Gifted students are those whose potential is distinctly above average in one or more of the following domains: intellectual, creative, social and physical.
Talented students are those whose skills are distinctly above average in one or more areas of human performance.
N.S.W Education Dept
‘ Giftedness is conceptualised as outstanding ability in one or more aptitude domains and “talent” as exceptional performance in one or more domain-related fields’ ( Gagne, 1985).
2] Gagné, F. (1985). Giftedness and talent: Reexamining a reexamination of the definitions. Gifted Child Quarterly, 29, 103 -112.
This definition reflects the distinction between ability and performance by acknowledging the importance of innate ability while also recognising the significant influence environment, personality and other factors have on the development of ability.
Giftedness refers to a student’s outstanding ability in one or more domains (eg. intellectual, creative, socioemotional or sensorimotor). Talent refers to outstanding performance in one or more fields within these domains (eg. mathematics, science and technology, astronomy, sculpture athletics, languages): that is, talent emerges from giftedness as a consequence of the student’s learning experiences.
Joseph Renzulli (1978) developed a ‘three-ring’ definition of giftedness which proposed that giftedness was the interaction between three basic clusters of human traits: above average general ability; high levels of task commitment, and high levels of creativity.  However many feel that this ignores the gifted underachiever, who is rarely described as ‘task-committed’. Furthermore, many fields of performance do not require creativity.
 Renzulli, J.S. (1978). What makes giftedness: Reexamining a definition. Phi Delta Kappa, 60. 180 - 184, 261.
Giftedness is a disadvantage when members of a community fail to understand, acknowledge or provide appropriate schooling for such students.
Socio-cultural bias against high ability and high achievement
Stereotyped assumptions determining which gifts are valued
Failure to identify students’ exceptional potential (especially when masked by behavioural traits or compounding characteristics such as low socioeconomic circumstances, isolation, gender, non-English speaking background ..)
Lack of access to appropriately challenging educational experiences.