Dynamic Content Acceleration: Lightning Fast Web Apps with Amazon CloudFront and Amazon Route 53
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Dynamic Content Acceleration: Lightning Fast Web Apps with Amazon CloudFront and Amazon Route 53

  • 610 views
Uploaded on

Traditionally, content delivery networks (CDNs) were known to accelerate static content. Amazon CloudFront has come a long way and now supports delivery of entire websites that include dynamic and ...

Traditionally, content delivery networks (CDNs) were known to accelerate static content. Amazon CloudFront has come a long way and now supports delivery of entire websites that include dynamic and static content. In this session, we introduce you to CloudFront’s dynamic delivery features that help improve the performance, scalability, and availability of your website while helping you lower your costs. We talk about architectural patterns such as SSL termination, close proximity connection termination, origin offload with keep-alive connections, and last-mile latency improvement. Also learn how to take advantage of Amazon Route 53's health check, automatic failover, and latency-based routing to build highly available web apps on AWS.

More in: Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
610
On Slideshare
610
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
58
Comments
0
Likes
3

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. © 2014 Amazon.com, Inc. and its affiliates. All rights reserved. May not be copied, modified, or distributed in whole or in part without the express consent of Amazon.com, Inc. Dynamic Content Acceleration Nihar Bihani, Amazon Web Services July 10, 2014
  • 2. Fundamental Facts • Any web application must have… – Tight security – High availability – High performance
  • 3. Why Does Availability Matter? • If your application is not available, your revenue loss is 100%. • Impact to customer loyalty and your brand image.
  • 4. How AWS Helps? • Use Amazon Route 53 to health-check your origin webservers with automatic failover. • Use Amazon CloudFront to front your origins to reduce load on your origins. • Use Amazon CloudFront to customize your error pages. • Amazon CloudFront will automatically serve stale content when origin is unavailable.
  • 5. Why Performance Matters? • Performance translates to… – Higher page views – Better customer experience – Higher conversion rates
  • 6. Why Performance Matters?
  • 7. Why Performance Matters? • Great amount of time and money spent improving back-end infrastructure performance. • 80% of user’s perceived latency comes from front-end.
  • 8. How do we Improve Performance? • A typical web application has… – Static or Re-Usable content • High TTLs • Low TTLs (Customized Content) • Can be cached – Dynamic or Unique content • Zero TTL • Cannot be cached BUT affects 100% of your viewers!
  • 9. Elastic Load Balancing Dynamic Content Amazon EC2 Static Content Amazon S3 Custom Origin OR OR Custom Origin www.example.com/*.php cdn.example.com/*.jpg Typical Architecture
  • 10. Elastic Load Balancing Dynamic Content Amazon EC2 Static Content Amazon S3 Custom Origin OR OR Custom Origin *.php *.jpg Amazon CloudFront www.example.com Why Not?
  • 11. Why Don’t Customers Use CDNs for Dynamic Content? I don’t see the value - each request is unique and must go back to the origin web server. I see the value, but my current CDN charges premium rates for dynamic content acceleration, with many additional fees. Configuring a CDN for dynamic content acceleration requires expensive professional services and is not self-service.
  • 12. How Can Amazon CloudFront Help? • TCP/IP optimizations for the network path • Keep-Alive connections to reduce RTT • SSL termination close to viewers • POST/PUT upload optimizations • Latency based routing • Low prices; same as static content delivery!
  • 13. Re-Usable or Unique Content? • Static or Re-Usable – A given content where the state of the content does NOT change for a given period of time. t 0 t 1
  • 14. Re-Usable or Unique Content? • Dynamic or Unique – A given content where the state of the content changes as soon as it gets created. t 0 t 1
  • 15. Example
  • 16. Example Index.jsp (Dynamic) Images (Static)
  • 17. Example . Sec
  • 18. Page Load Time? . Sec
  • 19. Improving Web Application Performance • Accelerating static content • Accelerating dynamic content
  • 20. Brief Introduction to Waterfall Graphics • What happens? What happens in betweenTyping the address Browser renders
  • 21. Waterfall Graphs • Most important tool in web performance measurement • Most browsers provide Waterfall Graph plugins
  • 22. Understanding Waterfall Graphs TCP connection Content download DNS lookup Time to first byte
  • 23. Understanding Waterfall Graphs
  • 24. Understanding Waterfall Graphs index.jsp
  • 25. Optimizing Static Content • Content is static: images, JS, CSS – It can be distributed to more than one user. – State of the object does not change: sec, minute, hours, etc. – Caching is a way to server static content to more than one user.
  • 26. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Static Content with Caching User request A Edge location Origin
  • 27. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Static Content with Caching User request A Edge location Origin Get image
  • 28. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Static Content with Caching User request A Edge location Origin Get image Get image
  • 29. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Static Content with Caching User request A Edge location Origin Get image Get image Image
  • 30. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Static Content with Caching User request A Edge location Origin Get image Get image ImageImage
  • 31. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Static Content with Caching User request B Edge location Origin
  • 32. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Static Content with Caching User request B Edge location Origin Get image
  • 33. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Static Content with Caching User request B Edge location Origin Get image Image
  • 34. Optimizing Static Content with Caching • Bring content closer to the users • Improves the experience and performance • Offloads your infrastructure
  • 35. Optimizing Static Content with Caching • Before caching = 1.46 seconds
  • 36. Optimizing Static Content with Caching • After caching = 770 milliseconds
  • 37. • Are we done? Not so fast! Goal is 0.5 seconds. Optimizing Static Content with Caching index.jsp
  • 38. Optimizing Static Content with Caching • Cache as much as you can. • How? I’m caching all my images, CSS, and JS. • Find cacheable content. – Collect web (w3c) logs from your web-tier – Run a report on your logs (EMR, RDS, or Redshift) – Identify top N URLs
  • 39. Optimizing Static Content with Caching • Steps to find cacheable content – Example query Select count(url) count, url from logs_table Group by url sort by count;
  • 40. Optimizing Static Content with Caching • Report example
  • 41. Re-Usable or Unique Content? • Static or Re-Usable – A given content where the state of the content does NOT change for a given period of time. t 0 t 1
  • 42. Caching for Smaller Time Units • Goal: find content that can be cached for any given period of time. – Hours – Minutes – Seconds • CloudFront can cache content for any period of time.
  • 43. Optimizing Static Content with Caching • Content with query strings • Reusable? • CloudFront can cache content with query strings. • Every unique query-string combination is a new object in CloudFront’s cache. 110 /factor/create_image?name=book1&size=10x10
  • 44. Optimizing Static Content with Caching • API calls • Reusable? • CloudFront can cache content with query strings. • Every unique query-string combination is a new object in CloudFront’s cache. 100 /api/GetBooks?category=math
  • 45. Caching for Smaller Time Units • Imagine your have a read heavy API GETS hit 100 or 1,000 RPS. • Offload your web-tier from handling 1,000 RPS. • Offload your load balancer; Elastic Load Balancing or any other LB. • Provision less capacity and reduce costs. 100 /api/GetBooks?category=math
  • 46. Caching Personalized Content Just Launched! • Optionally configure CloudFront to forward request headers to your origin. • Enables caching for personalized content: • Mobile Device Detection • Geo Targeting • Multi-Site Hosting • Cross Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) • Protocol Detection
  • 47. Base Page (First HTML Page) • Re-usable? 220 /index.jsp
  • 48. Optimizing Dynamic Content index.jsp
  • 49. Optimizing Dynamic Content index.jsp
  • 50. Optimizing Dynamic Content • Can dynamic content be optimized? – Dynamic content is not cacheable. – Content can be “proxied” by CDN to the origin and back.
  • 51. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Dynamic Content User request A Edge location Origin User request B
  • 52. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Dynamic Content User request A Edge location Origin User request B
  • 53. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Dynamic Content User request A Edge location Origin User request B Get
  • 54. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Dynamic Content User request A Edge location Origin User request B Get Response
  • 55. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Dynamic Content User request A Edge location Origin User request B Get Response
  • 56. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Dynamic Content User request A Edge location Origin User request B
  • 57. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Dynamic Content User request A Edge location Origin User request B
  • 58. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Dynamic Content User request A Edge location Origin User request B Get
  • 59. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Dynamic Content User request A Edge location Origin User request B Get Response
  • 60. Amazon S3 Custom OR Optimizing Dynamic Content User request A Edge location Origin User request B Get Response
  • 61. Optimizing Dynamic Content • Can dynamic content be optimized? – That adds latency? – How to optimize dynamic content? – Response time = ∑ Time (DNS + Connection + First Byte + Content Download) DNS lookup Content downloadTCP connection Time to first byte
  • 62. Faster Response Time = Reduced DNS Time + Reduced Connection Time + Reduced First Byte Time + Reduced Content Download Time Optimizing Dynamic Content
  • 63. Faster Response Time = Reduced DNS Time + Reduced Connection Time + Reduced First Byte Time + Reduced Content Download Time Optimizing Dynamic Content
  • 64. Keep-Alive connections & SSL termination Faster Response Time = Reduced DNS Time + Reduced Connection Time + Reduced First Byte Time + Reduced Content Download Time Optimizing Dynamic Content
  • 65. Keep-Alive connections & SSL termination Faster Response Time = Reduced DNS Time + Reduced Connection Time + Reduced First Byte Time + Reduced Content Download Time Keep-Alive connections Optimizing Dynamic Content
  • 66. Keep-Alive connections & SSL termination Faster Response Time = Reduced DNS Time + Reduced Connection Time + Reduced First Byte Time + Reduced Content Download Time Keep-Alive connections TCP/IP optimization Optimizing Dynamic Content
  • 67. Optimizing Dynamic Content • After caching/before CloudFront dynamic acceleration = 770 milliseconds
  • 68. • How to optimize DNS response time? – with Route 53 Optimizing DNS Response Time DNS lookup
  • 69. • Amazon Route 53 managed DNS offering • Designed for high availability • Low latency DNS resolution • Global network of DNS servers • Queries routed to nearest DNS server Optimizing DNS Response Time
  • 70. Without Route 53
  • 71. With Route 53
  • 72. • How to optimize TCP connections? – with CloudFront Keep Alive connections. Optimizing TCP Connections and First Byte TCP connection Amazon CloudFront Keep-Alive Connections
  • 73. • TCP/IP handshake – HTTP runs on TCP/IP – TCP has the concept of TCP handshake – Every HTTP connection has to complete TCP handshake – TCP/IP handshake penalizes dynamic content Optimizing TCP Connections
  • 74. Two Users without CloudFront 90ms Region
  • 75. Two Users without CloudFront SYN 90ms Region
  • 76. Two Users without CloudFront SYN SYN-ACK 90ms Region
  • 77. Two Users without CloudFront SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp 90ms Region
  • 78. Two Users without CloudFront 360ms SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp 90ms Region
  • 79. Two Users without CloudFront 360ms SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp SYN 90ms Region
  • 80. Two Users without CloudFront 360ms SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp SYN SYN-ACK 90ms Region
  • 81. Two Users without CloudFront 360ms SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp 90ms Region 360ms
  • 82. • Every user is a new connection. • More users = more TCP connections. Without CloudFront Region
  • 83. • Every user is a new connection. • More users = more TCP connections. Without CloudFront Region
  • 84. • Every user is a new connection. • More users = more TCP connections. Without CloudFront Region
  • 85. • Every user is a new connection. • More users = more TCP connections. Without CloudFront Region
  • 86. • Without Keep-Alive connections – Puts load on memory/CPU – Puts load on your web servers – Load on your web servers, increases the time to first byte. Optimizing TCP Connections
  • 87. Two Users with CloudFront Keep-Alive SYN 60ms30ms Region
  • 88. Two Users with CloudFront Keep-Alive SYN SYN-ACK 60ms30ms Region
  • 89. Two Users with CloudFront Keep-Alive SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp 60ms30ms Region
  • 90. Two Users with CloudFront Keep-Alive SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp SYN 60ms30ms Region
  • 91. Two Users with CloudFront Keep-Alive SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp SYN SYN-ACK 60ms30ms Region
  • 92. Two Users with CloudFront Keep-Alive 360ms SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp 60ms30ms Region
  • 93. Two Users with CloudFront Keep-Alive 360ms SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp 60ms SYN 30ms Region
  • 94. Two Users with CloudFront Keep-Alive 360ms SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp 60ms SYN SYN-ACK 30ms Region
  • 95. Two Users with CloudFront Keep-Alive 360ms SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp 60ms SYN SYN-ACK ACK GET /index.jsp 30ms Region GET /index.jsp 180ms
  • 96. • CloudFront Keep-Alive connections – More users does not have to equal more TCP connections – Without CloudFront two users equal two connections – With CloudFront two users equal one connection – Offloads your web tier’s CPU/memory – Improves response time – Without CloudFront two users equal 720ms – With CloudFront two users equal 540ms Optimizing TCP Connections
  • 97. Optimizing TCP Connections Test CPU Util. % Without CloudFront 20% With CloudFront 6%
  • 98. • How to optimize SSL connections? – with CloudFront SSL termination. Optimizing SSL Connections TCP connection Amazon CloudFront SSL termination
  • 99. • CloudFront has the ability to support SSL traffic. • Use CloudFront cert or bring your own. • SSL traffic gets terminated at the closet CloudFront location. Optimizing SSL Connections
  • 100. • Taking advantage of Keep-Alive connections – SSL introduces additional TCP handshake packets. – Keep-Alive eliminates additional SSL TCP handshake packets – Offloading your infrastructure from terminating 1,000s of end-users SSL connections. Optimizing SSL Connections
  • 101. • Two optimization patterns: – Half bridge SSL termination – Full bridge SSL termination SSL Optimization Patterns with CloudFront
  • 102. Half Bridge SSL Termination CloudFront HTTP • Better performance by leveraging HTTP connections to origin Region
  • 103. Full Bridge SSL Termination CloudFront HTTPS Region
  • 104. • How to optimize content download time? – with CloudFront Slow Start Optimization Optimizing Content Download Content download Amazon CloudFront Slow Start optimization
  • 105. TCP Slow Start
  • 106. TCP Slow Start Packet 1
  • 107. TCP Slow Start Packet 1 Packet 1 ACK
  • 108. TCP Slow Start Packet 1 Packet 1 ACK Packet 2 Packet 3
  • 109. TCP Slow Start Packet 1 Packet 1 ACK Packet 2 Packet 3 Packet 3 ACK
  • 110. TCP Slow Start Packet 1 Packet 1 ACK Packet 2 Packet 3 Packet 3 ACK Packet 4 Packet 5 Packet 6
  • 111. • CloudFront can optimize slow start for new connections. • CloudFront uses existing connections so users can skip slow start. • Users benefit from TCP window optimized with an existing connection. • More packets transferred in a single round trip. Optimizing Content Download
  • 112. TCP Slow Start Region
  • 113. TCP Slow Start Packet 1 Packet 1 ACK Region
  • 114. TCP Slow Start Packet 1 Packet 1 ACK Packet 2 Packet 3 Region
  • 115. TCP Slow Start Packet 1 Packet 1 ACK Packet 2 Packet 3 Packet 3 ACK Region
  • 116. TCP Slow Start Packet 1 Packet 1 ACK Packet 2 Packet 3 Packet 3 ACK Packet 4 Packet 5 Packet 6 Region
  • 117. TCP Slow Start Packet 1 Packet 1 ACK Packet 2 Packet 3 Packet 3 ACK Packet 4 Packet 5 Packet 6 Packet 1 Packet 2 Packet 3 Packet 4 Region
  • 118. TCP Slow Start Packet 1 Packet 1 ACK Packet 2 Packet 3 Packet 3 ACK Packet 4 Packet 5 Packet 6 Packet 1 Packet 2 Packet 3 Packet 4 Packet 4 ACK Packet 5 Packet 6 Packet 7 Region
  • 119. • Without CloudFront • With CloudFront Performance Tests Oregon Virginia Oregon Virginia
  • 120. Performance Tests Results Test # Of Packets Response Time Per Request Response Time For 200 Requests Without CloudFront 2605 170 ms 33.876 s With CloudFront 896 96 ms 19.24 s
  • 121. • How to optimize content PUT/POST? – with CloudFront PUT/POST Verb optimization Optimizing PUT/POST TCP connection Amazon CloudFront PUT/POST Verb optimization
  • 122. • CloudFront can support verbs: PUT, POST, DELETE, OPTIONS, and PATCH. • Data won’t get cached. • CloudFront can proxy data to origin. Optimizing PUT/POST
  • 123. • Dynamic content optimizations apply – Keep-Alive connections – TCP Slow Start optimization – Close proximity connection termination Optimizing PUT/POST
  • 124. • Optimizing form POSTs • Optimizing AJAX POST requests • Optimizing content upload – Uploading to Amazon S3 Optimizing PUT/POST
  • 125. Optimizing PUT/POST Performance Tests Oregon Virginia Upload
  • 126. Optimizing PUT/POST Performance Tests Oregon Virginia Upload • Uploading 10MB data from an instance in US East region to US West region: average result is 5 seconds.
  • 127. Optimizing PUT/POST Performance Tests Oregon Virginia • Uploading 10MB data from an instance in US East region to closest CloudFront location: average result is 3.5 seconds.
  • 128. • How to optimize content download even more? – with Route 53 Optimizing Content Download – Even More! Content download
  • 129. • Latency Based Routing (LBR) • Run multiple stacks of your application in different AWS regions around the world. • Create LBR records for each location and tag the location with GEO information. • Route 53 will route end users to the endpoint that provides the lowest latency. Optimizing Content Download – Even More!
  • 130. • LBR Benefits – Better performance than running instances in single region. – Improved reliability relative to running in a single region. – Easier implementation than traditional DNS solutions. – Much lower prices than traditional DNS solutions. Optimizing Content Download – Even More!
  • 131. Optimizing Content Download – Even More!
  • 132. Optimizing Content Download – Even More!
  • 133. • Use CloudFront for dynamic content optimization • Host your origin at multiple AWS locations (or data centers) – US – Europe Optimizing Content Download – Even More!
  • 134. • Create origin DNS records in Route 53 at each location. • Route 53 measures the latency between CloudFront and all configured origins. • Route 53 resolves origin’s hostname to the closest location. • Reduce download time. Optimizing Content Download – Even More!
  • 135. Optimizing Content Download – Even More!
  • 136. Optimizing Content Download – Even More!
  • 137. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 138. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 139. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 140. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 141. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 142. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 143. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 144. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 145. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 146. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 147. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 148. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 149. Lower Latency with CloudFront & Route 53
  • 150. • Optimization equals 55 milliseconds Optimizing Content Download – Even More!
  • 151. • CloudFront & Route 53 • Normal interaction – Users connect to CloudFront – CloudFront connects to origin Design For Failure CloudFront Region
  • 152. • What happens if the origin fails to respond to CloudFront? Design For Failure CloudFront Region
  • 153. • Failures can be detected by Route 53 health checks. Design For Failure Region Health checks
  • 154. • The traffic shifts to the healthy instances or load balancers. Design For Failure Region CloudFront Health checks
  • 155. • Can mix health checks and LBR. • Can apply the same logic to multi-region deployments. • Users get connected to the closest region if both regions are healthy. • Route 53 detects failures via health checks. • Users get connected to the healthy region if the closest region is not passing the health check. Design For Failure Region
  • 156. Design For Failure R e g i o n 2 CloudFront Health checksHealth checks R e g i o n 1
  • 157. • Caching improves performance. • Caching can also improve availability. • If your infrastructure is experiencing failure, CloudFront can server cached content instead of 5xx, 4xx, etc. Design For Failure Region
  • 158. Amazon S3 Custom OR Design for Failure User request A Edge location Origin
  • 159. Amazon S3 Custom OR Design for Failure User request A Edge location Origin Get image
  • 160. Amazon S3 Custom OR Design for Failure User request A Edge location Origin Get image Get image
  • 161. Amazon S3 Custom OR Design for Failure User request A Edge location Origin Get image Get image Image
  • 162. Amazon S3 Custom OR Design for Failure User request A Edge location Origin Get image Get image ImageImage
  • 163. Amazon S3 Custom OR Design for Failure User request B Edge location Origin
  • 164. Amazon S3 Custom OR Design for Failure User request B Edge location Origin Get image
  • 165. Amazon S3 Custom OR Design for Failure User request A Edge location Origin Get image Get image
  • 166. Amazon S3 Custom OR Design for Failure User request A Edge location Origin Get image Get image
  • 167. Amazon S3 Custom OR Design for Failure User request A Edge location Origin Get image Get image Image
  • 168. • Accelerate all your content with CloudFront. • Use CloudFront with Route 53 LBR to improve your performance. • Design for failure with CloudFront and Route 53. Summary Region
  • 169. Customer Stories • Low TTLs
  • 170. Customer Stories • Query Strings
  • 171. Customer Stories • Cookies
  • 172. • PUT/POST – “We are excited to use CloudFront's new POST, PUT, PATCH, and DELETE capabilities to accelerate our RESTful APIs on Amazon EC2. With these new HTTP methods we can now take advantage of CloudFront’s global footprint and optimized connections back to our origin servers in AWS. Routing our customers’ API requests via a CloudFront edge location near them will help improve their experience by minimizing packet loss and upload latency. This will help provide a streamlined experience for our customers.” Ilan Rabinovitch, Tech Lead, Site Reliability Engineering Customer Stories Region
  • 173. • Custom SSL Customer Stories Region
  • 174. • Health Checks and Failover – “Amazon Route 53’s DNS Failover feature provides high availability across our multiple AWS regions and gives us the ability to offload our origins.” Customer Stories Region
  • 175. • AWS Free Usage Tier • 50 GB CloudFront Data Transfer per Month • 2,000,000 HTTP/HTTPS Requests per Month • Learn More: http://aws.amazon.com/free/ • Office Hours with CloudFront Engineers • July 30th, 2014 • 10 – 11am (PST) • Register Here: http://aws.amazon.com/cloudfront/ Get Started with CloudFront Region