to pursue a diploma inengineering. Soon, the First World War broke out and Chempakaraman got an opportunity to fulfill hislong-cherished plans. With the help of German Embassy, he formed the International Pro-IndiaCommittee with Zurich as the headquarters in September 1914. He declared himself as the President ofthe committee. During the same time, he saw the urge of Indian revolutionaries abroad trying to takeadvantage of the new situations to achieve freedom. Further, a group of Indian expatriates formed theIndian International Committee in Berlin with Virendranath Chattopadhyaya, eldest brother of SarojiniNaidu, as the President. The committee included Bhupendranath Dutta, Punnackal A. Raman Pillai,Taraknath Das, Barkatullah, Chandrakant Chakravarty, M. Prabhakar, Birendra Sarkar, and Herambalal
  • 269. Gupta. Chempakaraman went to Berlin in October 1914 and joined the committee. He merged theInternational Pro-India Committee with Indian International Committee and named it Berlin Committee.The Committee opened branches in various parts of Europe and America, including Amsterdam,Stockholm, and Washington.Revolutionary ActivitiesAfter Berlin Committee was established in Berlin, Lala Har Dayal was also persuaded to join themovement, thereby bringing forward the Ghadar Party for the same purpose. This resulted in the IndianIndependence Committee getting involved with Hindu-German Conspiracy and Ghadar Party in America.Chempakaraman’s intelligence, brilliant organizational abilities, and undaunted courage helped him getaccolades and appreciation from the German Kaiser. Such was his confidence amongst the Germans thathe was permitted to lead the operations of German Navy in Indian Ocean. During this period, hedirected the German vessel “Emden” and destroyed English war-vessels. Left with no option, the Britishgovernment was forced to announce a reward of one lakh pounds to anyone who successfully capturedChempakaraman and handed him to them.However, the cunning lion of India never fell into the hands of British hunters. Chempakaraman provedto be the predecessor of Rash Behari Bose and Subhas Chandra Bose in organizing an Indian Armyoutside India for striking the enemies at home. He established the Indian National Volunteer Corpsduring World War I and offered military uniform and discipline to the volunteers. In 1919, he metSubhas Chandra Bose in Vienna and explained his plan of raising revolt amongst Indian soldiers andattacking the British to set the motherland free. Such was the impact of Chempakaraman’s words onBose that he fulfilled his dream during World War II on forming the Indian National Army.Tenure in Provisional GovernmentChempakaraman Pillai was one of the first freedom strugglers who gave India and Indians, living in Indiaand abroad, fighting for the country’s independence the slogan “Jai Hind”. Apart from standing andstruggling for the freedom movement from Europe, he became the Foreign Minister of the ProvisionalGovernment of India set up in Afghanistan in December 1915. Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh from Kabulbecame the President and Maulana Barkatulla the Prime Minister. But the defeat of the Germans in thewar left the hopes of the revolutionaries ruined.Victim of Nazi WrathUnknown by the fact, the Germans were helping the Indian revolutionaries in Germany with selfishmotives. Even though the Indian patriots had made it very clear to the Germans that they would beequal partners is revolting and fighting against their common enemy, the British, the Germans held adominating position as they had been providing funds, arms, and ammunition to the revolutionaries,both abroad and at home. As such, the Germans intended to exploit the Indians for their work. Thus,when Germans started losing the battle, they lost interest in the revolutionaries. To add on, they evenstarted looking at them with suspicion, thereby weakening the relationship between Indianrevolutionaries and Germans.
  • 270. Personal LifeChempakaraman Pillai met Lakshmibai from Manipur, India in Berlin and married her in 1931.DeathWhen Adolf Hitler started assuming Indians incapable of ruling themselves and looking upon others,Chempakaraman stood against Hitler, thereby forcing him to give a written apology. As such, he becamea victim to the anger of the Nazis who were believed to have killed Chempakaraman, on Hitler’s orders,through food poisoning on May 26, 1934. He was just 42 years old. While he wanted his ashes to becarried back to his homeland, his wife took 33 years to fulfill his last wish, all due the severe hardshipsand sufferings she went through that period as Nazis had made her life miserable and torturous.However, she did not lose hope and preserved his ashes, his diary, and secret documents, and traveledto Mumbai through Berlin, Italy, and Spain. Chempakaraman’s ashes were brought to Cochin onSeptember 16, 1966 in the Indian Navy’s warship, I.N.S. Delhi under the flag of free India hurling.Timeline1891: Born in Thiruvananthapuram, India1906: Went to Europe with Sir Walter Strickland and took admission in Austrian school1914: Established the International Pro-India Committee in Zurich in September and became President1914: Went to Berlin in October and joined Indian Independence Committee1915: Became Foreign Minister of Provisional Government of India in Afghanistan1919: Met Subhas Chandra Bose in Vienna1931: Married Lakshmibai1934: Killed by Nazis through food poisoning on May 26 in Germany, aged 421966: Ashes brought back to India by wife
  • 271. Indrajit GuptaBorn: March 18, 1919 CalcuttaDied: February 20, 2001A legendary parliamentarian renowned for his austerity, democratic outlooks,and deep commitment to values, Indrajit Gupta was one of the greatestprivileged Indians who sacrificed greatly for the betterment of the nation. Heis best remembered for his forceful and outspoken speeches made at LokSabha. Such was the moderation and criticism with reason in his language thathe was a known personality by his political opponents also. Spending over 37years in Lok Sabha, he was fondly known as the “Father of the House” by hisfellow mates and his departure left an empty seat that will take too long to fill again. He was one of theCommunists leaders who parted with their connections in order to embrace the cause of the workingclass.Early LifeIndrajit Gupta was born in an anglicized Brahmo family to Satish Gupta in Calcutta, West Bengal. Hisfather was an Accountant General of India, while his grandfather, Behari Lal Gupta, was the Dewan ofBaroda, and his elder brother, Ranajit Gupta, was a Chief Secretary of West Bengal. Indrajit attained hisformal education in Simla where his father was posted. He completed his graduation from St. Stephen’sCollege in Delhi and went to King’s College, Cambridge to pursue his higher studies. While in England, hewas highly influenced by the journalist and theoretician in the Communist Party of Great Britain, RajaniPalme Dutt, and joined the communist movement. On obtaining his degree from the University ofCambridge, Gupta returned to Calcutta in 1938. Here, he joined the peasants’ and workers’ movement,but was sentenced to party jail’ in 1948 for supporting the party. With an attack on communists, he wasforced to go underground during 1948-50.Political CareerIn 1960, Gupta was elected to Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament, for the first time. Except for ashort period from 1977-80, he remained a member of Lok Sabha until his death, thereby gaining thelongest experience serving in Lok Sabha for 37 years. He represented Calcutta South-West as a memberof the second and third Lok Sabha from 1960 to 1967. Later from 1967 to 1977, he was elected to fourthand fifth Lok Sabha from Alipore. He represented Basirhat in seventh and eighth Lok Sabha from 1980 to1989 and Midnapore from ninth to thirteenth Lok Sabha from 1989 until his death. Being the oldestmember of Lok Sabha, he served as pro team speaker in 1996, 1998, and 1999. The pro tem speaker isrequired to conduct the swearing ceremony of the newly elected members. Besides serving in LokSabha, Gupta had been associated with various parliamentary committees also.He served as the chairman of parliamentary standing committee on defence in 1995-96 and chairman of
  • 272. the committee of subordinate legislation from 1999 until his death. His other contributions include as amember of rules committee in 1990-91, general purposes committee from 1985-89 and from 1998onwards, committee on defence from 1998-2000, committee on petitions in 1986-87, business advisorycommittee in 1986-87 and in 1989, library committee in 1990-91, and committee to review Lok SabhaSecretariat rules in 1990. Being an active trade unionist, Gupta served as the General Secretary of the AllIndia Trade Union Congress form 1980 to 1990. Brought up and raised in the Communist Party of India(CPI), he became the General Secretary of CPI in 1990 until 1996. He was a great supporter of CPI anddelivered speeches in Lok Sabha that made him popular amongst his opponents as well. He was electedas the Union Minister of Home Affairs in the United Front government in 1996, which he attained till1998. Gupta was appointed as the President of World Federation of Trade Union in 1998.Personal LifeAt the age of 62 in 1981, Gupta married the love of his life, Suraiya. He had to wait for years, until shelawfully dissolved her early marriage with photographer Ahmed Ali, before marrying her. The couple hadone son and three daughters.DeathIndrajit Gupta died of cancer on February 20, 2001 in Kolkata. He was 81.Honors & AwardsIndrajit Gupta was honored with the Outstanding Parliamentarian Award in 1992. Upon his death in2001, the then President of India, K.R. Narayanan paid a tribute to him with three characteristicsdescribing him - Gandhian simplicity, democratic outlook, and deep commitment to values.Timeline1919: Born in Calcutta, West Bengal1938: Completed education from King’s College, University of Cambridge and returned to Calcutta1948: Imprisoned for supporting peasants’ and workers’ movement1960: Elected to Lok Sabha for the first time1960-67: Represented Calcutta South-West at 2nd and 3rd Lok Sabha1967-77: Elected to 4th and 5th Lok Sabha from Alipore1980-89: Elected to 7th and 8th Lok Sabha from Basirhat1981: Married Suraiya1989: Appointed to 9th Lok Sabha from Midnapore and was on house until death1990: Became General Secretary of CPI1992: Bestowed with Outstanding Parliamentarian Award1996: Served as pro team Speaker in Lok Sabha, followed again in 1998 and 19991998: Appointed as President of World Federation of Trade Unions2001: Died on February 20 of cancer in Kolkata, aged 81
  • 273. V.P. SinghBorn: June 25, 1931 Allahabad, Uttar PradeshDied: November 27, 2008A pivotal figure in the Indian politics, V.P. Singh was responsible for bravelymanaging the coalition of the Left and BJP against Rajiv Gandhi to dethronehim in the 1989 elections. He is remembered for his magnificent act that heplayed in 1989 that changed the course of Indian politics by becoming thePrime Minister of India and making the backwards and Dalits eligible forelectoral politics. But unlike other Prime Ministers who came after him andmade compromises, Singh acted boldly by issuing an arrest warrant againstL.K. Advani midway through his rath yatra of Bharatiya Janata Party. Byinducing confidence in his people through his actions and not just mere words, Singh had successfullyestablished himself as a person different from other politicians. He took a firm position regarding issuesof corruption and secular fabric of the Indian state.Early LifeV.P. Singh, or Vishwanath Pratap Singh, was born in the Rajput Gahawar (Rathore) zamindar family ofDaiya to Raja Bhagwati Prasad Singh. However, he was adopted by Raja Bahadur Ram Gopal Singh ofManda in 1936, which he succeeded in 1941 after his death, thereby becoming the 41st Raja Bahadur ofManda. He attained his formal education from Colonel Brown Cambridge School in Dehradun. He cameback to Allahabad for higher studies and even went to Poona University. Being a great scholar andeducationalist, he founded the Gopal Vidyalaya, Intermediate College, Koraon in Allahabad. Singh servedas the President of the Students Union at Udai Pratap College, Varanasi in 1947-48 and as the VicePresident of Allahabad University Students Union.Entry into PoliticsV.P. Singh joined the Executive Body of All India Congress Committee at Allahabad University as amember in 1969 until 1971. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh from 1969-71.He served as the Member of Parliament under Lok Sabha from 1971-74, Union Deputy Minister ofCommerce from 1974-1976, Union State Minister of Commerce from 1976-1977, and Member ofParliament in Lok Sabha in 1980. After the fall of Janata Dal in 1980, Congress came back to power andSingh was appointed as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh by Indira Gandhi in 1980. However, heresigned two years later accepting his failure on taking necessary actions to control dacoity in theChambal valley. Since then, Singh managed to urge awareness amongst the common man and in thepolitical world about his cleanliness towards attending issues.
  • 274. Political CrisisWith the Rajiv Gandhi invitation in the 1984 general elections, Singh was appointed as the FinanceMinister, wherein he took necessary action to reduce the smuggling of gold by decreasing gold taxes andgiving a considerate portion of gold to the police for any smuggled gold found. He empowered theEnforcement Directorate of the Finance Ministry to track tax evaders. Since high-profile celebrities,including Dhirubhai Ambani and Amitabh Bachchan were amongst those raided, Rajiv Gandhi sackedSingh on the context of most of these personalities supported Congress financially in the past. Afterbeen discharged from his position, Singh started investigating the murky world of defence procurement.Further, word about him acquiring information on Bofors defense deal spread that could eventuallyaffect the then Rajiv Gandhi’s reputation. Following this, Singh was dismissed from the Cabinet.Thereafter, he resigned from the Congress Party and Lok Sabha as well.Launch of Jan Morcha and Janata DalSingh, along with Arun Nehru and Arif Mohammad Khan, established an opposition party in 1987 andcalled it Jan Morcha. He defeated Sunil Shastri and was elected to Lok Sabha once again in tightlycontested by-election in Allahabad. Later on October 11, 1988, Jan Morcha, Janata Party, Lok Dal, andCongress (S) were merged into a new party titled Janata Dal. This was a step to bring all the partiesopposing Rajiv Gandhi government together. V.P. Singh was appointed as the President of the party.Later, other regional parties, like DMK, TDP, and AGP came in to enlarge the party and re-name it asNational Front (India). Singh became the convener while N.T. Rama Rao became the President.Tenure as a Prime MinisterIn the 1989 elections, the National Front joined hands with the right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party andCommunist Left Front, both serving as anti-Congress votes. Along with its allies, the National Frontearned a major win in the Lok Sabha and decided to form a separate government. However, BJP and theCommunists refused to serve in the government and opted for support from outside only. In themeeting on December 1, 1989, Singh recommended the name of Devi Lal, in spite of him being a clearcandidate against Rajiv. Devi Lal rejected the proposal and suggested that Singh should take on the postof Prime Minister. Surprisingly, Chandra Shekhar, the former head of Janata Dal and biggest rival ofSingh opted out of the cabinet. V.P. Singh became the seventh Prime Minister of India on December 2,1989 and served till November 10, 1990.Just days after he swore as the Indian Prime Minister, Singh faced his first crisis when the daughter ofthe then Home Minister, Mufti Mohammad Sayeed was kidnapped by the terrorists. Left with no option,he agreed to release militants in exchange of the female. He appointed Jagmohan, a controversialformer bureaucrat, as Governor of Jammu and Kashmir who aroused violence in the Valley on orderingtroops to fire on the funeral procession of the unofficial head of Kashmiri Islam, the Mirwaiz. However,in Punjab, he appointed Siddhartha Shankar Roy as Governor who planned fresh elections. Further, heordered to withdraw IPKF from Sri Lanka and stopped the then Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhuttofrom starting a border war. On the recommendation of the Mandal Commission, Singh passed a fixedquota reservation for all jobs in public sector for people falling under the historically disadvantaged
  • 275. “Other Backward Classes” (abbreviated as OBC). However, this resulted in strong objection from non-OBC youth in urban areas of North India.In an attempt to acquire control over Larsen & Toubro by the Reliance Group, the government-ownedfinancial institutions, like Life Insurance Corporation of India and General Insurance Corporation delayedthe attempts in 1990. As such, the Ambanis resigned from the board of the company. With this, evenDhirubhai Ambani who had just become the Chairman in April 1989 had too also quit and was replacedby D.N. Ghosh, the former chairman of State Bank of India. Meanwhile, BJP was gathering support fromHindu masses and Hindu organizations in large numbers. The BJP president, Lal Krishna Advani,organized a rath yatra to invite more support but was arrested on Singh’s orders before he could reachAyodhya. As such, Advani proposed the kār-seva (demolition of the mosque and construction of thetemple) on October 30, 1990 but was stopped by Singh by planting troops at the site. This led to thesuspension of BJP’s support to the National Front government.Re-launch of Jan MorchaAfter Singh stepped down from the post of Indian Prime Minister, he toured India giving public lecturesand speeches on matters of social justice and his artistic pursuit, especially painting. But after he wasdiagnosed with cancer in 1998, Singh stopped making public appearances. However, with the reductionof cancer, Singh started appearing in public yet again in 2003, particularly in groupings formed by hisJanata Dal. But with his caste-based social justice gave rise to another party called Bahujan Samaj Partythat focused on caste identities. With this, his idea of populist socialism was kicked out of electoralmarketplace. To cure this problem, he re-launched the Jan Morcha in 2006 and appointed Raj Babbar asthe party President. Thereafter, he slowly began the campaigning process of gathering support fromsmaller parties in the north for 2007 Uttar Pradesh elections. With no major wins in the elections, RajBabbar had quit Jan Morcha and joined Congress. Singh’s elder son, Ajeya Pratap Singh took over theparty with hopes of winning in the 2009 general elections. However, in March 2009, Ajeya Singhproposed to merge Jan Morcha with Lok Janshakti Party (LJP). Ajeya, along with other members, wereabsorbed in LJP, with Ajeya being declared as the party Vice-President.Personal LifeV.P. Singh married Rani Sita Kumari, daughter of Rawat Sangram Singh II of Deogarh, Rajasthan, on June25, 1955. The couple had two sons, Ajeya Singh and Abhai Singh.DeathAfter fighting and struggling with multiple myeloma (bone marrow cancer) and renal failure for a longtime, Singh died on November 27, 2008 at Apollo hospital in New Delhi. The last rites were performedby his son Ajeya Singh and Singh was cremated in Allahabad on the banks of River Ganges on November29, 2008. Singh was 77 years old then.Films on Him
  • 276. Juliet Reynolds, an art critic and a close friend of Singh, made a short documentary on him, titled The Artof the Impossible (45 minutes long), and covers his political and artistic career.[43]Suma Josson made another film on Singh titled one more day to live.Books on HimG. S. Bhargava: Peristroika in India: V. P. Singhs prime ministership, Gian publishing house, NewDelhi, 1990.Madan Gaur: V. P. Singh: portrait of a leader, Press and Publicity Syndicate of India, 1990.Seema Mustafa: The lonely prophet: V. P. Singh, a political biography, New Age international, 1995.Ram Bahadur Rai: Manjil se jyada Safar (in Hindi), 2005.Timeline1931: Born in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh1941: Became the 41st Raja Bahadur of Manda1955: Married Rani Sita Kumari on June 251969-71: Elected to Legislative Assembly, Uttar Pradesh1971-74: Served as Member of Parliament in Lok Sabha1974-76: Appointed as Union Deputy Minister of Commerce1976-77: Became Union State Minister of Commerce1980: Served as Member of Parliament in Lok Sabha1980: Appointed as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh1984: Elected as the Finance Minister of India1987: Formed the Jan Morcha1988: Formed Janata Dal, with merge of Jan Morcha, Janata Party, Lok Dal, and Congress (S)1989: Established National Front (India) and became convener1989: Became the seventh Prime Minister of India on December 21990: Stopped L.K. Advani midway on his rath yatra to Ayodhya in October1990: Tenure as Prime Minister ended on November 101998: Diagnosed with cancer2006: Re-launched Jan Morcha2008: Died on November 27 in New Delhi aged 77
  • 277. Charan SinghBorn: December 23, 1902 Noorpur District, Uttar PradeshDied: May 29, 1987Poverty stricken childhood did not destroy Charan Singhs winninginstincts - this in spite of growing up in conditions of extreme scarcity.Charan Singh belonged to the Jat community and established his politicalbase in Western Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. After leading Bhartiya LokDal - that made for a major part of the Janatha coalition - he wasappointed as the Deputy Prime Minister in 1977. Later, Charan Singh wasforced to quit the governing wing of the Bhartiya Lok Dal due to a fewproblems that sprung up in the government. However, he proved hiscapabilities when, with the support of just sixty four MPs, he was swornin as the Prime Minister in 1979. He led the country for just a few months but continued to lead theBhartiya Lok Dal till his last breath. As the Prime Minister of India, Charan Singh was forced to step downdue to the withdrawal of support by the Indian National Congress. A memorial was made for him in NewDelhi which was called the Kisan Ghat, thus paying tribute to all the farming communities that hehelped.Early LifeCharan Singh was born in the year 1902 in Noorpur which falls within the boundaries of the Meerutdistrict of Uttar Pradesh. He belonged to an extremely poor peasant family which descended from thekinsmen of a prominent freedom fighter of the 1857 revolt. Not many people know this but as ayoungster, he excelled in academics at all stages.CareerWith a clean record in academics, in the year 1925, Charan Singh got his masters degree in Arts. He thenacquired a degree in law in the year 1926 post which he decided to join the Indian National Congress. In1929, Charan Singh shifted to Meerut and joined the Congress. He was first elected to the U.P.Legislative Assembly in 1937 from Chhatrauli and represented this constituency repeatedly in 1946,1952, 1962 and 1967. The year 1951 saw Charan Singh being made the Cabinet Minister of U.P., with theDepartments of Justice and Information being handed over to him. Due to a split in the Congress, he waschosen as the Chief Minister of U.P. in 1970. He was known for being an extremely giftedparliamentarian and a level-headed pragmatist. He was responsible for bringing the Land Holding Act1960 during his reign as Chief Minister for he was an extremely dedicated public worker and a staunchbeliever in social justice. Charan Singh authored several books including Abolition of Zamindari, Co-operative Farming X-rayed, Indias Poverty and its Solution, Peasant Proprietorship or Land to theWorkers and Prevention of Division of Holdings below a Certain Minimum. In the year 1979, Charan
  • 278. Singh was chosen as the Prime Minister of India, although his reign did not last for too long owing to lackof support from the INC (Indian National Congress).Roles Played In PoliticsCharan Singh, under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi, joined the freedom struggle in his initial days asa politician. Later, in 1952, he was made the Revenue Minister of Uttar Pradesh and one of his majorcontributions includes steps taken against the Zamindari system which also helped bring about the LandReform Acts.Charan Singh was a strong opponent of Nehrus socialism which made him fall out with the Congress. Heleft the Congress in 1967 to form his own independent party known as the Bharatiya Lok Dal (BLD). Hethen became the Parliamentary Secretary in Pandit Govind Ballabh Pants government and in the year1951, he was made Cabinet Minister with full charge of the Departments of Justice and Informationunder him. Later, he took over as the Minister for Revenue and Agriculture in the Cabinet of Dr.Sampurnanand.In Shri C.B. Guptas ministry he was made the Minister for Home and Agriculture (1960). Charan Singhalso served as Minister for Agriculture and Forests (1962-63) in Smt. Sucheta Kripalanis ministry. Hegave up the Department of Agriculture in 1965 and assumed charge of the local self-governmentdepartment in 1966. After the Congress split, he became the Chief Minister of U.P. in February 1970with the support of the Congress Party. However, Presidents rule was imposed in the State on October2, 1970 and his authority was diluted.Charan Singh served Uttar Pradesh in various capacities and won himself the reputation of a taskmasterwho would not tolerate disorganization, favoritism and dishonesty in his administration.DeathHe died on the 29th of May, 1987 after adding his own twist to the world of politics.The Amausi Airport in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh is also called as Chaudhary Charan Singh InternationalAirport after him. The university of Meerut city in Uttar Pradesh, India, is also named after him(Chaudhary Charan Singh University).Charan Singh has written several books. Some of them are:Indias Economic Policy - The Gandhian BlueprintEconomic Nightmare of India - Its Cause and CureCooperative Farming X-rayed
  • 279. Timeline1902: Born at Noorpur in Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh1926: Completed post-graduation in Arts1927: Became a lawyer1937: Elected to the Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh1938: Introduced the Agricultural Produce Market Bill which was well accepted1952: Became the Cabinet minister of Uttar Pradesh1952: Became the Revenue minster of Uttar Pradesh1962: Started serving as the Minister of Agriculture and Forests1970: Chosen as the Chief Minister of U.P. with the support of Congress1977: Granted the post of Deputy Prime Minister of India1979: Became the Prime Minister of India1980: Resigned as Prime Minister on account of withdrawal of support from the allied parties1987: Passed away on 29th of May at an age of 85.
  • 280. Pandit Madan Mohan MalaviyaBorn: December 25, 1861 AllahabadDied: November 12, 1946Mahatma considered him as an elder brother and would refer to him as"Maker of India". Jawahar Lal Nehru called him "a great soul, one of thosewho laid the foundation of modern Indian Nationalism". He is PanditMadan Mohan Malaviya, popularly known as Mahamana (an honorific). Hewas a politician who left many at loss of words when he spoke, aneducationist whose contribution is evident in the form of Banaras HinduUniversity (one of the finest educational institutions in India), and a devoutfreedom fighter who left no stone unturned in Indias quest forindependence and whose patriotism remained unbroken from youth till death. Truly, a source ofinspiration to many!Pandit Malviya was one of the founder’s ofScouting in India. He also founded a highly influential,English-newspaper, The Leaderpublished from Allahabad in 1909.Early LifeMadan Mohan Malaviya was born on 25th December, 1861 in Allahabad to a Brahmin family. He wasamong the eight children that his father, Pandit Baijnath, and mother, Meena Devi had. His earlyeducation began at the age of five when he was sent to a Mahajani school. After that he joined areligious school under the guidance of Haradevaji. It was here that his mind was greatly influenced byHindu religion and Indian culture. In 1868, he joined the recently founded Government high school andcontinued studying further. It was in 1879 that he completed his matriculation from Muir CentralCollege, which is now known as Allahabad University. In 1884, he completed his B.A from CalcuttaUniversity and became a teacher in Allahabad district school at a salary of Rs. 40 per month. He furtherwanted to pursue M.A but due to financial conditions, could not.CareerMadan Mohans career as a politician and freedom fighter began in 1886 when under the chairmanshipof Dadabhai Naoroji; he attended the 2nd session of the Indian National Congress held in Calcutta. Andit was in this very session that he delivered an unforgettable speech that had every single listener allears for it. The impression that he left on Maharaja Shri Ram Pal Singh was of the highest order and RamPal Singh offered him a position as an editor of a weekly "The Hindustan" and handed over themanagement to him. After serving as an editor for two and a half years, he left the post and went backto Allahabad to pursue L.L.B. In 1891 he completed his L.L.B and started practicing law at the AllahabadDistrict Court. And in 1893, he progressed to Allahabad High Court where he practiced law.
  • 281. Malviya Ji became the president of the Indian National Congress in 1909, 1918, 1930 and 1932. Likemany of the contemporary leaders of Indian National Congress he was a Moderate.in 1913, he also started a Scouting inspired organisation called Seva SamithiIn 1907, Madan Mohan started a Hindi weekly Abhyudaya and made it a daily in 1915. During thisperiod, he launched a few monthlies in Hindi and another daily in English. It was in 1909 that MadanMohan became the President of The Indian National Congress for the first time. Although Scouting inIndia was officially founded during the British Raj in 1909, it were the combined efforts of Madan MohanMalaviya, Justice Vivian Bose, Pandit Hridayanath Kunzru, Girija Shankar Bajpai, Annie Besant, andGeorge Arundale that scouting for the native Indians was started in 1913. He remained a member of theImperial Legislative Council from 1912 until 1926, even after it was converted to Central LegislativeAssembly in 1919. It was in the 21st session of the Indian National Congress held in Banaras that MadanMohan shared his idea to build a Hindu University. It was in 1915 that the Banaras Hindu University billwas passed and on 4th February 1916 the Banaras Hindu University was established. Till date, it remainsan eminent institution of learning in India.Although in 1911, Madan Mohan had given up his legal practice in order to serve the cause of educationand society, it didnt stop him from taking it up again to defend 177 freedom fighters who had beenconvicted to be hanged following the charges in the Chouri Choura case. Out of 177 convicts, 156 weredeclared "not guilty". In 1912, Madan Mohan became a member of the Imperial Legislative Council andremained a member till 1926. He played an important role in the Non-Cooperation movement startedby Mahatma Gandhi in 1920 and joined many stalwarts of Indian History like Lala Lajpat Rai, Jawahar LalNehru along with many others to protest against the Simon Commission. On 30th May 1932, MadanMohan issued a manifesto, recommending shifting focus on Buy India movement. When independencewas at hand, Madam Mohan cautioned Mahatma Gandhi not to accept independence at the cost ofdivision of the country. He opposed the separate electorates for Muslims under the Lucknow Pact of1916 and also opposed the participation of Congress in the Khilafat movement in early 20s.Just as the "Buy British" campaign was sweeping England, he issued, on 30 May 1932, a manifesto urgingconcentration on the "Buy Indian" movement in India.He also represented India at the First Round Table Conference in 1930. Malviya Ji popularised theslogan Satyameva Jayate (Truth alone will triumph).Madan Mohan left the position of vice chancellorship of BHU and was succeeded by none other than S.Radhakrishnan, who went on to become the President of India. Just when "Hindustan Times" was facinga downfall and was about to shut down, Madan Mohan stepped in as a savior. He had realized theimportance and the role that a daily newspaper could play and thus, with the monetary help fromnationalist leaders Lajpat Rai and M. R. Jayakar and industrialist G. D. Birla, he acquired the paper. Until1946, he held the seat of the Chairman. It was due to his efforts that the newspaper launched a Hindiedition of the same in 1936. The paper is now owned by the Birla family.
  • 282. Personal LifeIt was at the age of sixteen that Madan Mohan Malaviya got married to Kundan Devi of Mirzapur in1878. They had ten children: five sons and five daughters.DeathCarrying on with ill-health for the last few years of his life, Madan Mohan Malaviya passed away on 12thNovember 1946. He is survived by his granddaughter Dr. Manju Malaviya Sharma from his daughterRama.Legacy• Malaviya Nagar in Allahabad, Lucknow, Delhi, Bhopal, and Jaipur has been named after MadanMohan Malaviya.• A postage stamp has been been printed in India in his honor.• Malaviya National Institute of Technology (Jaipur) and Madan Mohan Malaviya EngineeringCollege (Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh) have been named after him.• The daily aarti that is performed at Har Ki Pauri, Haridwar was initiated by Madan MohanMalaviya.• There exists a bust of Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya in front of the main Gate leading to theAssembly Hall and outside the porch At BHU. The same was inaugurated by the former Lt.Governor of Delhi, Dr. A.N. Jha on the birth anniversary of Madan Mohan on December 25,1971.• The Malviya Dwipa, a small island across the ghat, named after him.• On 25 December 2008, on his birth anniversary, the national memorial of Mahamana MadanMohan Malaviya was inaugurated by former president A P J Abdul Kalam at 53, Deen DayalUpadhyaya Marg, in Delhi.Timeline1861: Madan Mohan Malaviya was born in Allahabad.1878: He got married to Kundan Devi.1879: Completed his matriculation from Muir Central College.1884: Completed his B.A from Calcutta University. Also became a teacher in Allahabad District School.1886: Attended 2nd Congress session in Calcutta under chairmanship of Dadabhai Naoroji.1887: Joined as an editor of Nationalist weekly.1889: Left the editorship and went to Allahabad to pursue L.L.B.
  • 283. 1891: Completed his L.L.B and started practicing law at Allahabad District Court.1893: Advanced up and started practicing law at Allahabad High Court.1907: Started a Hindi weekly called Abhyudaya.1909: Became the president of Indian National Congress.1910: Started a Hindi monthly called Maryada.1911: Left his well established practicing of law to serve to the society.1912-1926: Served as a member of the Imperial Legislative Council.1914-1946: Served as the President of All India Seva Samiti.1915: Played a key role in passing of the Banaras Hindu University bill.1916: Banaras Hindu university was established.1916-1918: Served as a member of Industrial Commission.1919-1939: Served as the Vice Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University.1924-1946: Served as the Chairman of Board of directors of the Hindustan Times.1928: Protested against the Simon Commission.1931: Represented India in the first round table conference.1932: Issued a manifesto urging concentration on "Buy India" movement in India.1939: Was appointed as the Life Rector of Banaras Hindu University.1941: Founded Goraksha Mandal.1946: Madan Mohan Malaviya died on November 12.
  • 284. T.T. KrishnamachariBorn: 1899Died: 1974Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachari or T.T. Krishnamachari, was a manmost noted for being the Finance Minister of the Union Governmentof India. T.T. Krishnamachari, however, distinguished himself as aneconomics genius and this was mostly because he enjoyed not one,but two terms of power as the Finance Minister of India. As far as hisname goes, he was popularly known as TTK and hardly ever referredto as Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachari. As a politician, T.T.Krishnamachari owed his loyalties to the Indian National Congressand he remained faithful to this party to the very end. Many people know that T.T. Krishnamachari wasthe Finance Minister of India, but not too many people that he was also a visiting professor at theDepartment of Economics in Madras Christian College. Apart from being noted for being the nationalFinance Minister, T.T. Krishnamachari was also recognized for being the member of the draftingcommittee, a successful entrepreneur and a prominent Congress leader.Early LifeNot too many details are known about the early life of Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachari but, fromwhat is known, it is easy to establish that he was born into a Tamil Brahmin family. Post his initial yearsof schooling, T.T. Krishnamachari went on to study and graduate from the Madras Christian College orMCC as it is popularly known.CareerT.T. Krishnamachari was mostly known for being one of the most prominent founders of modern India.He proved extremely helpful in drafting the constitution as a very prominent member of the DraftingCommittee and also helped build the economic and industrial infrastructure of the country. Suchaccomplishments, under no means, can be considered ordinary. Speaking strictly in terms of a career,T.T. Krishnamachari began his career as a businessman, in the strictest sense of the term. He started offsmall, but went on to plant the foundation of the vastly successfully consumer goods firm called "TTKrishnamachari & Co." in 1928 in Chennai. The business he established is now popularly known as theTTK Group and deals with a wide array of products including kitchenware, personal care,pharmaceuticals, medical devices, baby care, etc. Soon after the company began to flourish, in spite ofthe competition, T.T. Krishnamachari shifted his focus to politics, and here too he managed to earn anenviable reputation for himself.
  • 285. Political LifeFor T.T. Krishnamachari, it all began when he was initially elected to the Madras Legislative Assembly asan independent member. From here on there was no looking back for him and he went on to join theIndian National Congress. In 1946, he was made a part of the Constituent Assembly at the Centre.From 1952 to 1965, he enjoyed the responsibility of being Central Minister twice. He was made the firstMinster of Commerce and Industry and then actually went to become the finance minister.Apart from the key positions mentioned above, T.T. Krishnamachari was made and remained in chargeof the steel ministry for a considerable amount of time. He became minister again in 1962, but this timearound he was not handed any portfolio. But within a short span of time, he was made the Minister forEconomic and Defense Corporation. Right after this responsibility was given to him, it was withdrawnand T.T. Krishnamachari was made the Finance Minister for the second time.As far as achievements are concerned, T.T. Krishnamachari had quite a lot of them under his belt. Heproved to be extremely useful in the setting up of some of Indias biggest steel plants. Thisnotwithstanding, he also played a very prominent role in the setting up of financial institutions like IDBI,UTI and ICICI in the country. During his two stints as the Finance Minister of India, T.T Krishnamachariintroduced quite a number of path breaking reforms that, to this very day, are still looked up to.T.T. Krishnamachari was a major believer and activist of social security measures that needed to betaken every now and then to ensure equitability in the country. He expanded pension schemes to helpprovide cover for the family members of deceased government servants and introduced this concept asthe Family Pension Scheme in 1964. If you look back now, you will realize that beneficial schemes suchas the Rajasthan Canal Schemes, Damodar Valley Project and even the Dandakaranya Valley Projectcan all trace their roots to T.T. Krishnamachari. A great man indeed!Sadly though, just like some of the greatest men of his times, T.T. Krishnamachari also found himselfinvolved in a scandal called the Mundhra scandal. Although he didnt really have a large or obvious roleto play in it, this scandal scarred the image of T.T. Krishnamachari, ultimately forcing him to let go off hisresponsibilities.Later Life And DeathIn spite of being as active as he was in politics, T.T. Krishnamachari decided to hang his gloves for goodwhen he resigned from the post of Minister in 1965. This he did when his term as Member ofParliament was over. After bidding adieu to politics, he continued to lead an intellectually stimulatinglife. Not once did he make it seem like he resigned from his important post for recreational purposes.Sadly however, age and illnesses caught up with T.T. Krishnamachari and he breathed his last in 1974.Timeline1899: Born into an orthodox Tamil Brahmin family1928: Started off T.T. Krishnamachari & Co.1946: Was made a part of the Constituent Assembly at the Centre
  • 286. 1956: Was made Union Finance Minister of India for the first time1964: Was made Finance Minister for the second time1965: Resigned from the post of Finance Minister1974: Breathed his last at the age of 75
  • 287. T. SadasivamBorn: September 4, 1902 AangaraiDied: November 22, 1997T. Sadasivam or Thiagaraja Sadasivam, or Kalki Thiagaraja Sadasivam asthe man was popularly known, was one of the greatest freedom fighters tohail from the peninsular India. Apart from being noted for his contributionto the revolts against British rule, Thiagaraja Sadasivam was known forbeing a talented singer, a writer and a journalist. Not many people mayknow this but Thiagaraja Sadasivam, being the man that he was, was alsonoted for his contributions to the world of film production. One of thegreatest achievements that graced the life of T. Sadasivam was when he, along with KalkiKrishnamurthy, started off the renowned Tamil magazine Kalki! Apart from all these claims to fame, T.Sadasivam was well-known as the spouse of one of Indias most respected classical carnatic singers M.S.Subbulakshmi.Early LifeLooking at it from any angle, the life of T. Sadasivam was anything but ordinary. For T. Sadasivam, thejourney began in Aangarai, Tiruchirapalli District of Madras Presidency on September 4th, 1902 wherehe was born into an orthodox Brahmin family - however, the boy, at a very young age, managed to leantowards things less orthodox. It may surprise you to know that as a boy, the young T. Sadasivam, leftschool only to join the freedom struggle. Initially, he associated himself with the revolutionary chunk ofthe freedom movement, but with time, he adopted Gandhijis philosophy of ahimsa. Legend has it that avery fiery T. Sadasivam once ran behind the horse drawn carriage of the explosive freedom fighterSubramania Siva and asked him if he could join the Bharat Samaj. Surprised by the intrusion,Subramania Siva asked the youngster if he was ready to die for his country. Being as bold as he was, T.Sadasivam was quick to reply in the positive.CareerBy 1920, Sadasivam found himself being a part of the Civil Disobedience Movement that was led by C.Rajagopalachari. This participation in a way helped him stage his musical talents. As T. Sadasivammarched from village to village, the fervor he exhibited while singing patriotic songs was infectious andpeople were quick to get inspired by his talent and dedication towards the common cause of freedom.Life threw a loveable card at T. Sadasivam during the month of July, 1936 when he met M.S.Subbulaksmi. They were a great match from the word go. M.S. Subbulaksmi, a renowned classical singer,was quick to support and subscribe to T. Sadasivams ideological and political views. Sadasivam, on theother hand, was always more than willing to support and guide the musical career of Subbulaksmi.However, their romance couldnt culminate into a marriage then as Sadasivam was already married to
  • 288. Smt. Apithakuchambal and had also fathered two daughters, Radha and Vijaya, with her. It was onlyafter the death of his first wife that he married Subbulaksmi on July 10, 1940.The year 1941 saw a turn in the life of T. Sadasivam. This was the year in which he, along with his friendKalki R. Krishnamurti, launched the magazine "Kalki". The newspaper was a national weekly and went onto become a roaring success. Post the death of Krishnamurti, who was the editor of the newspaper,Sadasivam, in 1954, took control of the reigns of the magazine. As far as the qualities and standards ofKalki went, Sadasivam was adamant, all the while refusing to make compromises of any sort on the kindof content that went into it.As a friend, Sadasivam was really one of the best. The friendships he made at a very young age lasted forlife. He was also noted for being extremely charitable and accommodating when it came to helping theneedy and he always assisted the unemployed in securing employment. Anyone who knew anythingabout Sadasivam could tell you that this gem of a man along with his wife, M.S. Subbulaksmi, madeextensive contributions of almost over Rs. 4 crores towards charity.A little on the last goal of T. Sadasivams life - The man took it on himself to raise funds for building aMani Mandapam in honour of his spiritual leader, late Chandrasekharendra Saraswati, theSankaracharya of Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham. The Mani Mandapam was to be built near Kanchipuramand T. Sadasivam proved that just like how he was devoted to his friends, he was devoted to his gurutoo. He literally worshipped his leader, looking up to him as a God on earth.DeathKalki Thiagaraja Sadasivam passed away at the ripe old age of 95 on November 22, 1997 in thesouthern city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India.LegacyAlthough T. Sadasivam is no more, his legend still lives on. He was one of the last freedom fighters whohappened to stay away from political activities post C. Rajagopalacharis death. However, T. Sadasivamsconcern and love for the nation and people who sought his help stayed steadfast until his dying breath.Timeline1902: Born at Aangarai, Tiruchirapalli District, Madras Presidency, India1920: Played an active role in the Civil Disobedience Movement1936: Met his wife-to-be M.S. Subbulakshmi1940: Married M.S Subbulaksmi, post the passing way of his first wife1941: Along with friend Kalki R. Krishnamurti, starts off Kalki, a national weekly1997: Dies in the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 289. Acharya Narendra DevBorn: October 31, 1889 SitapurDied: February 19, 1956"The death of Acharya Narendra Dev is something much bigger for many ofus and, I think, for the country than just the passing away of an importantperson... He was a man of rare distinction--distinction in many fields--rare inspirit, rare in mind and intellect, rare in integrity of mind and otherwise...There is the public sense of loss and there is the private sense of loss and afeeling that somebody of rare distinction has gone and it will be verydifficult to find his like again." The very words of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehruin the emotional obituary in Rajya Sabha are enough to explain the importance of Acharya Narendra Devand his contribution to the country. He was a socialist leader, a nationalist, and an educationist whobelieved that education as the primary means for bringing an economic, social, and political revolutionin the country. Even though he was a Marxist; he was believer of national identity and spirit. Eventhough he was an agnostic; he served with all sincerity, compassion, and love, like a god man. Its thethings like these that separated him from the rest.Early LifeNarendra Dev, born on 31st October 1889 in Sitapur, Uttar Pradesh was the second eldest son amongthe four sons of father Baldeva Prasad and mother Jawahar Devi. As a child, Narendra was deeplyimpressed by Swami Rama Tirtha and Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya who were among the many saintsand scholars welcomed by his father. Narendra was only ten when he accompanied his father to asession of Indian National Congress held at Lucknow in 1899. At the age of fifteen Narendra was marriedand had a son and a daughter. However, the children died soon and his wife after a few years later. Hisearly education came in Sanskrit and scriptures from the pundits that used to visit his house.His formal education, he joined the local high school and proved his brilliance by passing the entranceexamination in first division in 1906. For further education he joined the Muir Central College atAllahabad and passed his intermediate, also, in first division. By 1911 he had completed his B.A, by 1913he had completed his M.A, and completed his L.L.B in 1915. Many prominent leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai,Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Aurobindo Ghosh, Bipin Chandra Pal, and many others had left an inerasableimpression on Narendra Dev during his stay at Allahabad. Soon after Bal Gangadhar Tilak had beenreleased from the prison, Narendra met with him and conveyed his eagerness to participate in theIndian Freedom Movement on an active basis.
  • 290. CareerHis political career officially initiated when he started a branch of the Home Rule League in 1916. It wasabout the same time when Jawaharlal Nehru asked him to join Kashi Vidyapeeth in Benares. With Dr.Bhagwan Das as the principal and Sri Prakash and Sampurnanand as his colleagues; he thought of it as aperfect opportunity to combine all his passions: studying, teaching, and active political work. It was in1922 that his father passed away, Narendra Dev started to accept a small salary of Rs. 150 per month;before that he had refused to work for salary. From Narendra Dev to Acharya Narendra Dev; thetransition happened when he was appointed as the Principal of Kashi Vidyapeeth after Dr. Bhagwan Dasretirement from the same.In 1928, Acharya Narendra Dev joined and worked as a secretary of the Independence League of India.Later in 1929, he led the boycott of Simon Commission in Benares. And later in 1930, he participated inthe Civil Disobedient Movement and was imprisoned for a period of three months. Twice in his careerAcharya Narendra Dev was elected to the U.P. legislative Assembly but both times he refused to join thecabinet, as the Congress Socialist Party was not in favor of such participation. For the SatyagrahaMovement (1940) and the Quit India Movement (1942), Acharya Narendra Dev was arrested yet againand imprisoned for three years. After Gandhis death, he left the Congress party and formed the Socialistparty that later merged with the Kisan Majdoor Praja Party of J.B. Kripalani in 1952 and became thePraja Socialist Party - to which he remained associated till the end.Last YearsIt was in 1954 that the asthmatic attacks that Acharaya Narendra Dev had been suffering for nearly twodecades and got even worse. It was then that his friends persuaded him to take a trip to Europe fortreatment. The treatment did provide a relief, but too much strain in the professional lane proved to beof much pain and on 19th February 1956, Acharya Narendra Dev passed away in the city of Erode.Timeline1889: Narendra Dev was born.1899: Attended, with his father, a session of Indian National Congress at Lucknow.1904: Got married at the age of fifteen.1911: Completed his graduation as a B.A.1913: Completed his post graduation as an M.A.1915: Successfully completed L.L.B.1921: Started teaching at Kashi Vidyapeeth in Benares.1926: Became the Acharya or Principal of Kashi Vidyapeeth in Benares.1928: Joined the Independence of India League as its secretary.1947-1951: Served as the Vice Chancellor of the Lucknow University.1951-1953: Served as the Vice Chancellor of the Benares University.1956: Narendra Dev died at the age of 67
  • 291. Jatindranath MukherjeeBorn: December 7, 1879 KushtiaDied: September 10, 1915Jatindranath Mukherjee, fondly remembered as Bagha Jatin, was one of thechief Bengali revolutionaries fighting against British rule in India. From avery young age, Bagha Jatin became the leader of the Yugantar politicalparty in Bengal, which was instrumental in organizing revolutionaryactivities against the British. Though it was the English rule that he wasfighting against, most Englishmen loved and respected JatindranathMukherjee. Charles Augustus Tegart, a police officer in British Indiafamously commented that Bengali revolutionaries are a breed of selfless political workers and BaghaJatin was a shining example. Apart from the conflict against the British, he was also involved in theGerman Plot of World War I.ChildhoodJatindranath Mukherjee was born on December 7, 1879 in the Kayagram village of the Kushtiasubdivision of Nadia district of Bengal. Kayagram is presently situated in Bangladesh. Immediately afterhis birth, Jatindranath Mukherjee was sent to Sadhuhati, his fathers ancestral home, and stayed theretill his fathers death when he was only 5 years of age. He then returned to Kayagram to live in the homeof his mothers parents. As a child Jatindranath Mukherjee was widely known for his physical strengthand courage. While he was a born leader, there was another side to Jatindranath Mukherjees characterwhich was lesser seen. As a kid, Jatin was jovial and very charitable. He loved to watch and act in playsbased on mythology. Most importantly, he never discriminated between people based on their social orreligious status. He lent a helping hand to Muslims just like he would have helped a Hindu and this waslarg