Scale Your Application while Improving Performance and Lowering Costs (SVC203) | AWS re:Invent 2013
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Scale Your Application while Improving Performance and Lowering Costs (SVC203) | AWS re:Invent 2013

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Scaling your application as you grow should not mean slow to load and expensive to run. Learn how you can use different AWS building blocks such as Amazon ElastiCache and Amazon CloudFront to “cache ...

Scaling your application as you grow should not mean slow to load and expensive to run. Learn how you can use different AWS building blocks such as Amazon ElastiCache and Amazon CloudFront to “cache everything possible” and increase the performance of your application by caching your frequently-accessed content. This means caching at different layers of the stack: from HTML pages to long-running database queries and search results, from static media content to application objects. And how can caching more actually cost less? Attend this session to find out!

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Scale Your Application while Improving Performance and Lowering Costs (SVC203) | AWS re:Invent 2013 Scale Your Application while Improving Performance and Lowering Costs (SVC203) | AWS re:Invent 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Cache is King: Scale Your Application while Improving Performance and Lowering Costs November 15, 2013 © 2013 Amazon.com, Inc. and its affiliates. All rights reserved. May not be copied, modified, or distributed in whole or in part without the express consent of Amazon.com, Inc.
  • Cash is King
  • Cache is Cash
  • Httparchive
  • Content Breakdown 87% of Your Site Consists Of Static/Re-usable Content
  • But Wait… 56% of The Internet’s Content is NOT Cached Today
  • Cache is King ~56% 300K Tracked Websites Oct 15 2012-Oct 1 2013 { Source: httparchive.org
  • CACHE EVERYTHING
  • Browser Cache Edge Cache Web Cache Application Cache Database Cache Image Source: cakeormistake.wordpress.com
  • Speed of Light ~300,000 Km/s Image Source: wordlesstech.com
  • ~200,000 Km/s through fiber Image Source: www2.wiringandcabling.com
  • Download Performance Round Trip: 13,026 km
  • Download Performance Round Trip: 13,026 km Theoretical: 65 ms
  • Download Performance Round Trip: 13,026 km Theoretical: 65 ms Measured: 68 ms
  • Time to First Byte 68 ms Client Server
  • Time to First Byte 68 ms SYN 68 ms SYN/ACK Client Server
  • Time to First Byte 68 ms SYN 68 ms 68 ms 136 ms SYN/ACK ACK, GET /image.jpg HTTP/1.1 Client Server
  • Browser Cache
  • Browser Caching Set max-age or expiry date in the headers. HTML5 Application Cache. Helps eliminate network latency. But… Browser cache size is limited. (e.g. IE is 8-50M, Chrome is < 80M, Firefox is 50MB, etc.)
  • Browser Cache Edge Cache
  • Time to First Byte 68 ms SYN 68 ms 68 ms 136 ms SYN/ACK ACK, GET /image.jpg HTTP/1.1 Client Server
  • Bring the Bytes Closer to Your Users 10 ms Saves 68 ms RTT 68 ms SYN SYN SYN/ACK SYN/ACK ACK, GET /image.jpg HTTP/1.1 GET /image.jpg HTTP/1.1 Client CloudFront Origin Time to first byte: 20 ms vs. 136 ms
  • Amazon CloudFront: 46 Global Locations =
  • Edge Cache: Amazon CloudFront Mobile Clients Amazon S3 Amazon CloudFront Edge Location Browsers/Desktop Clients Elastic Load Balancing Tablets/Devices
  • Edge Cache How do you decide what to cache? • Static or Re-Usable Content • Customized Content • On-Demand and Live Video • Dynamic or Unique Content
  • Cache Static or Re-Usable Content HTTP/1.0 200 OK Date: Mon, 19 Mar 201 12:51:28 GMT Server: Apache Last-Modified: Mon, 19 Mar 2012 07:15:25 GMT Accept-Ranges: bytes Content-Length: 1918 Cache-Control: max-age=86400 Content-Type: image/jpeg Vary: Accept-Encoding Age: 16 X-Cache: Hit from cloudfront Connection: keep-alive
  • Cache Customized Content Customized Content
  • Cache Video Content
  • Caching Your Live Stream? Edge HLS, HDS, Smooth Streaming HTTP Cache Hong Kong Source Encoder Paris New York
  • Dynamic Content? Zero TTL – cannot be cached! CloudFront can still help…
  • Dynamic Content? Zero TTL – cannot be cached! CloudFront can still help… TCP/IP optimizations for the network path Keep-Alive Connections to reduce RTT SSL Termination close to viewers POST/PUT upload optimizations Latency Based Routing Low prices, same as static content delivery!
  • “We are excited to use CloudFront's new POST, PUT, PATCH, and DELETE capabilities to accelerate our RESTful APIs on Amazon EC2. With these new HTTP methods we can now take advantage of CloudFront’s global footprint and optimized connections back to our origin servers in AWS. Routing our customers’ API requests via a CloudFront edge location near them will help improve their experience by minimizing packet loss and upload latency. This will help provide a streamlined experience for our customers.” - Ilan Rabinovitch, Tech Lead, Site Reliability Engineering
  • Browser Cache Edge Cache Web Cache
  • You can’t have dessert, until you have your dinner! -An Experiment. https://secure.flickr.com/photos/stephen-oung/6319155216/
  • Experiment Premise • Start with basic infrastructure. – – – – – – Single m1.large EC2 instance running Amazon Linux Single non-Multi-AZ m1.xlarge RDS MySQL 5.6 instance Apache httpd-2.2.25 PHP 5.3.27 Drupal Commerce Kickstart 7.2 EIP on Instance • Throw a ton of traffic at it. – 8,000,000 queries, 40 per second, from 4 other instances. • Profile it. – New Relic PHP agent – webpagetest.org
  • Experiment Infrastructure Elastic IP Amazon RDS DB Instance Web/App Instance Clients
  • Results? (not pretty) 14.7 second responses Low RPM Mostly Static Data
  • Web Cache Webserver or proxy caches would live between your CDN/Users and your web tier and can offer up increased cost performance via reducing internal application and database load. Can also offer up increased edge to origin speed for lots of content.
  • Web Cache Popular solutions: – – – – – – Varnish Nginx Apache with mod_cache/mod_proxy Squid Perlbal Language/framework caches (i.e., APC, Zend)
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache Customer Traffic Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances VPC Subnet Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Amazon CloudFront
  • Web Cache • Opt for in-memory caching when possible. • Pay attention to your cache hit/miss ratios. It could be a sign that you need to re-size the instances or re-size the number of nodes in your cache pool. • Set smart TTLs so that you don’t affect new deploys or cache content for too long. • Be smart about what cookies can burst cache and what cookies can’t. Don’t serve up other people’s content or stale dynamic pages.
  • Web Cache How do you decide what to cache? – All logged out user pages – Any completely static pages – Traffic/log analysis • • • • Look at your web logs/CDN logs Find heavily hit pages Figure out how often they actually change Apply a TTL to that page to be cached – Even 60 second TTLs could help drastically!
  • Browser Cache Edge Cache Web Cache Application Cache
  • Application Cache Application level caches for information such as session data, temporary application data such as cart information, and live aggregation of data feeds.
  • Application Cache Popular solutions: – – – – Memcached Redis Cassandra Amazon DynamoDB
  • Application Cache ElastiCache Cache Node Web/App Instances VPC Subnet Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Internet Gateway ElastiCache Cache Node VPC Subnet Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Availability Zone Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet
  • Application Cache ElastiCache Cache Node Web/App Instances VPC Subnet Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Internet Gateway ElastiCache Cache Node VPC Subnet Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Availability Zone Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet
  • Amazon DynamoDB Session Handler for PHP https://aws.amazon.com/sdkforphp/
  • Application Cache Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing Squid Proxy Instances VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Amazon DynamoDB Availability Zone Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Squid Proxy Instances
  • Application Cache Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing Squid Proxy Instances VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Amazon DynamoDB Availability Zone Internet Gateway Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Squid Proxy Instances
  • Application Cache Use Cases: – Session information – Temporary data • Cart info, metadata – Rate limiting • Fight abuse of APIs, spamming, functionality abuse – Counters • Views, Scores, Leader Boards
  • Application Cache How do you decide what to cache? – Ideally, you have to treat data you cache at this tier as loss tolerant if working with in-memory caches. – Session information that wouldn’t make sense in cookies or in a true DB. – Look at the kind of data your application is generating and storing in a DB that it might not need to.
  • Browser Cache Edge Cache Web Cache Application Cache Database Cache
  • Database Cache Reduce workload on database servers by caching commonly requested information, or any information that might not change frequently (i.e., user info, listing info, product info).
  • Database Cache Popular solutions: – In-engine query caches – Memcached • On dedicated host • On DB host (built in w/ MySQL 5.6) – Redis • On dedicated host
  • Database Cache A word of caution: In-engine DB caches are often not recommended for many use cases, as they can significantly impact the performance of many databases. Depending on the workload and dataset you have, an in-engine query cache might not be a good idea for you. We recommend off DB caches where possible.
  • Database Cache RDS Instance ElastiCache Primary (M-AZ) Cache Node Web/App Instances VPC Subnet Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Internet Gateway RDS Instance ElastiCache Standby (MAZ) Cache Node VPC Subnet Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Availability Zone Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet
  • Database Cache RDS Instance ElastiCache Primary (M-AZ) Cache Node Web/App Instances VPC Subnet Elastic Load Balancing Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet VPC Subnet Availability Zone Internet Gateway RDS Instance ElastiCache Standby (MAZ) Cache Node VPC Subnet Web/App Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet Availability Zone Cache Instances Elastic Load Balancing VPC Subnet
  • Memcached – Code Sample function retrieveValue($query) { $queryId = md5($query); if ($myValue = $memcache->get($queryId)) { return $myValue; } else { $myValue = dbfetch($query); $memcache->set($queryId, $myValue); return $myValue; } }
  • MySQL 5.6 + Memcached RDS MySQL supports version 5.6 with integrated Memcached on the instance: – Part of the InnoDB engine – Memcached running as part of MySQL talks directly to data in InnoDB tables, essentially turning MySQL into a fast “key-value store” – From the opposite view point, adds persistence to Memcached – Same Memcached API as standalone https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/innodb-memcached-intro.html
  • AWS Marketplace & Partners Can Help • Customers can find, research, buy software. • Simple pricing, aligns with Amazon EC2 usage model. • Launch in minutes! • Marketplace billing integrated into your AWS account. • 1100+ products across 24+ categories. Learn more at: aws.amazon.com/marketplace
  • Back To Our Experiment! https://secure.flickr.com/photos/toyochin/1382531438/
  • Experiment Infrastructure (original) Elastic IP Amazon RDS DB Instance Web/App Instance Clients
  • Results? (not pretty) 14.7 second responses Low RPM Mostly Static Data
  • Experiment Infrastructure (with cake) • Added in ElastiCache Memcached cache.m1.large • Added in Amazon CloudFront for static content – Tuned expires and cache headers in Apache • Added in APC for PHP caching – Increased memory to 128Mb, no other changes • Did nothing to the DB • Drupal memcached & CDN modules
  • Experiment Infrastructure (with cake) CloudFront Elastic IP Amazon RDS DB Instance Web/App Instance Clients ElastiCache Cache Node
  • Results? (AWESOME!) response time ~1/2 ~2x RPM Repeat Page view from 15.8sec to 2.75sec
  • Easy as Pie! https://secure.flickr.com/photos/linecon0/2654865842/
  • Toronto Star • • • • Canada’s largest daily newspaper Focused on metro Toronto 3.3 million monthly unique visitors Small in-house digital group, supported by vendors & corporate IT • Digital group run as “startup” within corporate structure • Tech stack includes Java, PHP, Ruby, Python
  • mystar
  • Wheels.ca
  • Toronto.com
  • Thegridto.com
  • Why Cache? • • • • Performance Scalability Reliability Cost
  • Breaking News
  • Breaking News: Client View
  • Breaking News: Server View
  • The Caching Onion
  • DB App Reverse proxy Edge
  • Edge – The Onion Skin • Examples: Akamai, CloudFront • Static Asset caching • Full site caching • Origins • Behaviors • thestar.com, wheels.ca, toronto.com, thegridto.com Edge
  • Edge – The Onion Skin Cloudfront Elastic Load Balancer Production - US East Region Thestar.com architecture VPC Dispatcher/Apache Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1 Medium Publish CQ/CRX Publish CQ/CRX Amazon Linux 64 Bit Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1-Xlarge C1-Xlarge Dispatcher/Apache Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1 Medium Publish CQ/CRX Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1-Xlarge Publish CQ/CRX Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1-Xlarge Dispatcher/Apache Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1 Medium Publish CQ/CRX Publish CQ/CRX Amazon Linux 64 Bit Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1-Xlarge C1-Xlarge Standby Master Author CQ/CRX Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1-Xlarge Availability Zone A Author CQ/CRX Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1-Xlarge Availability Zone B Availability Zone D
  • Cloudfront Elastic Load Balancer Production - US East Region VPC Dispatcher/Apache Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1 Medium Publish CQ/CRX Publish CQ/CRX Amazon Linux 64 Bit Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1-Xlarge C1-Xlarge Dispatcher/Apache Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1 Medium Publish CQ/CRX Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1-Xlarge Standby Publish CQ/CRX Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1-Xlarge Dispatcher/Apache Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1 Medium Publish CQ/CRX Publish CQ/CRX Amazon Linux 64 Bit Amazon Linux 64 Bit C1-Xlarge C1-Xlarge
  • Whole Site Delivery • • • • • Cache everything possible No server side cookies written, only select pages pass query strings Control caching granularly using 19 different rules We use a single origin, but Elastic Load Balancing and multi-tiered multi-AZ configuration on backend Planning a multi-region DR architecture that will also leverage Amazon CloudFront
  • Reverse Proxy / Web Accelerator • Examples: Varnish, Nginx, Apache • Serves “static” content • Reduce load on app server • wheels.ca, mystar, thestar.com, thegridto.com Reverse proxy
  • Reverse Proxy / Web Accelerator mystar
  • Reverse Proxy / Web Accelerator mystar
  • Reverse Proxy / Web Accelerator Wheels.ca
  • App-level caching • Examples: Memcached, Reddis – ElastiCache now supports both • Session caching • View caching • mystar App
  • App-level caching
  • Database caching • Example: Memcached • Cache frequent SQL queries • Reduce DB server load, response time • mystar, wheels.ca DB
  • Database Caching Wheels.ca
  • Database Caching Wheels.ca
  • Thanks! Ping me sevans@thestar.ca @stephenaevans
  • Please give us your feedback on this presentation SVC203 As a thank you, we will select prize winners daily for completed surveys!
  • APPENDIX
  • Reverse Proxy / Web Accelerator Varnish Cache is a web application accelerator also known as a caching HTTP reverse proxy. You install it in front of any server that speaks HTTP and configure it to cache the contents. Varnish Cache is really, really fast. It typically speeds up delivery with a factor of 300 - 1000x, depending on your architecture. - varnish-cache.org
  • Reverse Proxy / Web Accelerator Nginx (pronounced "engine x") is an open source reverse proxy server for HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, and IMAP protocols, as well as a load balancer, HTTP cache, and a web server (origin server). The nginx project started with a strong focus on high concurrency, high performance and low memory usage. - Wikipedia
  • App-level caching Memcached Free & open source, high-performance, distributed memory object caching system, generic in nature, but intended for use in speeding up dynamic web applications by alleviating database load. Memcached is an in-memory key-value store for small chunks of arbitrary data (strings, objects) from results of database calls, API calls, or page rendering
  • App-level caching Redis Redis is an open source, BSD licensed, advanced key-value store. It is often referred to as a data structure server since keys can contain strings, hashes, lists, sets and sorted sets. – Redis.io
  • Edge – The Onion Skin “A content delivery network is a large distributed system of servers deployed in multiple data centers across the Internet. The goal of a CDN is to serve content to end-users with high availability and high performance.” - Wikipedia
  • Reverse Proxy / Web Accelerator “A web accelerator is a proxy server that reduces web site access times. They can be a self-contained hardware appliance or installable software.” - Wikipedia