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Transcript

  • 1. Lead
    Amber Stacy
  • 2. Basic Information:
    Atomic Number
    Atomic Symbol
    Atomic Weight
    Lead is a bluish-white metallic substance
    Very soft, malleable, & ductile
    Very poor conductor of electricity
    Pewter is one of many alloys of lead
  • 3. Sources:
    Lead is primarily obtained from galena (PbS) by a roasting process
    Other common lead minerals are:
    Anglesite (PbSO4)
    Cerussite (PbCO3)
    Minim (Pb3O4)
    Native lead is extremely rare
  • 4. Uses:
    Lead has a wide variety of Uses:
    (Includes both current & prior uses)
    Cable covering
    Batteries
    Plumbing
    Ammunition
    Manufacturing processes
    Insecticides
    Corrosive liquid containment
    Some crystal glass & flint glass
    Paints
    Sound absorption & sound proofing
    Radiation shield around X-ray equipment & nuclear reactors
    Gasoline
  • 5. Health & Environmental Problems:
    Of the 74 lead isotopes, 4 are stable & the rest are radioactive
    Various forms of lead have various solubilities
    Major sources of lead exposure are:
    Lead in paint (inhalation or ingestion)
    Gasoline (inhalation)
    Automobile emissions (inhalation)
    Water, distribution systems, plumbing, & fixtures (ingestion)
    Food (ingestion)
    Lead poisoning is a global environmental & public health hazard
    both children & adults in every region of the world are being exposed to unsafe levels of lead in the environment
    Lead is a cumulative poison, which means is accumulates in the environment and bioaccumulates in living organisms
  • 6. Extent of Threat:
    Major adverse impacts on public health are divided into 4 categories:
    Brain & nervous system damage including the mental development & impairment of children, as well as behavioral problems, learning disabilities, & hearing loss
    Reproductive system interference including premature births, low birth rates, impaired cell growth, & weakened bone & tooth development
    Circulatory system damage including oxygen absorption decrease , blood pressure increase, inhibition of hemoglobin production, & anemia
    Kidney malfunctioning, which can lead to gout, renal failure, blood poisoning (sepsis) , surprisingly hypertension, & of course death
  • 7. Remediation:
    Lead & other heavy metals can be:
    Covered
    Buried
    Removed & recycled
    Moved to a safer location
    Transformed into a less toxic or inert form
    One of the most common remedies used worldwide for lead contaminated soils has been to mix the soils with chemical binders such as Portland cement, then to transfer the contaminated waste to a secure landfill site. However, this method is very expensive & is becoming an increasingly unacceptable solution
  • 8. The End…That’s all folks!!