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  • 1. Catering for gifts Issues in identification and provision for the needs of gifted students. Compiled by Lyne Megarrity 2008
  • 2. Identification
    • ‘ Each child is unique, bringing to the learning situation an exclusive set of capabilities and predispositions.’
    • Halliwell, G. 1977
  • 3. Definitions
    • Who are the gifted?
    • Students who are gifted excel , or are capable of excelling , in one or more areas such as general intelligence, specific academic studies, visual and
    • performing arts, physical ability, creative thinking, interpersonal and intrapersonal skills.
    • Giftedness in a student is commonly characterised by an advanced
    • pace of learning, quality of thinking or capability for remarkably high standards of performance compared to students of the same age.
    • Although these students are capable of outstanding achievement, the learning environment is pivotal to enabling them to demonstrate and develop their abilities.
    • Students who are gifted are at risk of
    • underachieving and disengaging from learning if they are not identified and catered for appropriately .
    • Education Queensland “Framework for Gifted Education”
  • 4. Definitions
    • Gifted students are those whose potential is distinctly above average in one or more of the following domains: intellectual, creative, social and physical.
    • Talented students are those whose skills are distinctly above average in one or more areas of human performance.
    •   N.S.W Education Dept
    • ‘ Giftedness is conceptualised as outstanding ability in one or more aptitude domains and “talent” as exceptional performance in one or more domain-related fields’ ( Gagne, 1985).
    • 2] Gagné, F. (1985). Giftedness and talent: Reexamining a reexamination of the definitions. Gifted Child Quarterly, 29, 103 -112.
    • This definition reflects the distinction between ability and performance by acknowledging the importance of innate ability while also recognising the significant influence environment, personality and other factors have on the development of ability.
    • Giftedness refers to a student’s outstanding ability in one or more domains (eg. intellectual, creative, socioemotional or sensorimotor). Talent refers to outstanding performance in one or more fields within these domains (eg. mathematics, science and technology, astronomy, sculpture athletics, languages): that is, talent emerges from giftedness as a consequence of the student’s learning experiences.
    • ACT Dept Education
  • 5. Definition
    • Joseph Renzulli (1978) developed a ‘three-ring’ definition of giftedness which proposed that giftedness was the interaction between three basic clusters of human traits: above average general ability; high levels of task commitment, and high levels of creativity. [1] However many feel that this ignores the gifted underachiever, who is rarely described as ‘task-committed’. Furthermore, many fields of performance do not require creativity.
    • [1] Renzulli, J.S. (1978). What makes giftedness: Reexamining a definition. Phi Delta Kappa, 60. 180 - 184, 261.
  • 6. Levels of Giftedness
    • All such percentages are arbitrary. They simply specify what the writer is thinking of in using indeterminate measure words like ‘high’, ‘superior’, ‘outstanding’ etc.
    • Intellectual ability varies among individuals along a continuum - the normal distribution or bell curve. There are many moderately gifted children, and very few profoundly gifted.
    • The Gifted Education Research, Resource and Information Centre suggested the following definitions:
    • mildly or basically gifted IQ 115-129 1 in 6 to 1 in 44
    • moderately gifted IQ 130-144 1 in 44 to 1 in 1,000
    • highly gifted IQ 145-159 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 10,000
    • exceptionally gifted IQ 160-179 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 1 million
    • profoundly gifted IQ 180+fewer than one in 1 million [1]
    • [1] Submission 215, Gifted Education Research, Resource and Information Centre, p.15
  • 7. Categories of gifted students
    • General intellectual ability
    • Specific academic aptitude
    • Creative or productive thinking
    • Leadership ability
    • Students who may be handicapped and gifted
    • The culturally different gifted
    • Visual and Performing arts
    • Psychomotor ability
  • 8. Using Renzulli’s Definition to think about gifted children ABOVE AVERAGE INTELLIGENCE Learns quickly and easily Comprehends quickly Thinks quickly Sees relationships Advanced vocabulary Advanced reading ability Wide knowledge Asks searching questions CREATIVITY Risk-taking Openness to experience flexibility originality TASK COMMITMENT Total involvement Perseverence Self-motivation EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Sensitivity Perfectionism Intensity vulnerability
  • 9. Think about this!
    • “ The term ‘gifted’ implies receiving something for nothing, and it is difficult to garner sympathy for someone so apparently blessed.” P.O. Rogne
    • Here are a number of alternative terms which could be used when referring to students who have the potential for excellence.
    • PROMISING CAPABLE INTELLIGENT
    • INDEPENDENT POTENTIAL INQUISITIVE
    • UNUSUAL THINKER EXCITED LEARNER
    • ACHIEVE R EMERGING TALENT MOTIVATED INSIGHTFUL
    • CHALLENGING CREATIVE ACCELERATED LEARNER
          • ADVANCED SPONTANEOUS
          • OUTSTANDING
  • 10. Sorting Myth from reality
    • Myth 1: Global Giftedness. Academically gifted children have a general intellectual power that makes them gifted in all subjects.
    • Myth 2: Talented but not gifted. The gifted are those children with high ability in academic areas. Children with high ability in music and art are talented.
    • Myth 3: Exceptional IQ. Giftedness in any domain depends on have a high IQ.
    • Myth 4&5: Commonsense myth – Giftedness is entirely inborn . Psychologist’s myth: Giftedness is entirely a matter of hard work.
    Source: Gifted children: Myths and realities. Elizabeth Winner 1996
  • 11. Sorting Myth from reality
    • Myth 6: The Driving Parent. Gifted children are created by pushy parents driving their children to overachieve; when pushed too hard by overambitious parents, these children will burn out.
    • Myth 7:Glowing with psychological health. Gifted children are better adjusted, more popular and happier than average children.
    • Myth 8: All children are gifted, and thus there is no special group of children that needs enriched or accelerated education in our schools.
    • Myth 9: Gifted children become eminent adults
  • 12. When is giftedness a disadvantage?
    • Giftedness is a disadvantage when members of a community fail to understand, acknowledge or provide appropriate schooling for such students.
    • Factors:
    • Socio-cultural bias against high ability and high achievement
    • Stereotyped assumptions determining which gifts are valued
    • Failure to identify students’ exceptional potential (especially when masked by behavioural traits or compounding characteristics such as low socioeconomic circumstances, isolation, gender, non-English speaking background ..)
    • Lack of access to appropriately challenging educational experiences.
  • 13. Three major methods of catering for needs
    • Enrichment available to all
    • Extension designed for specific needs
    • Acceleration pace
    • content
    • year level
  • 14. Catering for needs – the reality!
    • CHOICE
    • CHALLENGE
    • CREATIVITY
    • OPPORTUNITY FOR INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE
  • 15. Individualising for the whole group
    • 1. CHOOSE A TOPIC
    • Ask the students
    • Use a curriculum link
    • A special day eg Qld Day
    • A new set of resources
    • Teacher’s personal interest
    • 2. DECIDE ON A MODEL OF ORGANISATION
    • Include choice and openendedness
    • Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • Multiple intelligences
    • LATCH
  • 16. Individualising for the whole group
    • 3. DECIDE ON EXPECTATIONS FOR PRESENTATION
    • Written – article; project style
    • Artistic- model; sketching; painting;construction
    • Dramatic – play; TV interview; debates; speeches
    • Computer – brochure; Powerpoint; movie
    • Consider time expectations
    • 4. DECIDE ON MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT
    • Tasks written on board, signature when finished
    • Points for tasks completed
    • Self assessment for effort
    • Possibilities for display
    • Clearly expressed assessment criteria
    • Student responsibilities for cleanup
  • 17. Learning contracts for small groups
    • CHOOSE A TOPIC
    • Ask the children
    • Based on ability grouping
    • Based on interest grouping
    • Based on talent
    • Based on whole class focus
    • DECIDE ON A MODEL
    • Renzulli’s Model
    • Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • Multiple Intelligences
    • Small group problem solving
    • Multi-skill tasking (including student design)
  • 18. Learning contracts for small groups
    • DECIDE ON A METHOD OF PRESENTATION
    • Letters, speeches, OHP, Powerpoint presentation
    • Booklet, fiction stories
    • Classroom noticeboards display
    • Drama presentation, musical soundscape
    • Charts, tables, graphs, posters
      • DECIDE ON MONITORING AND
      • ASSESSMENT METHODS
      • Self-assessment
      • Point scores
      • Teacher-student conferences
      • Criteria-based assessment
      • Agreed on finishing time
  • 19. Developing learning contracts for individuals
    • CHOOSE A TOPIC
    • Ask the child
    • Use an Interest Inventory
    • Expert interest in a class topic
    • Challenge to develop a new Interest
    • Skill based contract
    • DECIDE ON A MODEL OF ORGANISATION
    • S.I.P (special interest project)
    • Detective assignment
    • Renzulli’s Model
    • Challenge problems which use a child’s particular skills to develop a new interest
    • Curriculum compaction, then extension
  • 20. Developing learning contracts for individuals
    • DECIDE ON EXPECTATIONS FOR PRESENTATION
    • Negotiate with the child
    • A What if? Question. Clues, facts, and conclusions
    • Depends on the perceived and negotiated audience
    • Presentation in child’s preferred mode eg sewing; game; cardboard figures; digital presentation
    • DECIDE ON MONITORING METHODS
    • Agreed on deadline
    • Negotiated written or computerised notes (it is the information, not the presentation, that is important here)
    • A mentor would help
    • Agreed assessment or not
    • Conferencing about completed work