Ancient Rome


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This presentation is done by Cherisse Adlawan as one of her projects on ITALIAN REGIONS in her Italian 10 class (AY 2013-2014) at the University of the Philippines under Prof. Emanuela Adesini.

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Ancient Rome

  1. 1. Rome: ImportanceRome: Importance “successor” to Greece “carrier” of Greek civilization political model for later Europe measure of success for nations and individuals
  2. 2. Importance, con’tImportance, con’t model for later monarchies model for later, mixed constitutions – Great Britain, U.S., etc. model for most European legal systems model for the concept of citizenship
  3. 3. Roman HistoryRoman History The Regal Age: ca. 779-509 B.C. The Republic: 509-27 B.C. The Empire: 27 B.C.-1453 A.D. – Early Empire: 27 B.C.-325 A.D. – Later Empire: 325 A.D.-1453 A.D.
  4. 4. LocationLocation Italy Tiber River between Etruscan and Greek cities part of the Latin League
  5. 5. Early historyEarly history Indo-European entered Italy ca. 2000 B.C. settled south of the Tiber primitive institutions
  6. 6. The KingsThe Kings Seven kings Romulus historical kings? – the Etruscan kings – the last three
  7. 7. The RepublicThe Republic revolution patricians (2-4%) and plebeians (96- 98%) constitutional government – influenced by Athens? – the constitution of Cleisthenes?
  8. 8. OfficesOffices 2 consuls 2 praetors aediles quaestors dictator
  9. 9. Important institutionsImportant institutions the assemblies the elective offices patron-client relationships The Twelve Tables
  10. 10. Struggle of the OrdersStruggle of the Orders struggle for political participation plebeian institutions: the tribunes the secessions the compromises – no political violence until 133 B.C.
  11. 11. Roman ExpansionRoman Expansion conquest of Veii: Rome’s “Trojan War” gradual expansion for a century the Latin League – extension of citizenship – Romans, half-citizens, Latins, allies – continuous expansion Celts, Samnites, etc.
  12. 12. Expansion, con’tExpansion, con’t Etruscans Greeks Carthage ??? – three Punic Wars – 254, 220, 146 B.C. control of Western Mediterranean
  13. 13. Expansion, con’tExpansion, con’t the Hellenistic Monarchies the Greek Federal Leagues lots of wars, Romans are dragged in...a lot Romans get tired of it control of most of the Med. basin by 100 B.C. but still essentially a city-state
  14. 14. Roman ReligionRoman Religion rustic Italian cults overlay of Greek religion Etruscan influences Romans as “pack rats”
  15. 15. Roman artRoman art best we don’t even talk about that
  16. 16. Roman architectureRoman architecture great skill engineers and architects roads, cities concrete
  17. 17. Roman LiteratureRoman Literature copied from Greek models interests in rhetoric, law, and satire Stoic and Epicurean philosophy
  18. 18. The Late Republic: 133-27 B.C.The Late Republic: 133-27 B.C. introduction of violence into domestic politics competition for status and recognition civil war
  19. 19. Important FiguresImportant Figures Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus Marius and Sulla Pompey the Great, Marcus Crassus, Julius Caesar – First Triumvirate Marc Antony, Marcus Lepidus, Octavian Caesar – Second Triumvirate
  20. 20. Gaius Marius
  21. 21. Gaius JuliusCaesar
  22. 22. Pompey theGreat
  23. 23. Cicero
  24. 24. Octavian Augustus
  25. 25. Octavian aspontifex maximus
  26. 26. Marc Antony
  27. 27. The EmpireThe Empire unification of the Mediterranean basin and western Europe extended citizenship empire-wide commerce Roman law tolerance for local autonomy
  28. 28. The Julio-ClaudiansThe Julio-Claudians Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero
  29. 29. ChangesChanges reduction of political competition end to expansion reduction in the army further extension of citizenship
  30. 30. The FlaviansThe Flavians Year of the Four Emperors (69 A.D.) Vespasian Titus Domitian
  31. 31. The Antonines: the GoodThe Antonines: the GoodEmperorsEmperors Edward Gibbon the height of the Empire the culmination of the pax Romana succession by adoption of the most competent
  32. 32. The Good EmperorsThe Good Emperors Nerva Trajan – strong military leader Hadrian – excellent administrator – Hellenophile Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius – the embodiment of the philosopher king
  33. 33. The Rise of ChristianityThe Rise of Christianity Jesus of Nazareth – teacher, prophet, revolutionary – the Jesus Movement Paul of Tarsus – cultural mixture: Jewish and Greek – founder of Christianity
  34. 34. Rise of Christianity, con’tRise of Christianity, con’t disappearance of Jewish followers: 70 A.D. growth of the Pauline church the poor, women, children, slaves no success among men, the educated, etc. benefits of Roman infrastructure and the pax Romana
  35. 35. Roman suspicionRoman suspicion the First Jewish War “eastern religion” – corrupted the mos maiorum – that is, “traditional family values” rumors of orgies and cannibalism Second Jewish War Trajan’s Rescript
  36. 36. The Crisis of the Third Century End of the practice of adoption The Severian Emperors – the army as a social class – abandonment of the Augustan constitution – collapse of the senate and other organs of state – collapse of the civil adminstration
  37. 37. Crisis, con’t collapse of society – breakdown of social classes collapse of the economy – collapse of trade and coinage barbarian invasions civil wars – Thirty emperors – The Danubian emperors (soldiers)
  38. 38. Crisis, con’t Aurelian - restituor orbis Decius - persecutions of those who corrupt traditional family values Diocletian
  39. 39. Diocletian and Reform The Tetrarchy The Annona The Edict of Maximum Prices The “new provinces” The “eastern frontiers” The “new capitals” The “persecutions” – Edict of Toleration, 311
  40. 40. Constantine The divided empire, united The Battle of the Milvian Bridge The “conversion of Constantine” The Edict of Milan - 314 The First Ecumenical Council The New Capital – Constantinople
  41. 41. Books for you to read H.H. Scullard and M. Cary. A History of Rome to 325 J.B. Bury. The Later Roman Empire A.H.M. Jones. The Later Empire J.J. Norwich. A Short History of Byzantium E. Gruen. The Last Generation of the Roman Republic Michael Crawford. The Roman Republic Colin Wells. The Roman Empire Averil Cameron. The Later Roman Empire
  42. 42. More Books M. Gelzer. Caesar C. Meier. Caesar A. Everitt. Augustus E. Gruen. Diaspora: Jews among the Greeks and Romans W.G. Kummel. Introduction to the New Testament Keith F. Nickle. The Synoptic Gospels
  43. 43. And more books…. Joel Carmichael. The Birth of Christianity A. Schweitzer. The Quest for the Historical Jesus W. Barnes Tatum. The Quest for Jesus M. Grant. Jesus: An Historians Review of the Gospels M. Grant. The Jews in the Roman World M. Grant. St. Paul E.P. Sanders. The Historical Figure of Jesus Paula Fredrickson. Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews
  44. 44. More…. Bart Ehrman. Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millenium Geza Vermes. Jesus the Jew L. Michael White. From Jesus to Christianity S.G.F. Brandon. The Trial of Jesus of Nazareth Hyam Maccoby. Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity Morton Smith. Jesus the Magician
  45. 45. And yet more… R. Helms. Gospel Fictions R. Helms. Who Wrote the Gospels H.Y. Gamble. The Canon of the New Testament D.A. Carson. The King James Debate: A plea for realism