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© 2014 Amazon.com, Inc. and its affiliates. All rights reserved. May not be copied, modified, or distributed in whole or i...
Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users
• US:
– Brett Francis – brettf@amazon.com
– Mohan Vedula – mohanv@amazon.com...
Scaling to 10M Users: A Story in Four Parts
• Intro and Initial Steps
• Building Blocks
• Tools and Monitoring
• 10M Users...
So how do we scale?
a lot of things to read
not where we want to start
a lot of things to read
us today
Auto Scaling is a tool and a
destination. It’s not the single
thing that fixes everything.
What do we
need first?
Some basics…
Regions
US-WEST (Oregon)
EU-WEST (Ireland)
ASIA PAC (Tokyo)
US-WEST (N. California)
SOUTH AMERICA (Sao Paulo)
US-EAST (Vir...
Availability Zones
US-WEST (Oregon)
EU-WEST (Ireland)
ASIA PAC (Tokyo)
US-WEST (N. California)
SOUTH AMERICA (Sao Paulo)
U...
Edge Locations
• $7B+ retail business
• 8,000+ employees
• A whole lot of servers
Every day, AWS adds enough
server capacity to power tha...
Compute
Storage &
Content
Delivery
AWS Global Infrastructure
Database
App Services
Deployment & Administration
Networking
Compute
Storage &
Content
Delivery
AWS Global Infrastructure
Database
App Services
Deployment & Administration
Networking
...
So let’s start from day
one, user one ( you )
Day One, User One:
• A single EC2 instance
– With a full stack on this host
• Web app
• Database
• Management
• etc.
• A s...
“We’re gonna need a bigger box”
• Simplest approach
• Can now leverage PIOPs
• High I/O instances
• High memory instances
...
“We’re gonna need a bigger box”
m3.xlarge
m1.small
i2.4xlarge
• Simplest approach
• Can now leverage PIOPs
• High I/O inst...
Day One, User One:
• We could potentially get
to a few hundred to a few
thousand depending on
application complexity
and t...
Day One, User One:
• We could potentially get
to a few hundred to a few
thousand depending on
application complexity
and t...
Day Two, User >1:
First, let’s separate out
our single host into
more than one:
• Web
• Database
– Make use of a database
...
Self-Managed Fully-Managed
Database server
on Amazon EC2
Your choice of
database running on
Amazon EC2
Bring Your Own
Lice...
Scaling to 10M Users: A Story in Four Parts
• Intro and Initial Steps
• Building Blocks
• Tools and Monitoring
• 10M Users...
But how do I choose
the DB technology I
need? SQL? NoSQL?
Some folks won’t like
this. But…
Start with SQL
databases
Unless you already
have NoSQL skilled
staff…
Start with SQL
databases
Why start with SQL?
• Established and well-worn technology
• Lots of existing code, communities, books, background,
tools,...
AH HA! You
said “massive
amounts”, I
will have
massive
amounts!
If your usage is such that you will be
generating several TB ( >5 ) of data
in the first year OR have an
incredibly data-i...
Regardless, why NoSQL?
• Super low latency applications
• Metadata driven datasets
• Highly non-relational data
• Need sch...
When NoSQL = Yes…
investigate use of DynamoDB
Amazon Dynamo DB
• Managed, provisioned throughput
NoSQL database
• Fast, predictable performance
• Fully distributed, fau...
But back to the main
path… Let’s see how
far SQL at the core
can grow
User >100:
First, let’s separate out
our single host into
more than one:
• Web
• Database
– Use Amazon RDS to make
your li...
User > 1000:
Next, let’s address the
lack of failover and
redundancy issues:
• Elastic Load Balancing
• Another web instan...
• Create highly-scalable applications
Feature Details
Available Load balance across instances in multiple
Availability Zon...
Scaling this horizontally
and vertically
will get us pretty far
( 10s-100s of thousands )
User >10ks-100ks:
RDS DB Instance
Active (Multi-AZ)
Availability Zone Availability Zone
RDS DB Instance
Standby (Multi-AZ)...
This will take us pretty far,
honestly, but we care
about performance and
efficiency, so let’s clean up
with some componen...
Shift some load around:
Think components and
services:
• Move static content from the
web instance to Amazon S3
and Amazon...
Working with Amazon S3
• Object-based storage for the web
• Designed for 11 9s of durability
• Good for things like:
– Sta...
CloudFront
Amazon CloudFront is a web service for
scalable content delivery:
• Cache static content at the edge for faster...
Shift some load around:
Let’s lighten the load on our
web and database
instances:
• Move static content from the
web insta...
Shift some load around:
Let’s lighten the load on our
web and database
instances:
• Move static content from the
web insta...
Shift some load around:
Let’s lighten the load on our
web and database
instances:
• Move static content from the
web insta...
Scaling to 10M Users: A Story in Four Parts
• Intro and Initial Steps
• Building Blocks
• Tools and Monitoring
• 10M Users...
Now that our web tier is
much more lightweight,
we can revisit the
beginning of our talk…
Auto Scaling!
Automatic resizing of compute clusters
based on demand
Trigger auto-scaling policy
Feature Details
Control Define minimum ...
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Typical weekly traffic to Amazon.com
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Typical weekly traffic to Amazon.com
Provisioned capacity
November traffic to Amazon.com
November
November traffic to Amazon.com
Provisioned capacity
November
November traffic to Amazon.com
76%
24%
Provisioned capacity
November
November traffic to Amazon.com
November
Auto Scaling
lets you do this!
Auto Scaling can help from
one instance to thousands
and back down
User >500k+:
Availability Zone
Amazon
Route 53
User
Amazon S3
Amazon
CloudFront
Availability Zone
Elastic Load
Balancing
A...
Use Tools:
Managing your infrastructure will become an ever
increasing important part of your time. Use tools to
automate ...
AWS Application Management Solutions
AWS
Elastic Beanstalk
AWS
OpsWorks
AWS
CloudFormation
Amazon EC2
Convenience Control
...
Host-Based Configuration Management
Two big players:
– Opscode Chef
– PuppetLabs Puppet
• Both do more or less the same th...
User >500k+:
You’ll potentially start to run into issues with speed and
performance of your applications:
• Have monitorin...
HOST
LEVEL
METRICS
AGGREGATE
LEVEL
METRICS
LOG
ANALYSIS
EXTERNAL
SITE
PERFORMANCE
Not having proper
monitoring/metrics is like
flying a plane with an eye
mask on in a thunderstorm.
Oh, and your wing is on...
AWS Marketplace & Partners Can Help
• Customer can find, research,
and buy software
• Simple pricing, aligns with
Amazon E...
Scaling to 10M Users: A Story in Four Parts
• Intro and Initial Steps
• Building Blocks
• Tools and Monitoring
• 10M Users...
There are further
improvements to be
made in breaking apart
our web/app layer
SOA = Service Oriented Architecture
SOA’ing
Move services into their own
tiers/modules. Treat each of these
as 100% separate pieces of your
infrastructure and...
Loose coupling sets you free!
• The looser they're coupled, the bigger they scale
– Independent components
– Design everyt...
Loose coupling + SOA = winning
Examples:
• Email
• Queuing
• Transcoding
• Search
• Databases
• Monitoring
• Metrics
• Log...
On re-inventing the wheel…
If you find yourself writing
your own: queue, DNS server,
database, storage system,
monitoring ...
Take a deep breath and
stop it. Now.
Back to SOA
User >1mil+:
Reaching a million and above is going to require some bit
of all the previous things:
• Multi-AZ
• Elastic Lo...
User >1mil+:
RDS DB Instance
Active (Multi-AZ)
Availability Zone
Elastic Load
Balancing
RDS DB Instance
Read Replica
RDS D...
The next big steps
User >5mil – 10mil:
You’ll potentially start to run into issues with your database
around contention on the write master.
...
Shifting functionality to NoSQL
• Similar in a sense to federation
• Again, review the earlier points to determine need of...
…and there you have it.
10 Million
A Quick Review
Review
• Multi-AZ your infrastructure
• Make use of self-scaling services
– Elastic Load Balancing, Amazon S3, Amazon SNS,...
Review (cont)
• Make sure you have good
metrics/monitoring/logging tools in place
• Split tiers into individual services (...
Putting all this together
means we should now
easily be able to handle
10+ million users!
To infinity…..
User >10mil:
• More fine tuning of your application
• More SOA of features/functionality
• Going from Multi-AZ to multi-re...
Next Steps?
READ!
• aws.amazon.com/documentation
• aws.amazon.com/architecture
• aws.amazon.com/start-ups
Next Steps?
START USING AWS
aws.amazon.com/free
Next Steps?
ASK FOR HELP!
• forums.aws.amazon.com
• aws.amazon.com/support
• Your Account Manager
• A Solutions Architect
THANKS
FOR
LISTENING!
Mohan Vedula – mohanv@amazon.com
Brett Francis – brettf@amazon.com
© 2014 Amazon.com, Inc. and its affiliates. All rights reserved. May not be copied, modified, or distributed in whole or i...
Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users
Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users
Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users
Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users
Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users
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Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users

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Cloud computing gives you a number of advantages, such as being able to scale your application on demand. As a new business looking to use the cloud, you inevitably ask yourself, "Where do I start?" Join us in this session to understand best practices for scaling your resources from zero to millions of users. We will show you how to best combine different AWS services, make smarter decisions for architecting your application, and best practices for scaling your infrastructure in the cloud.

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Transcript of "Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users"

  1. 1. © 2014 Amazon.com, Inc. and its affiliates. All rights reserved. May not be copied, modified, or distributed in whole or in part without the express consent of Amazon.com, Inc.© 2014 Amazon.com, Inc. and its affiliates. All rights reserved. May not be copied, modified, or distributed in whole or in part without the express consent of Amazon.com, Inc. Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users Mohan Vedula, Enterprise Solutions Architecture Brett Francis, Enterprise Solutions Architecture March 26, 2014
  2. 2. Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users • US: – Brett Francis – brettf@amazon.com – Mohan Vedula – mohanv@amazon.com • YOU: Here to learn more about scaling infrastructure on AWS • TODAY: about best practices and things to think about when building for large scale
  3. 3. Scaling to 10M Users: A Story in Four Parts • Intro and Initial Steps • Building Blocks • Tools and Monitoring • 10M Users and Beyond
  4. 4. So how do we scale?
  5. 5. a lot of things to read
  6. 6. not where we want to start a lot of things to read
  7. 7. us today
  8. 8. Auto Scaling is a tool and a destination. It’s not the single thing that fixes everything.
  9. 9. What do we need first?
  10. 10. Some basics…
  11. 11. Regions US-WEST (Oregon) EU-WEST (Ireland) ASIA PAC (Tokyo) US-WEST (N. California) SOUTH AMERICA (Sao Paulo) US-EAST (Virginia) AWS GovCloud (US) ASIA PAC (Sydney) ASIA PAC (Singapore) CHINA (Beijing)
  12. 12. Availability Zones US-WEST (Oregon) EU-WEST (Ireland) ASIA PAC (Tokyo) US-WEST (N. California) SOUTH AMERICA (Sao Paulo) US-EAST (Virginia) AWS GovCloud (US) ASIA PAC (Sydney) ASIA PAC (Singapore) CHINA (Beijing)
  13. 13. Edge Locations
  14. 14. • $7B+ retail business • 8,000+ employees • A whole lot of servers Every day, AWS adds enough server capacity to power that entire $7B enterprise 2004 2014
  15. 15. Compute Storage & Content Delivery AWS Global Infrastructure Database App Services Deployment & Administration Networking
  16. 16. Compute Storage & Content Delivery AWS Global Infrastructure Database App Services Deployment & Administration Networking Amazon CloudSearch Amazon SQS Amazon SNS Amazon Elastic Transcoder Amazon SWF Amazon SES Amazon DynamoDB Amazon RDS Amazon ElastiCache Amazon RedShift AWS Storage Gateway Amazon S3 Amazon Glacier Amazon CloudFrontAmazon EC2 Amazon EMR Amazon VPC Amazon Route 53 AWS Direct Connect Amazon Kinesis Amazon CloudWatch AWS IAM AWS CloudFormation Amazon Elastic Beanstalk AWS Data Pipeline AWS OpsWorks AWS CloudTrail
  17. 17. So let’s start from day one, user one ( you )
  18. 18. Day One, User One: • A single EC2 instance – With a full stack on this host • Web app • Database • Management • etc. • A single Elastic IP address • Amazon Route 53 for DNS EC2 instance Elastic IP address Amazon Route 53 User
  19. 19. “We’re gonna need a bigger box” • Simplest approach • Can now leverage PIOPs • High I/O instances • High memory instances • High CPU instances • High storage instances • Easy to change instance sizes • Will hit an endpoint eventually m3.xlarge m1.small i2.4xlarge
  20. 20. “We’re gonna need a bigger box” m3.xlarge m1.small i2.4xlarge • Simplest approach • Can now leverage PIOPs • High I/O instances • High memory instances • High CPU instances • High storage instances • Easy to change instance sizes • Will hit an endpoint eventually
  21. 21. Day One, User One: • We could potentially get to a few hundred to a few thousand depending on application complexity and traffic • No failover • No redundancy • Too many eggs in one basket EC2 instance Elastic IP address Amazon Route 53 User
  22. 22. Day One, User One: • We could potentially get to a few hundred to a few thousand depending on application complexity and traffic • No failover • No redundancy • Too many eggs in one basket EC2 instance Elastic IP address Amazon Route 53 User
  23. 23. Day Two, User >1: First, let’s separate out our single host into more than one: • Web • Database – Make use of a database service? Web instance Database instance Elastic IP address Amazon Route 53 User
  24. 24. Self-Managed Fully-Managed Database server on Amazon EC2 Your choice of database running on Amazon EC2 Bring Your Own License (BYOL) Amazon DynamoDB Managed NoSQL database service using SSD storage Seamless scalability Zero administration Amazon RDS Microsoft SQL, Oracle, MySQL or PostgreSQL as a managed service Flexible licensing BYOL or License Included Amazon Redshift Massively parallel, petabyte-scale, data warehouse service Fast, powerful and easy to scale Database Options
  25. 25. Scaling to 10M Users: A Story in Four Parts • Intro and Initial Steps • Building Blocks • Tools and Monitoring • 10M Users and Beyond
  26. 26. But how do I choose the DB technology I need? SQL? NoSQL?
  27. 27. Some folks won’t like this. But…
  28. 28. Start with SQL databases
  29. 29. Unless you already have NoSQL skilled staff…
  30. 30. Start with SQL databases
  31. 31. Why start with SQL? • Established and well-worn technology • Lots of existing code, communities, books, background, tools, etc. • You aren’t going to break SQL DBs in your first 10 million users. No really, you won’t*. • Clear patterns to scalability * Unless you are manipulating data at MASSIVE scale; even then, SQL will have a place in your stack
  32. 32. AH HA! You said “massive amounts”, I will have massive amounts!
  33. 33. If your usage is such that you will be generating several TB ( >5 ) of data in the first year OR have an incredibly data-intensive workload… you might need NoSQL
  34. 34. Regardless, why NoSQL? • Super low latency applications • Metadata driven datasets • Highly non-relational data • Need schema-less data constructs* • Massive amounts of data (again, in the TB range) • Rapid ingest of data ( thousands of records/sec ) • Already have skilled staff *Need != “it is easier to do dev without schemas”
  35. 35. When NoSQL = Yes… investigate use of DynamoDB
  36. 36. Amazon Dynamo DB • Managed, provisioned throughput NoSQL database • Fast, predictable performance • Fully distributed, fault tolerant architecture • Considerations for non-uniform data Feature Details Provisioned throughput Dial up or down provisioned read/write capacity Predictable performance Average single digit millisecond latencies from SSD-backed infrastructure Strong consistency Be sure you are reading the most up-to-date values Fault tolerant Data replicated across Availability Zones Monitoring Integrated to Amazon CloudWatch Secure Integrates with AWS Identity and Access Management (AWS IAM) Amazon EMR Integrates with Amazon EMR for complex analytics on large datasets
  37. 37. But back to the main path… Let’s see how far SQL at the core can grow
  38. 38. User >100: First, let’s separate out our single host into more than one: • Web • Database – Use Amazon RDS to make your life easier Web instance Elastic IP address RDS DB instance Amazon Route 53 User
  39. 39. User > 1000: Next, let’s address the lack of failover and redundancy issues: • Elastic Load Balancing • Another web instance – In another Availability Zone • Enable Amazon RDS Multi-AZ Web instance Amazon RDS DB instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Availability Zone Web instance Amazon RDS DB instance Standby (Multi-AZ) Elastic Load Balancing Amazon Route 53 User
  40. 40. • Create highly-scalable applications Feature Details Available Load balance across instances in multiple Availability Zones Health checks Automatically checks health of instances and takes them in or out of service Session stickiness Route requests to the same instance Secure sockets layer Supports SSL offload from web and application servers with flexible cipher support Monitoring Publishes metrics to Amazon CloudWatch Elastic Load Balancing Elastic Load Balancing
  41. 41. Scaling this horizontally and vertically will get us pretty far ( 10s-100s of thousands )
  42. 42. User >10ks-100ks: RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Availability Zone RDS DB Instance Standby (Multi-AZ) Elastic Load Balancing RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web instance Web instance Web instance Web instance Web instance Web instance Web instance Web instance Amazon Route 53 User
  43. 43. This will take us pretty far, honestly, but we care about performance and efficiency, so let’s clean up with some components and services
  44. 44. Shift some load around: Think components and services: • Move static content from the web instance to Amazon S3 and Amazon CloudFront • Move session/state and DB caching to Amazon ElastiCache or Amazon DynamoDB • More on services later… Web instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing Amazon S3 Amazon CloudFront Amazon Route 53 User ElastiCache Amazon DynamoDB
  45. 45. Working with Amazon S3 • Object-based storage for the web • Designed for 11 9s of durability • Good for things like: – Static assets (css, js, images, videos) – Backups – Logs – Ingest of files for processing • “Infinitely scalable” • Supports fine-grained permission control • Ties in well with CloudFront • Ties in with Amazon EMR • Acts as a logging endpoint for Amazon S3/CloudFront/Billing • Supports encryption at transit and at rest • Reduced redundancy 1/3 cheaper • Amazon Glacier for super long term storage
  46. 46. CloudFront Amazon CloudFront is a web service for scalable content delivery: • Cache static content at the edge for faster delivery • Helps lower load on origin infrastructure • Dynamic and static content • Streaming video • Zone apex support • Custom SSL certificates • Low TTLs (as short as 0 seconds) • Lower costs for origin fetches (between Amazon S3 / Amazon EC2 and CloudFront) • Optimized to work with Amazon EC2, Amazon S3, Elastic Load Balancing, and Amazon Route 53 ResponseTime ServerLoad ResponseTime Server Load ResponseTime Server Load No CDN CDN for static content CDN for static & dynamic content 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM VolumeofData Delivered(Gbps)
  47. 47. Shift some load around: Let’s lighten the load on our web and database instances: • Move static content from the web instance to Amazon S3 and CloudFront • Move session/state and DB caching to ElastiCache or Amazon DynamoDB Web instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon CloudFront Amazon Route 53 User ElastiCache Amazon DynamoDB
  48. 48. Shift some load around: Let’s lighten the load on our web and database instances: • Move static content from the web instance to Amazon S3 and CloudFront • Move dynamic content from the load balancer to CloudFront • Move session/state and DB caching to ElastiCache or Amazon DynamoDB Web instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon CloudFront Amazon Route 53 User ElastiCache Amazon DynamoDB
  49. 49. Shift some load around: Let’s lighten the load on our web and database instances: • Move static content from the web instance to Amazon S3 and CloudFront • Move dynamic content from the load balancer to CloudFront • Move session/state and DB caching to ElastiCache or Amazon DynamoDB Web instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon CloudFront Amazon Route 53 User ElastiCache Amazon DynamoDB
  50. 50. Scaling to 10M Users: A Story in Four Parts • Intro and Initial Steps • Building Blocks • Tools and Monitoring • 10M Users and Beyond
  51. 51. Now that our web tier is much more lightweight, we can revisit the beginning of our talk…
  52. 52. Auto Scaling!
  53. 53. Automatic resizing of compute clusters based on demand Trigger auto-scaling policy Feature Details Control Define minimum and maximum instance pool sizes and when scaling and cool down occurs Integrated to Amazon CloudWatch Use metrics gathered by CloudWatch to drive scaling Instance types Run Auto Scaling for On-Demand and Spot Instances; compatible with VPC aws autoscaling create-auto-scaling- group --auto-scaling-group-name MyGroup --launch-configuration-name MyConfig --min-size 4 --max-size 200 --availability-zones us-west-2c Auto Scaling Amazon CloudWatch
  54. 54. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Typical weekly traffic to Amazon.com
  55. 55. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Typical weekly traffic to Amazon.com Provisioned capacity
  56. 56. November traffic to Amazon.com November
  57. 57. November traffic to Amazon.com Provisioned capacity November
  58. 58. November traffic to Amazon.com 76% 24% Provisioned capacity November
  59. 59. November traffic to Amazon.com November
  60. 60. Auto Scaling lets you do this!
  61. 61. Auto Scaling can help from one instance to thousands and back down
  62. 62. User >500k+: Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 User Amazon S3 Amazon CloudFront Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing Amazon DynamoDBRDS DB Instance Read Replica Web instance Web instance Web instance ElastiCache RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web instance Web instance Web instance ElastiCacheRDS DB Instance Standby (Multi-AZ) RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ)
  63. 63. Use Tools: Managing your infrastructure will become an ever increasing important part of your time. Use tools to automate repetitive tasks. • Tools to manage AWS resources • Tools to manage software and configuration on your instances • Automated data analysis of logs and user actions
  64. 64. AWS Application Management Solutions AWS Elastic Beanstalk AWS OpsWorks AWS CloudFormation Amazon EC2 Convenience Control Higher-level services Do it yourself
  65. 65. Host-Based Configuration Management Two big players: – Opscode Chef – PuppetLabs Puppet • Both do more or less the same thing • Both have syntax that isn’t too dissimilar • Use HBCM with one of the tools from the previous slide • Spend the time required to learn them • Can’t scale easily without HBCM • Growing in popularity: Salt, Ansible
  66. 66. User >500k+: You’ll potentially start to run into issues with speed and performance of your applications: • Have monitoring/metrics/logging in place – If you can’t build it internally, outsource it! (3rd party SaaS) • Pay attention to what customers are saying works well • Squeeze as much performance as you can out of each service/component
  67. 67. HOST LEVEL METRICS AGGREGATE LEVEL METRICS LOG ANALYSIS EXTERNAL SITE PERFORMANCE
  68. 68. Not having proper monitoring/metrics is like flying a plane with an eye mask on in a thunderstorm. Oh, and your wing is on fire.
  69. 69. AWS Marketplace & Partners Can Help • Customer can find, research, and buy software • Simple pricing, aligns with Amazon EC2 usage model • Launch in minutes • AWS Marketplace billing integrated into your AWS account • 1300+ products across 20+ categories Learn more at: aws.amazon.com/marketplace
  70. 70. Scaling to 10M Users: A Story in Four Parts • Intro and Initial Steps • Building Blocks • Tools and Monitoring • 10M Users and Beyond
  71. 71. There are further improvements to be made in breaking apart our web/app layer
  72. 72. SOA = Service Oriented Architecture
  73. 73. SOA’ing Move services into their own tiers/modules. Treat each of these as 100% separate pieces of your infrastructure and scale them independently. Amazon.com and AWS do this extensively! It offers flexibility and greater understanding of each component.
  74. 74. Loose coupling sets you free! • The looser they're coupled, the bigger they scale – Independent components – Design everything as a black box – Decouple interactions – Favor services with built-in redundancy and scalability rather than building your own Controller A Controller B Controller A Controller B Q Q Tight coupling Use Amazon SQS for buffers Loose coupling
  75. 75. Loose coupling + SOA = winning Examples: • Email • Queuing • Transcoding • Search • Databases • Monitoring • Metrics • Logging Amazon CloudSearch Amazon SQSAmazon SNS Amazon Elastic Transcoder Amazon SWF Amazon SES In the early days, if someone has a service for it already, opt to use that instead of building it yourself. DON’T RE-INVENT THE WHEEL
  76. 76. On re-inventing the wheel… If you find yourself writing your own: queue, DNS server, database, storage system, monitoring tool
  77. 77. Take a deep breath and stop it. Now.
  78. 78. Back to SOA
  79. 79. User >1mil+: Reaching a million and above is going to require some bit of all the previous things: • Multi-AZ • Elastic Load Balancing between tiers • Auto Scaling • Service-oriented architecture • Serving content smartly (Amazon S3/CloudFront) • Caching off DB • Moving state off tiers that auto-scale
  80. 80. User >1mil+: RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web instance Web instance Web instance Web instance Amazon Route 53 User Amazon S3 Amazon CloudFront Amazon DynamoDB Amazon SQS ElastiCache Worker instance Worker instance Amazon CloudWatch Internal app instance Internal app instance Amazon SES
  81. 81. The next big steps
  82. 82. User >5mil – 10mil: You’ll potentially start to run into issues with your database around contention on the write master. How can you solve it? • Federation ~ splitting into multiple DBs based on function • Sharding ~ splitting one data set up across multiple hosts • Moving some functionality to other types of DBs (NoSQL)
  83. 83. Shifting functionality to NoSQL • Similar in a sense to federation • Again, review the earlier points to determine need of NoSQL vs SQL • Leverage hosted services like Amazon DynamoDB • Some use cases: – Leaderboards/scoring – Rapid ingest of clickstream/log data – Temporary data needs ( cart data ) – “Hot” tables – Metadata/lookup tables Amazon DynamoDB
  84. 84. …and there you have it. 10 Million
  85. 85. A Quick Review
  86. 86. Review • Multi-AZ your infrastructure • Make use of self-scaling services – Elastic Load Balancing, Amazon S3, Amazon SNS, Amazon SQS, Amazon SWF, Amazon SES, etc. • Build in redundancy at every level • Most likely start with SQL • Cache data both inside and outside your infrastructure • Use automation tools in your infrastructure
  87. 87. Review (cont) • Make sure you have good metrics/monitoring/logging tools in place • Split tiers into individual services (SOA) • Use Auto Scaling when you’re ready for it • Don’t reinvent the wheel • Move to NoSQL when it really makes sense but do your best not to administer it
  88. 88. Putting all this together means we should now easily be able to handle 10+ million users!
  89. 89. To infinity…..
  90. 90. User >10mil: • More fine tuning of your application • More SOA of features/functionality • Going from Multi-AZ to multi-region • Potentially needing to start building custom solutions • Deep analysis of your whole stack
  91. 91. Next Steps? READ! • aws.amazon.com/documentation • aws.amazon.com/architecture • aws.amazon.com/start-ups
  92. 92. Next Steps? START USING AWS aws.amazon.com/free
  93. 93. Next Steps? ASK FOR HELP! • forums.aws.amazon.com • aws.amazon.com/support • Your Account Manager • A Solutions Architect
  94. 94. THANKS FOR LISTENING! Mohan Vedula – mohanv@amazon.com Brett Francis – brettf@amazon.com
  95. 95. © 2014 Amazon.com, Inc. and its affiliates. All rights reserved. May not be copied, modified, or distributed in whole or in part without the express consent of Amazon.com, Inc.© 2014 Amazon.com, Inc. and its affiliates. All rights reserved. May not be copied, modified, or distributed in whole or in part without the express consent of Amazon.com, Inc. Scaling on AWS for the First 10 Million Users Mohan Vedula, Enterprise Solutions Architecture Brett Francis, Enterprise Solutions Architecture March 26, 2014 Thank you!
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