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Africa powerpoint
 

Africa powerpoint

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    Africa powerpoint Africa powerpoint Presentation Transcript

    • chapter 6
      pages 167-173
      Africa
    • Topography:
      • Much of Africa is a large plateau, but its mountains, deserts, grassy flatlands, and jungles give it beauty
      Geography:
      • Africa is the second largest continent
      • Covers nearly 1/5 of the earth’s land surface
      • Nearly 4 times the size of the US
      History:
      • The Egyptians established the earliest recorded civilization in Africa
      • Carthage built a thriving civilization in North Africa
      • After the collapse of Rome, Muslims brought the region under Islamic domination
    • A. Ancient African Civilization
      Earliest kingdom in northeastern Africa was Kush
      The capital of Kush was Meroë
      Kush grew in power and by 700 B.C. had overthrown Egyptian rule and conquered all of Egypt and established its own dynasty of pharaohs
      The Assyrians drove out the Kushites about 660 B.C., but the Kushite kingdom continued for almost 1000 years longer
      2. Aksum eventually conquered Kush in 330 A.D.
      a. Aksum embraced Christianity
      b. The kingdom’s conversion to Christianity was the work of Frumentius who was a Syrian Christian
      3. Askum became the center of the modern state of Ethiopia.
    • B. Central and Western Africa
      1. Knowledge of the civilizations in central and western Africa is a bit vague because histories were passed down orally instead of being written down
      a. Oral tradition, archaeology, and some accounts written by non-Africans give some picture of these cultures
      Kingdon of Kanem-Bornu thrived on the shores of Lake Chad
      a. It had profit from the camel caravan trade and it built a strong military force
      b. Kanem-Bornu lasted 1,000 years because of the trade and military
    • There were 3 important kingdoms of western Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai (each was larger than the previous)
      a. All 3 built prosperous societies whose wealth derived from the gold mines within their empires and the camel trade of gold, silver, and precious items
      b. The Niger River provided a base for these empires because its waters drew travelers crossing the Sahara
      Kingdom of Ghana was 1st in prominence-Its peak was from 700-1200 A.D.
      a. Muslims attacked in the 11th century and weakened Ghana but were unable to conquer the region
      b. The kingdom of Mali rose in Ghana’s place, dominating from 1200-1500
      5. Most famous ruler was Mansa Musa
      a. Musa was Muslim and in his pilgrimage to Mecca was great
      b. He took, in his traveling group, 60,000+ men and 10,000lbs+ gold
      c. Mansa’s capital, Timbuktu became the most important trade center
    • d. People also paid a price for Musa’s leadership-the king was supposed to be superior to commoners and he was but he often spoke to his court behind a curtain and no one could watch him eat
      e. This emphasis on perfection meant that if he fell ill or became infirm with age, he was expected to commit suicide or be smothered
      6. In the 15th century, Songhai Empire overthrew Mali Empire
      7. An invasion by the Moroccans in 1591 brought an end to Songhai and an end to the western African empires
    • 1. Each independent city-state had its own trading port
      2. The ports continued to flourish as outlets for gold, iron, ivory, and animal skins to Arabs and Persians
      3. Kilwa was a prosperous city-state that received goods from the tribes and kingdoms in the interior and sold them to Arab sea traders
      4. The city-states grew wealthy and cultured because of their seaside locations
      5. City-states shared a common culture-a mixture of Arab, Persian, and African
      a. Architecture was Arab and language of city-states was Swahili with elements of Arabic, Persian, and Indian
      6. City-states enjoyed centuries of prosperity but after 1500, they were crushed by the Europeans
      C. East African City-States
    • D. Forest Kingdoms
      The kingdoms provided the goods for the eastern city-states to sell
      The best known kingdoms are those with which the Europeans came into contact with after the Middle Ages
      Kingdom of Benin was important
      a. It appeared around 1300 and lasted until the 19th century
      b. Benin was more than a trade center-it produced fine statues and relief sculptures in bronze and had great artistic accomplishments in metalworking
    • E. African Culture
      Daily life was focused on smaller social organizations
      Family was the most basic
      a. Polygamy was common so families were larger and more complex than European ones
      b. Several families could trace their decent back to a common ancestor and they formed a clan from this knowledge (2 or more clans formed a tribe)
      c. The tribe may have been the most important cultural organization
      d. Many African kingdoms were dominated by one ethnic group
    • 3. Religious beliefs in Africa were diverse
      a. African churches declined into superstition and formalism
      b. Islam had a great number of followers
      c. The majority of the people kept to traditional tribal religions
      d. The tribal religions taught that there was a high god who created the universe and there were lesser gods and ancestor’s spirits below
      e. People offered sacrifices to these gods to fend off illnesses and increase crop yields (sometimes, even humans were sacrificed
      Most Africans relied on farming or herding to provide for their families, but trade was the basis of the kingdoms
      Slave trade became big because the demand increased much after the Middle Ages
      a. The main point of contact for African-European relations after 1500 was slave trade
      b. This traffic of human lives led to suffering and exploitation for the Africans
    • Kingdoms displayed a level of complexity and organization that compared well with the civilizations in Europe and Asia
      Most Africans remained in spiritual darkness, like the Asians
    • Game: Are you smarter than a 5th grader
      Teams:???
      Crossword Puzzle: who’s the fastest??
      Food during crossword puzzle completion