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  1. 1. UNIT 3. IMPROVING THE PHYSICAL CONDITION (page 44) 1. REASONS TO IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL CONDITION (page 46) We workout to improve our physical condition and to get more out of the sport activity we are practicing. Multiple medical studies prove that the systematic performance of physical exercises throughout life has a lot of advantages. Maintaining a good physical condition has a lot of benefits. There is no limit to what age you can start training nor is there any limit to the age you should stop training. The important thing is that in every moment the intensity and duration must be adequate to the characteristic of those that practice it. Reasons to train - To maintain a good physical condition - To lose weight - To improve specific physical aspects - To improve on the sport - To recuperate the physical condition after an injury or illness - To release stress Having good physical condition doesn’t mean being a “super athlete”. It focuses on developing the capability to achieve success with the physical activities that you practice. Your physical condition depends on your personal characteristics. General advices to create your training program - Choose exercises adapted to your personal characteristics and capability. - Be realistic. Estimate your level. Do not overestimate yourself - Be consistent to notice improvement, dedicate time every week to training - Look for fun ways to train in order to stay motivated - Check your improvement often. It will help you set new goals and be satisfied with your achievement.
  2. 2. 2. HOW TO PROGRESS ON THE TRAINING (page 47) One of the principles of training is progression. As we do strenuous exercises, your organs get exhausted and then recuperate to a superior level. This process is called principle of supercompensation (graphic) This way, you can gradually increase the training load (the total amount of work that you should perform). When performing a set of exercises, you should ask yourself: how many times do I perform an exercise? How many repetitions? How many miles? How long? This is the quantitative aspect called VOLUME Next, ask: At what speed? "Slow or fast? This is the qualitative aspect called INTENSITY The load depends on two factors: Volume and intensity. Training Load = volume (duration+ frequency) + training intensity (pace/power) Volume: Is the parameter that indicates the quantity of training, or how many you perform. According to this type of training, volume can be expressed in the following forms: - Total distance covered (number of meters) - Total time of workout - Number of exercises needed - Number of reps needed Intensity: Is the factor that indicates the quality of the training, or how much effort you put into it Is the measure of effort applied during the volume. It can be measured in many ways (example: heart rate). According to the type of training, we can express the intensity with the following parameter: - % of effort - Velocity of execution - Weight - Difficulty of the exercises
  3. 3. There is an inverse proportional relationship between intensity and volume. "The harder you do it, the less time you can do it". The width of the red triangle shows the intensity of the session. The width of the tan triangle denotes the duration for which you can hold the intensity. The volume and intensity in the development of physical capabilities As we increase the volume of the workout, we decrease the intensity and vice versa. If I run long distances (high volume) I must use a low speed (low intensity) in order to endure the effort. Physical quality Intensity Volume Endurance Medium-low High Strength High Medium-low Speed Maximum Low Flexibility Low Medium
  4. 4. 3. PHASES TO CREATE YOUR TRAINING PROGRAM (page 48) Question Answer Which aspect do I want to improve? 3.1 Establish a goal of training In which condition am I? 3.2 Evaluate the start level Where do I want to be? 3.3 Set goals that you want to achieve What am I going to do to achieve my goals and how am I going to do it? 3.4 Choose the training activities and their distribution How can I evaluate if I have achieved my goals? 3.5 Evaluate the level reached 3.1. Establish a goal for training Which aspect I want to improve? What kind of capacity do I have to develop? What are the methods I need to achieve them? Here are some examples: Examples of goals for training Goals for training Methods to achieve them When I play a game I get Improve the aerobic and - jogging increasing intervals tired and my endurance anaerobic resistance - Fartlek decreases - Continuous exercises of the sport maintaining the rhythm while increasing the intervals I want to increase my Increase maximum -Do exercises with auto load muscular body mass force and resistance - weights ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I want to lose weight Increase aerobic - continuous low intensity run resistance increasing the intervals -Resistance exercises (lots of medium intensity reps) -Swimming, cycling When I play a game I get Improve reaction speed -Sports and exercises with reaction late to the balls and Improve maximum speed speed the opponent goes Improve running -Exercises to improve the running ahead of me technique technique -Speed running -Circuits with obstacles to improve reaction speed, maximum speed and coordination I can’t do certain elements Improve flexibility -Individual stretching exercises in gymnastics due to lack of -Stretches with a partner’s help flexibility. I tend to injure myself -Balancing exercises to improve the articular mobility
  5. 5. 3.2 Evaluate the initial level (page 49) It is important to know our initial level in order to set an adequate training for our characteristics. To do so we use tests. Tests to evaluate the physical qualities Tests to evaluate the physical qualities Endurance - 1000 meters test -Cooper test (12’) -one mile test Flexibility - Bend and reach - Bend deep Strength -Sit ups -Vertical jump -Long jump -Medicine ball throw -Push ups Speed -20 meters run -40 meters run -5 x 10 meters These tests must: - Be clear and easy to do - Be done correctly Have a scale to establish the level
  6. 6. 3.3. Set goals to achieve 3.4. Choose training activities and their distribution TRAINING SESSION (page 53) Every session must last between 50 minutes to 2 hours based on the type of workout. In addition, it must have a specific objective and be related to the previous sessions of the program. Next we will explain the most important aspects of a training session. 1. Warm up • Duration: 10 to 20 minutes. • The more intense the activity, the longer your warm up should be. • You should warm up the muscles that are going to be used in the session. 2. Main Part • Duration: 40 to 90 minutes. In this part we perform activities to develop the areas we wish to improve. • The distribution of your exercises should be performed according to the following order : - Exercises that require concentration or coordination of movements (technique and tactic of the sport, running technique, reaction speed, coordination and agility exercises) - Exercises of great intensity (speed and strength) - Exercises of less intensity (resistance) • You should take short breaks to rest, especially if the session is long 3. Cool down • Duration: 10 to 20 minutes. The purpose of this is to reestablish normality after an intense workout and it is needed for a full body recovery. • Stretching, relaxation, breathing exercises or light games should be performed. • When finished, your heart rate should return to normal and you should also have a feeling of relaxation.
  7. 7. 4. CONCLUSION (page 55) In conclusion, the main aspects that you have to consider when setting a training program: 1. Set realistic goals. Evaluate your capabilities and establish an adequate level of improvement 2. Choose and achieve correctly the tests so that the obtained data is reliable 3. In a workout session, first do the high intensity exercises or the ones that require the most concentration and leave the low intensity for the end 4. Do not perform high intensity workouts (strength and speed) two days in a row. Do not perform more than 2 or 3 sessions in a week 5. Exercises that improve your flexibility: at least 4 days a week 6. You can do resistance workouts everyday 7. As we advance in the progress sessions, we can increase the difficulty of the exercises to continue our improvement 8. If you notice that the training is too hard, decrease the intensity or take a day off: this will avoid discouragement and injuries 9. Remember that the success of training depends on continuity: try to be constant 10. You can use a few days to do fun activities (games): this way you will keep on exercising and it will be more pleasant. Take advantage of daily routine activities to train To make your training program more pleasant take advantage of your daily routine activities (go do errands, play with your friends) and transform them. See how a student did it to develop resistance: MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY Swimming Hockey Swimming Hockey Play Go hiking on game in Do errands game in a game the mountain P.E. class on my bike P.E. class with my friends with my friends friends family Walk to Continuous Walk to Continuous Walk to Go biking school running in school running in school with my P.E. class Football P.E. class Go dancing friends game with with friends friends