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AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROUP PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION DOCUMENT
 

AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY - A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROUP PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION DOCUMENT

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A Mini-modular EMBA 15 - UCTGSB - Modular Sub-Group Assignment. Based in Business Acumen and with a week to study and interrogate the intricacies of the SA & Global Fishing Industry, various ...

A Mini-modular EMBA 15 - UCTGSB - Modular Sub-Group Assignment. Based in Business Acumen and with a week to study and interrogate the intricacies of the SA & Global Fishing Industry, various theories/methodologies related to Business Acumen and Archetypes upon which to graft potential long-term solutions to the Wicked Problems of Over-fishing - which is leading us, globally, to the Tragedy of the Commons.

The document starts with the PowerPoint Presentation that we had 5 minutes to present - quite a task for such a large topic. The discussion document, though basic, does perhaps shed some light on the challenges that we are currently facing globally - related to all natural resources.

The requirement - writing only a 1000 word report - using the work and thought done within the Appendices, does not allow for great depth. But perhaps there is value to be found in the simplicity of the recommendations as well as within the simple, yet practical methodological approaches employed.

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    AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROUP PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION DOCUMENT AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY - A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROUP PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION DOCUMENT Presentation Transcript

    • THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS defined as: INDIVIDUALS NEGLECTING THE WELL-BEING OF SOCIETY, IN PURSUIT OF PERSONAL GAIN EXAMPLES: OVER-FISHING AND WILDLIFE POACHING HARDIN, G. 1968 GROUP 3: EMBA 15.2 Prepared by: MANDISA MASICHILASEKGALAKANE AMANDA BRINKMANN BUSINESS ACUMEN 5 JULY 2013 SOURCE; DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUTURE, FORESTROY AND FISHERIES [ DAFF]
    • FOOD SECURITY EMPLOYMENT & JOB CREATION BUT INDUSTRY ON BRINK OF COLLAPSE THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY THE COMBINATION OF: • • • • • • LACK OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP NON-IMPLEMENTATION OF WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] NO RESEARCH TO PLAN AND MANAGE THE FISHING ECOSYSTEM LEADS TO COLLAPSING FISH STOCKS WHICH WILL BECOME THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS WITH LARGE NEGATIVE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT ON THE SA ECONOMY
    • HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY? THIS APPROACH TO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IS CHARACTERISED BY: • • • • • • • UNDERSTANDING THE WHOLE ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS WITHIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS SOCIETAL WELL-BEING OF DEPENDENT FISHING COMMUNITIES ARE INCLUDED WITHIN MANAGEMENT ADVICE AND PRACTICE THE LONG-TERM ECONOMIC WELL-BEING OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY IS THE COMMUNAL OUTCOME TRANSPARENT AND PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES REDUCES OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS SUFFICIENT SKILLS, CAPACITY, EQUIPMENT & FUNDING ROBUST SCIENTIFIC DATA COLLECTION POINTING THE NEED FOR A PHASE 1 REDESIGN OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY USING THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL
    • EMPIRCAL & ACADEMIC RESEARCH EXTENSIVE LITERATURE REVIEWS PRESENTATIONS BY SPECIALISTS USING YOUTUBE AND OTHER TECHNOLOGIES DESK RESEARCH, ID & CAUSAL MECHANISMS GLOBAL BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES PEER REVIEWSS, SURVEYS, FACE TO FACE I INTERVIEWS & TELEPHONIC/SKYPE WORK SESSIONS SCENARIO PLANNING & TESTING VSD, VSM, ACTIVITY THEORY, ET AL FACTUAL PROPOSITIONS, DISTILLED TO CORE VARIABLES
    • CURRENT REALITY = CURRENT FUTURE: SCENARIO 1 TESTING DRIVER OUTCOME 7 OUT 2 IN 1 OUT 6 IN OUTCOME MALNUTRITION, FOOD INSECURITY & POVERTY OUTCOME WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] 2 OUT 7 IN NOT IMPLEMENTED COLLAPSED FISHING STOCKS 3 OUT 4 IN 1 OUT 6 IN SOCIETAL, SOCIAL, INDUSTRY DECAY AND COLLAPSE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS 2 OUT 6 IN OUTCOME 4 OUT 4 IN THE ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS INDICATES THAT THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS COULD BE PREVENTED BY: • IMPLEMENTING THE WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [ EAF] • STRONG INDUSTRY LEADERSHIP • SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY • ROBUST, TIMELY, USEFUL DATA • RESPONSIBLE, COLLABORATIVE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT • DIVERSIFICATION OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY FRAGMENTED FISHING INDUSTRY SEEKING INDIVIDUAL BENEFIT & ROI LACK OF OR WEAK LEADERSHIP & UNSKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY REJECTED THE NULL HYPOTHESIS IRRESPONSIBLE EXPANSION & MANAGEMENT OF AQUACULTURE DRIVER 6 OUT 1 IN NO OR INFREQUENT RESEARCH DATA DRIVER 8 OUT 0 IN
    • GLOBAL PESTEL ENVIRONMENT ALGEDONIC ALERTS ATTENUATED ECOSYTTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES STRATEGY S4 WWF/INDUSTRY/GOV ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT TEAM INFO GATHERING, MONITORING, STRATEGY ADJUSTMENT , SUSTAINABILITY MILESTONES REPORTING FUTURE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT EMBEDDED & LOCAL ENVIRONMENTS EMBEDDED & LOCAL ENVIRONMENTS EMBEDDED & LOCAL ENVIRONMENTS EMBEDDED & LOCAL ENVIRONMENTS EMBEDDED & LOCAL ENVIROBNMENTS S5 MINISTERIAL TASK TEAM: INTER-DEPT, PUBLIC/PRIVATE, CIVIL SOCIETY GENERALIST SPECIALIST STRATEGY, POLICY, TRANSPARENT, COLLABORABITVE, SUSTAINABILITY FOCUSED S3 AUDIT S3 CROSS-DISCIPLINARY, INTERSECTORAL, INTER-GOVERNMENTAL PUBLIC PRIVATE SPECIALIST CONTROL SYSTEM 1A SADC FISHING PARTNERS 1 A 5,4,3,2 RECURSION 2 1B SMALLSCALE FISHERIES 1 B 5,4,3,2 RECURSION 2 1C RECREATIONAL FISHING 1 C 5,4,3,2 RECURSION 2 1 D 5,4,3,2 RECURSION 2 1 E 5,4,3,2 RECURSION 2 1D AQUACULTURE 1E COMMERCIAL LIVE CAPTURE S2 SUSTAINABIL ITY CO-ORD TASK TEAM – COLLECTIVE
    • COMMON GOOD PRINCIPLES WHOLE-OF-SOCIETY WORKING TOWARDS COMMON GOOD POLICY, SYSTEMS, SOCIAL SYSTEMS, INSTITUTIONS & ENVIRONMENTS ARE BENEFICIAL TO ALL – NOW AND FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS JUSTICE & FAIRNESS IMPLIES EQUAL BENEFITS AND BURDENS TO ALL = SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE ENSURES FAIR DISTRIBUTION FOR CURRENT & FUTURE GENERATIONS EQUAL AND ECONOMICALLY VIABLE ACCESS TO ALL STAKEHOLDERS • THE PRINCIPLES CONTAINED WITHIN THIS MODEL HAVE APPLICATION NOT ONLY IN OTHER NATURAL RESOURCE INTENSIVE SECTORS • WE STRONGLY ADVOCATE FOR THE USE OF THE PRINCIPLES AND PHILOSOPHY WITHIN ALL BUSINESSES AND ORGANISATIONS
    • AS THE EVIDENCE PRESENTED DEMONSTRATES, THE FUTURE OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY REQUIRES A PARADIGM SHIFT TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE, COLLABORATIVE, & TRANSPARENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WE THEREFORE RECOMMEND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN -ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH TO FISHERIES – USING VSD & VSM AS FOUNDATIONAL, EMERGENT MODELLING AND A SYNTHESIS OF ACTIVITY THEORY LAWS OF CYBERNETICS ACTIVITY SYSTEMS SCENARIO PLANNING LAW OF REQUISITE VARIETY INSITUTIONAL ANALYSIS & DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK BUSINESS MODELLING CANVASS SO LONG…..AND THANKS FOR THE FISH
    • REFERENCES: FISHING & VSM Basurto, X. 2005. How Locally Designed Access and Use Controls Can Prevent the Tragedy of the Commons in a Mexican Small-Scale Fishing Community. Society & Natural Resource. Vol 18. Pp. 643-659. Taylor & Francis Inc. DOI: : 10.1080/08941920590959631 Blaine, S. 5 March 2013. SA lacks analysis of its fishing markets. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013. Fishing on the brink of disaster. BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012. Status of the South African Marine Fishery Resources. www.nda.agric.za Hardin, G. 1968. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, New Series. Vol. 162, No. 3859. Pp.1243 – 1248. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Harris, J.M; Codur, A. Nov 2008. Economics of Fisheries. Global Development and Environment Institute. www.eoearth.org Manuel, T. 19 March 2013. Tie to make the high seas our business – for our future. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Martin, G. 30 April 2013. Nautic Africa supporting DAFF patrol and research vessels. www.defenceweb.co.za Ostrom, E. 1999. Coping with the Tragedies of the Commons. Centre of the Study of Institutions, Population and Environmental Change. Indiana University. Bloomington. U.S.A. Annual Reviews. Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013. Minister insists there is no crisis in fishing industry. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za
    • CAUSAL MECHANISM: CURRENT REALITY: NULL HYPOTHESIS APPENDIX A
    • IDEAL REALITY = IDEAL FUTURE: LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRY WHAT WE NEED TO DESIGN USING THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL OUTCOME DRIVER 2 OUT 6 IN 5 OUT 2 IN SUFFIENCT MARINE SA FISHING RESOURCES TO FEEDINDUSTRY: ANALYSIS, DIAGNOSIS, SUSTAINABLE AND SYNTHESIS & SYSTEMS REDESIGN TAKING INTO NOURISH ALL FISHING STOCKS STAKEHOLDERS ACCOUNT: OUTCOME 1 OUT 7 IN SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH 4 OUT 3 IN REBUILDING OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRY DRIVER 7 OUT 0 IN • VIABLE SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS • VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL • INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS & DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK [ AID] • ACTIVITY SYSTEMS AND ACTIVITY THEORY • BUSINESS MODELLING CANVASS • LEAN & A3 PROCESS MAPPING • CAUSAL LOOP MODELLING • SCENARIO PLANNING • WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] • LAWS OF CYBERNETICS • LAW OF REQUISITE VARIETY STRONG LEADERSHIP & COHESIVE, COLLABORATIVE FISHING INDUSTRY COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: NOT REJECTED 3 OUT 4 IN SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE DRIVER 6 OUT 1 IN ROBUST, CREDIBLE, TIMELY RESEARCH DATA DRIVER 6 OUT 2 IN APPENDIX B
    • EMBA15.2: MODULE 2: BUSINESS ACUMEN GROUP ASSIGNMENT SYSTAL- Rethinking the SA Fishing Industry With The View Of Improving Its Viability EXECUTIVE MBA15.2 Prepared by: Mandisa Mashicila-Sekgalakane Amanda Brinkmann MSHMAN001 BRNAMA005 For and on behalf of Group 3 15 July 2013 STUDENT NAMES: STUDENT NO: Bhadrashil Modi Willie Theron Annie Cohen Thierry Delvigne-Jean Amanda Brinkmann Evan Smith Mandisa Mashicila-Sekgalakane MDXBHA001 THRWIL004 CHNANN002 DLVTHIL001 BRNAMA005 SMTEVA002 MSHMAN001 LECTURER: Tom Ryan WORD COUNT SCQUARE WITHIN RUVE: 927 WORDS
    • EXECUTIVE MBA Module 2 Course Code: GSB4222F Group Position Paper Title : SYSTAL- Rethinking the SA Fishing Industry With The View Of Improving Its Viability Group Number: GROUP 3 MODULE 2 Student Names: Amanda Brinkmann BRNAMA005 Mandisa Masichila-Sekgalakane MSHMAN001 For and on behalf of Group 3: Members: Bhadrashil Modi MDXBHA001 Willie Theron THRWIL004 Annie Cohen CHNANN002 Thierry Delvigne-Jean DLVTHIL001 Evan Smith SMTEVA002 Date: 15 July 2013 Lecturer: Tom Ryan Word Count: ~ Words Relevance: Comments 0-2 Demonstrates little or no insight into the problem situation. The concern is vague and it is not clear why it is a problem and needs attention. Little or no sense of the relevance of the problem 3-5 6-7 8 Demonstrates good insight into the problem situation. Clearly states the concern and why it is a problem and needs attention. Clearly and compellingly demonstrates the significance and relevance of the problem 3-5 6-7 8 The proposed answer is clearly stated. Clearly shows how the proposed action answers the question posed and plausibly deals with the concern 0-2 The chains of reasoning leading to conclusions and proposed answers are vague and their underlying logic is not clear – the data is suspect and there is little evidence of the rigorous use of dependable analytic and synthetic methods Ethics: Comment 3-5 6-7 8 Documents clear and logical chains of reasoning in getting to conclusions and proposed action based on credible data, the rigorous use of dependable analytic and synthetic methods 0-2 Little or no credible consideration of the ethical implications of the proposed action 3-5 6-7 8 Makes a well reasoned judgment of the ethical implications of the proposed action base on a clear ethical framework and empirical data 0-2 Poorly organised; does not meet project and format requirements. Too many serious spelling and grammatical mistakes Appendix A: Crafting the paper (20%) 3-5 6-7 8 Well organised; fully meets project and format requirements. No serious spelling and grammatical mistakes 0-7 Incomplete; insufficient appropriate detail Appendix B: Doing the work (40%) 8-12 13-17 0-14 Incomplete; insufficient appropriate detail 15-25 Utility: Comments 0-2 The proposed answer is vague and it is not clear how it answers the question posed and plausibly deals with the concern Validity: Comment Communication: Comment 26-35 18-20 Complete with appropriate rich detail 36-40 Complete with appropriate rich detail Final mark = REPORT TITLE: SYSTAL- Rethinking the SA Fishing Industry With The View Of Improving Its Viability 2
    • 3
    • ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: PURPOSE STATEMENT The purpose of this research report is to rethink the South African [SA] Fishing Industry with the view to improving its viability. The key words that we have focused upon are: “rethink” and “improvement of its viability.” THE SITUATION: SA FISHING INDUSTRY     The SA Fishing Industry is a significant contributor to job creation, government revenue and income generation. Seafood is a vital source of protein and food security to a great many fishing communities as well as the population as a whole. Mismanagement of our marine resources over decades has brought the resource to the brink of collapse, which raises the spectre of dire potential socio-economic and societal impacts on SA as a whole. The industry is fragmented, there is little or no strategic, political leadership and this status quo, if maintained, is increasing the probability that we are steering our way towards “The Tragedy of the Commons” – which implies the complete depletion of a natural resource, because of lack of collaborative, sustainable and holistic management and resource allocation. THE CONCERN THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY The relevance of our concern within the situation, is that with continued lack of leadership, a fragmented fishing industry, no research or patrol vessels being active and the unabated extraction of this already threatened, depleted and over-exploited resource, fishing stocks will collapse, leading to “The Tragedy of the Commons”, which will in turn have dire social, societal and economic impacts on South Africa as a whole. THE QUESTION HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY? THE ANSWER: STARTING THE PROCESS OF FRAMING AN ANSWER OR LONG-TERM SOLUTION BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT which includes use of the VSM AND OTHER METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS AND METHODS TO REDESIGN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY FROM A STRUCTURAL, SYSTEMS & ORGANISATIONAL PERSPECTIVE This approach is evidence-based, considers the ecosystems and its future sustainability in totality and takes the needs of all stakeholders into consideration. The Viable Systems Model [VSM] is a practical tool to both diagnose and redesign the SA Fishing Industry, as it allows for emergence, adaptation and is by nature, structured so as to deal with complex, unitary systems, where stakeholders have a vested interest in communal, mutually beneficial outcomes and objectives. [Flood, R.L. July 1991.] RATIONALE AND DATA CREDIBILITY To ensure the credibility and veracity of our conclusions and recommendations, we followed the following, rigorous, non-linear processes: EMPIRICAL AND ACADEMIC RESEARCH→EXTENSIVE LITERATURE REVIEWS→EXTRACTS FROM PRESENTATIONS BY INDUSTRY SPECIALISTS→ADDITIONAL DESK RESEARCH→INTERROGATION OF GLOBAL CASE STUDIES, METHODOLOGIES, BEST PRACTICE→STUDYING, UNDERSTANDING AND USE OF THE VSM AND OTHER RELEVANT 4
    • THEOREMS, METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS→EXTRACTED FACT-BASED PROPOSITIONS→CATEGORISED AND LABELLED→SATURATED CATEGORIES→EXTRACTED TWO SETS OF EMPIRICAL VARIABLES→RAN TWO SCENARIOS USING ID’S AND CAUSAL MECHANISMS→TOOK INTO ACCOUNT THE PRINCIPLES AND OUTCOMES OF THE FISHBANKS GAME→ →To test for the validity and credibility of our situation, concern, question, answer as well as for the ethical implications of what we are proposing. We concluded that the application of our answer is transferable not only to other natural resource intensive industries, but that it could be employed within businesses and organisations in any industry or sector. ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS The solution or answer that we propose is aimed at securing the long-term sustainability, economic and social well-being as well as ecosystems health of the SA Fishing Industry and its stakeholders. We tested our conclusions and recommendations against the principle of ethical decision-making, but emphasised the following areas of ethics:   Our approach finds resonance with the “Common Good” principle, in that it implies that all policy, systems, social systems and society as a whole work towards a common good – which ensures that the benefits accrue to all – now and for future generations. The “Justice and Fairness” principle, which implies that equal benefits and burdens accrue to all stakeholders holds true. A Sustainable resource will ensure the fair distribution for current and future generations in an equal, environmentally sensitive and economically viable manner. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries Management will ensure that we avert “The Tragedy of the Commons” and can be embedded within the organisational systems of the SA Fishing Industry, by using the Viable Systems Model to redesign and adapt this emergent, future-focused solution. 5
    • CONTENTS PAGE PAGE NUMBERS Abstract 4 SCQARE REPORT WITHIN THE RUVE 1. 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 4. 4.1 4.2 5. 5.1 5.2 6. 7. Introduction Relevance Creating the Context The Situation Conclusion The Tragedy of the Commons The Concern The Argument for Relevance Conclusion Utility The Question The Answer The Argument for Utility Rationale and Data Credibility Methodological Approach The Argument for Validity Ethics Ethical Implications The Argument for Ethics Conclusions and Recommendations References 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 15 TABLE OF FIGURES: Fig 1: State of Global Fishing Stocks Fig 2: Tragedy of the Commons Fig 3: Scenario 2: CLD: Current Reality Fig 4: Scenario 1: CLD: Ideal Reality towards a sustainable SA Fishing Industry Fig 5: Process Flow/Methodological Approach Fig 6: Tracking Tool for EAF Implementation – Argument for Ethics APPENDIX A: CRAFTING THE PAPER A 1 Establishing Relevance A 1.1 the Situation A 1.2 Introduction: Purpose Statement A 1.3 The Situation: SA Fishing Industry A 1.3.1 Relevance of the Concern within the Situation 17 17 17 17 17 21 A 2 Establishing Utility – The C<>Q<>A Link A 2.1 The Question A 2.2 Process to Substantiate the Concern, Framing the Answer and Validating the Question A 2.2.1 The Answer; The Framing Process A 2.3 Establishing Utility 21 21 22 A 3 Establishing Validity and Credibility A 3.1 Rationale and Data Credibility A 3.2 Argument for Validity A 3.3 Transferability 26 26 26 29 A 4 Ethical Implications & the Argument for Ethics 29 22 25 6
    • A 5 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 29 TABLE OF FIGURES: APPENDIX A Fig 1: Status of Global Fishing Stocks: The level of resource depletion Fig 2: Status of Commercial Line Fishing in SA Fig 3: Status of Marine Resources in SA Fig 4: Economic View: Common Heritage Resources Fig 5: The Tragedy of the Commons: Description Fig 6: Situation SA Fishing Industry: In a Nutshell Fig 7: The Immediate Concern Fig 8: Establishing Relevance: Placing the Concern within the Context of the Situation Fig 9: The Question Fig 10: Outcome: Scenario 2: Business as Usual Fig 11: Scenario 1: ID: Ideal Reality Fig 12: Scenario 1: CLD: Ideal Reality Fig 13: Scenario 2: ID: Current Reality: Business-as-Usual Fig 14: Scenario 2: CLD: Current Reality: Business-as-Usual Fig 15: Scenario 2 Outcomes Fig 16: Graphic Representation of Methodology for Validity & Data Credibility Fig 17: Scenario 1: CLD Confirming the SCQARE within the RUVE Fig 18: Redesign of SA Fishing Industry using VSD within VSM Fig 19; Transferability of the Solution Fig 20: Considering Ethics: Common Good as well as Justice and Fairness Fig 21: Conclusions & Recommendations: EAF Using VSM, VSD as Foundational Models APPENDIX B: DOING THE WORK B 1 Researching and Testing for the SCQARE: Rethinking the SA Fishing Industry with a view to Improving its Viability B 1.1 Contextual Introduction B 2 Project Purpose Statement B 2.1 Overview of Tragedy of the Commons B 2.2 The Viable Systems Model in Context B 2.3 Broad and Defined Project Purpose Statements B 3 Process Flow B 3.1 Establishing the Situation within the Context of Relevance B 3.2 The Situation B 3.2.1 Substantiating our Analysis and Statement of the Situation: A summary of Data & Facts B 3.3 Establishing the Concern within the Situation B 3.3.1 Scenario Planning/Testing B 3.3.2 The Concern B 3.3.3 Relevance of the Concern within the Situation B 3.3.4 Establishing Utility: The C<>Q<>A Link B 3.3.4.1 The Question B 3.3.4.2 The Answer: The Framing Process B 3.3.4.3 Phase 0 Re-Design of SA Fishing Industry using VSM B 3.3.4.3.1 The Viable Systems Model: Validity as Core Methodology for Re-design of SA Fishing Industry B 3.3.4.3.2 Revisiting the Viable Systems Model B 3.3.4.3.3 Phase 0 Re-design of the SA Fishing Industry using the VSD and VSM B 3.3.4.3.4 The Argument for Utility – the C<>Q<>A Link B 3.4 The Argument for Validity and Credibility B 3.5 Ethics B 3.5.1 Ethical Implications B 3.5.2 The Argument for Ethics B 3.6 Conclusions and Recommendations B 3.7 Reference 31 31 31 31 32 33 34 34 34 35 44 45 48 48 48 48 49 51 51 59 65 65 68 68 68 68 69 7
    • TABLE OF FIGURES: APPENDIX B Fig 1: Tragedy of the Commons Fig 2: Status of Global Fishing Stock in 2008 Fig 3: Process Flow: Methodological Approach Fig 4: MSC Certified Mark Fig 5: Tracking Tool: EAF Implementation Fig 6: Global Facts: Fishing Extraction and Consumption: State of Resource Fig 7: State of Global Fishing Stocks 2008: Level of Depletion Fig 8: Recreational Fishing: Economic Benefits and Environmental Impacts Fig 9: State of Commercial Line Fish in SA: State of Over-exploitation and Collapse Fig 10: Status of SA Marine Resource Fig 11: Good Practice: Marine Protected Areas Fig 12: SA Seafood Contribution to Export Revenue Fig 13: SASSI: Eco-labelling Fig 14: Three Pillars of Food Security Fig 15: SA Fisheries Management; Mission Statement Fig 16: Contribution of SA Fishing to Revenue & Job Creation Fig 17: Direct Employment within SA Commercial Fishing Industry Fig 18: Table of Concepts & Variables for Scenario Testing Fig 19: Scenario 1: ID: Ideal Reality Fig 20: Scenario 1: CLD: Ideal Reality Fig 21: Scenario 2: ID: Current Reality Fig 22: Scenario 2: CLD: Current Reality Fig 23: Scenario: How to avoid the Tragedy of the Commons: Argument for Utility Fig 24: Tracking Tool for EAF Implementation Fig 25: Tools, Theorems, Methodologies: Re-design of SA Fishing Industry Fig 26: Three Cybernetic Laws: Management Implications Fig 27: Law of Requisite Variety Fig 28: The Viable System: Basic Design Fig 29: VSM Indices of Performance Fig 30: Phase 0 Re-design of SA Fishing Industry: Embedding EAF into the System Structure Fig 31: Methodology to Assure Data Credibility and Validity Fig 32: Concept Map: Process Flow of Methodological Rigour: Establishing Validity Fig 33: Considering Ethics: Common Good, Justice & Fairness APPENDIX C: PROPOSITION LOG APPENDIX D: CATEGORISATION, LABELLING, SATURATION: PROPOSITIONS 71 86 8
    • The purpose of this report is to find ways to improve the viability of the SA Fishing Industry. We studied the industry, the VSM and other methodologies to reach our conclusions and recommendations. This section of the report provides a snapshot of the current SITUATION within the SA Fishing Industry, in context of the global situation. From a report titled, “Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa” extracted the summary below:      , we The SA Fishing Industry is a significant contributor to job creation, government revenue and income generation. Seafood is a vital source of protein and food security to many fishing communities as well as to the general population. Mismanagement of marine resources over decades has brought it to the brink of collapse. The SA fishing stocks track with the statistics contained in Figure 1, above. The industry is fragmented, there is no strategic leadership and this situation, if maintained, is increasing the probability that we are moving towards “The Tragedy of the Commons” – the complete depletion of our fish stocks. This would have dire socio-economic consequences to fishing communities and the SA economy as a whole. 9
    • This situation raises a serious concern, which we will deal with next. “An economic problem where individuals try to reap the greatest benefit from a given resource. Demand overwhelms supply. All indications within our research point towards the collapse of the SA Fishing Industry, based on the current unknown state of our marine resources, no current research and patrol vessels at sea and data that indicate the depletion and over-exploitation of more than 50% of our resources. THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY The SITUATION:  A lack of leadership No clear policies to manage and sustain the SA Fishing Industry No research data to manage the SA marine ecosystem sustainably; the state of biomass of fishing stocks is unknown We therefore cannot accurately allocate fishing rights/quotas and could already be in a state of total depletion of important marine resources No patrol vessels at sea to regulate, monitor and protect the SA marine resources – creating conditions for exploitation and poaching Marine resources which are mostly depleted, over-fished, over-exploited or on the verge of  collapse Exacerbated by the non-implementation of the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF]      10
    •    Could lead to total collapse of SA Fishing Stocks Which will become The Tragedy of the Commons – the point of no return for our marine resources Creating large, negative, socio-economic impacts and devastating impacts on the SA Economy as a whole The CONCERN is centrally situated as an outcome of the SITUATION and made relevant, due to the dire consequences of inaction. We need to urgently question how we deal with this concern and find sustainable answers and solutions so as to avert a national socio-economic crisis. HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY? The CLD below demonstrates the dire outcomes if we do not find an answer to our question. - IRRESPONSIBLE EXPANSION & MANAGEMENT OF AQUACULTURE which leads to - -R NO OR INFREQUENT DATA ARE COLLECTED AND ANALYSED - and therefore SOCIAL & SOCIETAL DECAY & INEQUALITY contributing significantly to FRAGMENTED FISHING INDUSTRY - SEEKING HIGHEST INDIVIDUAL ROI NOT ADOPTING THE LACK OF/WEAK/ABSENT LEADERSHIP thereby which manifests as further - - - - creating the PERFECT STORM - SA AS A WHOLE INTER-RELATED COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEMS HOMEOSTASIS AND HUMAN ESCHATOLOGY - INCREASED POVERTY THROUGH UNEMPLOYMENT - AT A HUGE COST TO ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT which all adds up to COLLAPSE OF A VITAL SOURCE OF PROTEIN & FOOD SECURITY - - SOCIO-ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS FOR FISHING COMMUNITIES AND SA AS A WHOLE WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES - COLLAPSING/COLLAPSED FISHING STOCKS - - which in turn leads to - CREATING THE CONDITIONS FOR - ENVIRONMENTAL, MARINE ECOSYSTEMS DEGRADATION THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS INCREASE IN LOCAL MALNUTRITION - - leading to the - which ultimately leads to as a consequence of which THE FISHING INDUSTRY COLLAPSES The CLD and ID for Scenario 1: Ideal Reality: A Sustainable SA Fishing Industry led us to include the additional variable, the EAF into Scenario 2. The first part of our answer is therefore: MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT 11
    • + COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY + assures and contributes to + + SUSTAINABLE FISHING STOCKS leading to long-term + R ensure the availability of + STRONG LEADERSHIP & COHESIVE, COLLABORATIVE FISHING INDUSTRY + REBUILDING OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRTY + + via + which, when coupled with ROBUST, CREDIBLE, TIMELY RESEARCH DATA + R + + + which in combination create the conditions for which provides the incentives for the continued + SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE + R SUFFICIENT MARINE RESOURCES TO FEED & NOURISH ALL STAKEHOLDERS + SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH + with the ultimate outcome of The CLD above demonstrates the benefits of the EAF. It is evidence-based, prioritises the ecosystem, its sustainability and takes the needs of all stakeholders into consideration. The Viable Systems Model [VSM] is a practical tool to both diagnose and redesign the SA Fishing Industry, as it allows for emergence, adaptation and is by nature, structured so as to deal with complex, unitary systems, where stakeholders have a vested interest in communal, mutually beneficial outcomes and objectives. BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT which includes use of the VSM AND OTHER METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS AND METHODS TO REDESIGN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY FROM A STRUCTURAL, SYSTEMS & ORGANISATIONAL PERSPECTIVE To ensure the credibility and veracity of our conclusions and recommendations, we followed the following, rigorous, non-linear processes as demonstrated within Figure 5 below: 12
    • We feel satisfied that our report as well as the demonstration of the processes employed to ensure validity and credibility, which are contained within our Appendices, satisfy all criterion in respect of validity. We also concluded that the application of our answer is transferable not only to other natural resource intensive industries, but that it could be employed within businesses and organisations in any industry or sector. The answer that we propose is aimed at securing the long-term sustainability, economic and social wellbeing as well as ecosystems health of the SA Fishing Industry and all its stakeholders. We tested our conclusions and recommendations against the principles of ethical decision-making. Figure 6 makes the case for the under-lying ethical implications of our answer.   Our approach finds resonance with the “Common Good” principle, in that it implies that all policy, systems, social systems and society as a whole work towards a common good – which ensures that the benefits accrue to all – now and for future generations. The “Justice and Fairness” principle, which implies that equal benefits and burdens accrue to all stakeholders holds true. A Sustainable resource will ensure the fair distribution for current and future generations in an equal, environmentally sensitive and economically viable manner. 13
    • An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries Management will ensure that we avert “The Tragedy of the Commons” and can be embedded within the organisational systems of the SA Fishing Industry, by using the Viable Systems Model to redesign and adapt this emergent, future-focused solution. 14
    • REFERENCES: GROUP 3 FISHING INDUSTRY VSM PROJECT Bailey, M; Gakushilshimura; Paisley, R; Sumaila, U, R. 2012. Marine Policy. Elsevier Ltd. Basurto, X. 2005. How Locally Designed Access and Use Controls Can Prevent the Tragedy of the Commons in a Mexican Small-Scale Fishing Community. Society & Natural Resource. Vol 18. Pp. 643-659. Taylor & Francis Inc. DOI: : 10.1080/08941920590959631 Beer, S. 1972. Brain of the Firm. The Penguin Press. London. Blaine, S. 5 March 2013. SA lacks analysis of its fishing markets. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013. Fishing on the brink of disaster. BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Clemson, B. 2013 – EMBA 15. Three Key Cybernetic Laws. Crawford, S; Ostrom, E.1995. A Grammar of Institutions. American Political Science Review 89(3)(Sept.):582600. Denyer, D; Tranfield, D; Van Aken, J.E. 2008. Developing Design Propositions through Research Synthesis. Organisation Studies Vol. 29: 393 Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012. Status of the South African Marine Fishery Resources. www.nda.agric.za Engestrom, Y. 2009. From Learning Environments and Implementation to Activity Systems and Expansive Learning. An International Journal of Human Activity Theory. No.2. Pp. 17-33. The Centre of Human Activity Theory. Kansai University. Espejo, R. 2003. The Viable System Model: A Briefing about Organisational Structure. Syncho Limited. www. syncho.com Espejo, R; Reyes, A. 2011. On Managing Complexity: Variety Engineering: Chapter 4; Organisational Systems. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Heidelberg. Flood, R.L. July 1991. Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems Intervention. Chapter 5: Viable Systems Diagnosis. John Wiley & Sons. Hardin, G. 1968. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, New Series. Vol. 162, No. 3859. Pp.1243 – 1248. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Harris, J.M; Codur, A. Nov 2008. Economics of Fisheries. Global Development and Environment Institute. www.eoearth.org Helmy, H. November 1990. Decision Rule Theory and its use in the Analysis of the Organisation’s Performance. Baligh Organisation Science, Vol.1, No. 4. www.enotes.com Herbert, S. 1957. A Behavioural Model of Rational Choice; Extracted from Models of Man, Social and Rational: Mathematical Essays on Rational Human Behaviour in Social Setting. New York. Wiley & Sons. Hurwicz, L. 1994. Economic Design, Adjustment Processes, Mechanisms, and Institutions.‖ Economic Design 1(1):1-14. Investopedia US. 2013. Definitions: The Tragedy of the Commons. A Division of ValueClick, Inc. www.investopedia.com/terms/t/tragedy-of-the-commons.asp 15
    • Korten, D.C. 1980. Community Organization and Rural Development: A Learning Process Approach.‖ Public Administration Review (Sept./Oct.): 480-511. Manuel, T. 19 March 2013. Tie to make the high seas our business – for our future. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Martin, G. 30 April 2013. Nautic Africa supporting DAFF patrol and research vessels. www.defenceweb.co.za Ostrom, E. 1999. Coping with the Tragedies of the Commons. Centre of the Study of Institutions, Population and Environmental Change. Indiana University. Bloomington. U.S.A. Annual Reviews. Ostrom, E; Gardner, R; Walker, J. 1994. Rules, Games and Common-Pool Resources. Ann Arbor. MI University. University of Michigan Press. Pauly, D; Alder, J; Bennett, E; Christensen, V; Tyedmers, P; Watson, R. 21 November 2003. The Future of Fisheries. Science Vol 302. www.sciencemag.org Polski, M.M; Ostrom,E. 1999. An Institutional Framework for Policy Analysis and Design. Department of Political Science. Indiana University. USA. Sauer, W.H.H; Hecht, T; Britz, P.J; Mather, D. 2003. An Economic and Sectoral Study of the South African Fishing Industry. Economic and regulatory principles, survey results, transformation and socio-economic impact Report. Volume 1. Prepared for Marine and Coastal Management by Rhodes University. www.envirofisharica.co.za Scholtes, P.R. 1998. The Leader’s Handbook. United States of America. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Trochim, W,M,K. 2006. Deduction & Induction. Web Center for Social Research Methods. Research Methods Knowledge Base. www.socialresearchmethods.net Van Aken, J. E. 2005. Improving the Relevance of Management Research by Developing Tested and Grounded Technological Rules. Eindhoven Centre for Innovation Studies. Eindhoven University of Technology. Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013. Minister insists there is no crisis in fishing industry. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Velasquez, M; Andre, C; Shanks, T; Meyer, M.J. Ethical Decision Making: Introduction to Ethics. www.scu.edu World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011. Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa. Sponsored and published by Pick ‘n Pay. 16
    • APPENDIX A: CRAFTING THE PAPER A 1 ESTABLISHING RELEVANCE A 1.1 THE SITUATION A 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION: PURPOSE STATEMENT The defined purpose of this research report is to rethink the South African [SA] Fishing Industry with the view to improving its viability. The key words that we have focused upon are: “rethink” and “improvement of its viability.” The purview of this research paper does not allow for, nor require, finding of the panacea in respect of proposing an ultimate solution, but it does provide the scope to do the following:       Gain a working understanding of the SA Fishing Industry and the current reality that it is faced with. To situate the state of the SA Fishing in context of the global fishing industry, so as to gain perspective and draw from best practice, as well as compare and contrast the SA situation with the general global trends within the industry. To grasp the concept of “ The Tragedy of the Commons” which is related and has potential impact on all finite, natural resources; and to consider the impact it could have on the SA Fishing Industry and the SA economy as a whole. To understand the theory and practice of the Viable Systems Model [VSM] [Flood, R.L. July 1991.] as both a Diagnostic and Organisational/Systems Design tool. To make connections with complementary and related theorems, methodologies and tools to aid in the diagnostic and solutions or answer ideation process. To arrive at the Situation, Concern, Question, Answer, Rationale and Ethics [SCQUARE] in regards to the SA Fishing Industry and to apply the VSM, in its most basic form, together with other tools, to provide a snapshot of what the SA Fishing Industry could look like if it departed from its Current Reality or “Business as Usual” approach and moved to a more Ideal Reality, so as to create a more Ideal, sustainable future for generations to come. A 1.1.2 THE SITUATION: SA FISHING INDUSTRY From its in-depth report titled, “Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa”, the World Wildlife Organisation [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.], we extract the following snapshots to paint a picture of the precarious situation that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in:     The SA Fishing Industry is a significant contributor to job creation, government revenue and income generation. Seafood is a vital source of protein and food security to a great many fishing communities as well as the population as a whole. Mismanagement of our marine resources over decades has brought the resource to the brink of collapse, which raises the spectre of dire potential socio-economic and societal impacts on SA as a whole. The industry is fragmented, there is little or no strategic, political leadership and this status quo, if maintained, is increasing the probability that we are steering our way towards “The Tragedy of the Commons” – which implies the complete depletion of a natural resource, because of lack of collaborative, sustainable and holistic management and resource allocation. The various graphics in the form of numbered figures, as well as the detailed workings within Appendices B, C and D, provide a detailed and empirical foundation that describes the situation that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in at present. We have summarized the state of industry as succinctly, yet powerfully, as possible. 17
    • Figure 1: Status of Global Fishing Stocks: The level of resource depletion Figure 2: Status of Commercial Line Fish in South Africa 18
    • Figure 3: Status of Marine Resources in South Africa Figure 4: Economic View: Common Heritage Resources: Lakes & Oceans treated as Free Resources 19
    • Figure 5: The Tragedy of the Commons: Description [Hardin, G. 1968] Figure 6: Situation: SA Fishing Industry: In a Nutshell 1.2 THE CONCERN From the extensive data that were interrogated and the scenarios that we ran, all indications are that we are being steered towards the complete depletion of our marine resources and the collapse of the industry. Our concern is therefore expressed as: THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY The relevance of our concern within the situation, is that with continued lack of leadership, a fragmented fishing industry, no research or patrol vessels being active and the unabated extraction of this already threatened, depleted and over-exploited resource, fishing stocks will collapse, leading to “The Tragedy of the Commons”, which will in turn have dire social, societal and economic impacts on South Africa as a whole. Figure 7: The Immediate Concern: Potential Impact of the Tragedy of the Commons on the SA Fishing Industry The Scenarios that we ran, using Inter-relationship Digraphs as well as Causal Loop Diagramme Mechanisms, served as further validation of our concern within the situation. All indications within our research, methodological rigour, diagnosis, analysis and synthesis pointed towards the very real possibility and probability of the Tragedy of the Commons being a threat to the SA Fishing Industry – if not already a done deal for certain marine resources, given the dearth of credible and current scientific research data. 20
    • A 1.3 ESTABLISHING RELEVANCE: SITUATING THE CONCERN WITHIN THE SITUATION A 1.3.1 RELEVANCE OF THE CONCERN WITHIN THE SITUATION The SITUATION is characterised by:           A lack of leadership at strategic as well as institutional level as a whole No clear or stable policies to manage and sustain the SA Fishing Industry No research data available to plan and manage the SA marine ecosystem sustainably; which further implies that the state of biomass of fishing stocks is unknown This in turn means that we cannot accurately allocate fishing rights and quotas and could already be in a state of total depletion of important marine resources No patrol vessels at sea to regulate, monitor and protect the SA marine resources – which creates the conditions for exploitation of all marine resources as well as poaching Marine resources which are mostly depleted, over-fished, over-exploited or on the verge of collapse Exacerbated by the non-implementation of the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF] Could lead to the total collapse of SA Fishing Stocks Which will become The Tragedy of the Commons – the point of no return for our marine resources Creating large, negative, socio-economic impacts, by the collapse of the SA Fishing Industry and therefore, devastating impacts on the SA Economy as a whole The CONCERN is centrally situated as an outcome of the SITUATION and made relevant, due to the dire consequences of inaction or continuing on the current path as is prevalent within the current SITUATION. Relevance is further clearly states within the outcomes of the two [2] scenarios which we ran. Figure 8: Establishing Relevance; Placing the Concern within the context of the Situation A 2 ESTABLISHING UTILITY – THE C<>Q<>A LINK A 2.1 THE QUESTION Based on our findings and research, the logical question to ask, would be; HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY? Given the state of the SA Fishing industry, its already depleted and over-exploited stock, the lack of research data for planning and resource management, our question is particularly useful, in that it seeks to explore how we avoid the collapse of a vital natural resource and all of the concomitant consequences. 21
    • Figure 9: The Question: How do we Avoid the Tragedy of the Commons from Becoming a Reality within the SA Fishing Industry/ A 2.2 PROCESS TO SUBSTANTIATE CONCERN, START FRAMING THE ANSWER AND VALIDATE THE QUESTION A 2.2.1 THE ANSWER: THE FRAMING PROCESS In starting the process of framing our answer, we felt that the EAF offers the most practical and cogent long-term, sustainable solution to the viability of the SA Fishing Industry. Figure 10: Outcome: Scenario 2; Business as Usual: Leading to the Framing of our Answer Our answer, or at least part of it, specifically the move to the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF] was rationalised and brought forth by the entire methodological process employed, but more specifically, by the two scenarios that we ran, using two sets of variables to create two ID’s and two Causal Loop Diagramme Mechanisms. 22
    • Figure 11: Scenario 1: Inter-relationship Digraph: Ideal Reality: Long-term Sustainable Fishing Industry + COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY + assures and contributes to + + SUSTAINABLE FISHING STOCKS leading to long-term + R ensure the availability of + STRONG LEADERSHIP & COHESIVE, COLLABORATIVE FISHING INDUSTRY + REBUILDING OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRTY + + via + which, when coupled with ROBUST, CREDIBLE, TIMELY RESEARCH DATA + R + + + which in combination create the conditions for which provides the incentives for the continued + SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE + R SUFFICIENT MARINE RESOURCES TO FEED & NOURISH ALL STAKEHOLDERS + SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH + with the ultimate outcome of Figure 12: Scenario 1: CLD: Ideal Reality: Long-term Sustainable Fishing Industry 23
    • Figure 13: Scenario 2 ID: Current Reality, Business-as-Usual Scenario - IRRESPONSIBLE EXPANSION & MANAGEMENT OF AQUACULTURE which leads to - NO OR INFREQUENT DATA ARE COLLECTED AND ANALYSED - and therefore SOCIAL & SOCIETAL DECAY & INEQUALITY contributing significantly to FRAGMENTED FISHING INDUSTRY SEEKING HIGHEST INDIVIDUAL ROI NOT ADOPTING THE LACK OF/WEAK/ABSENT LEADERSHIP thereby which manifests as further - which all adds up to - - - creating the PERFECT STORM - SA AS A WHOLE INTER-RELATED COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEMS HOMEOSTASIS AND HUMAN ESCHATOLOGY - INCREASED POVERTY THROUGH UNEMPLOYMENT - AT A HUGE COST TO ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT - COLLAPSE OF A VITAL SOURCE OF PROTEIN & FOOD SECURITY - - SOCIO-ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS FOR FISHING COMMUNITIES AND SA AS A WHOLE WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES - COLLAPSING/COLLAPSED FISHING STOCKS - - which in turn leads to - -R CREATING THE CONDITIONS FOR - ENVIRONMENTAL, MARINE ECOSYSTEMS DEGRADATION THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS INCREASE IN LOCAL MALNUTRITION - - leading to the - which ultimately leads to as a consequence of which THE FISHING INDUSTRY COLLAPSES Figure 14: Scenario 2: CLD: Current Reality, Business-as-Usual outcomes 24
    • Figure 15: Scenario 2 outcomes: Pointing to the requirements to be contained within the Answer Leading to FRAMING THE ANSWER THIS APPROACH TO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IS CHARACTERISED BY: • UNDERSTANDING THE WHOLE ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS WITHIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS • SOCIETAL WELL-BEING OF DEPENDENT FISHING COMMUNITIES ARE INCLUDED WITHIN MANAGEMENT ADVICE AND PRACTICE • THE LONG-TERM ECONOMIC WELL-BEING OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY IS THE COMMUNAL OUTCOME • TRANSPARENT AND PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES • REDUCES OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS • SUFFICIENT SKILLS, CAPACITY, EQUIPMENT & FUNDING • ROBUST SCIENTIFIC DATA COLLECTION POINTING THE NEED FOR A PHASE 1 REDESIGN OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY USING THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL A 2.3 ESTABLISHING UTILITY This empirically proven, best practice model [The EAF] takes a holistic approach, which includes consideration of whole ecosystems impacts, the well-being of fishing communities as well as the longterm socio-economic well-being of the Fishing Industry as its ultimate outcome. With the World Wildlife Fund [WWF] and the United Nations as its progenitors and the WWF as the specialist implementation partners globally, the EAF Management System carries gravitas and inherent credibility from successes that have already been achieved in a variety of other fishing territories. An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [EAF] is being adopted globally. This approach considers all marine organisms and the processes that inter-connect them. It recognises that alterations in any processes are difficult to recognise and even more difficult to restore, once disrupted. Having studied a large range of theorems, methodologies, frameworks and tools, it was found that the Viable Systems Model [Flood, R.L. July 1991.], with specific reference to the Viable Systems Diagnostics tools that are built into this model, are most appropriate as a point of departure. The VSM and VSD aided with the confirmation of the diagnosis of the current system and structure and with a Phase 0 re-design of the SA Fishing Industry. In addition to the VSM, a range of other tools, methods and methodologies would be employed as part of the emergent process of adapting, improving, checking, adjusting, measuring, communicating, co-ordinating and rebuilding the SA Fishing Industry. At the heart of this emergent process, that is inherent in using the Viable Systems Model to re-design the structure of the SA Fishing Industry, would be the use of the Deming Wheel or 25
    • Plan→Do→Study/Check→Act[ion] [ PDCA][ Scholtes, P.R. 1998.] to constantly improve upon the structural design and functional systems and their interactions. The control [System 2] and co-ordination systems [ System 3] [Beer, S. 1972.]will be specific areas of emphasis, so as to ensure that communication of any variances are dealt with as swiftly as possible and the system as a whole adjusted and adapted to deal with complexity, variety and variances. The more comprehensive first framing of the ANSWER is therefore expanded as: BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT which includes use of the VSM AND OTHER METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS AND METHODS TO REDESIGN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY FROM A STRUCTURAL, SYSTEMS & ORGANISATIONAL PERSPECTIVE A 3 ESTABLISHING VALIDITY AND CREDIBILITY A 3.1 RATIONALE AND DATA CREDIBILITY To ensure the credibility and veracity of our conclusions and recommendations, we followed the following, rigorous, non-linear processes: EMPIRICAL AND ACADEMIC RESEARCH→EXTENSIVE LITERATURE REVIEWS→EXTRACTS FROM PRESENTATIONS BY INDUSTRY SPECIALISTS→ADDITIONAL DESK RESEARCH→INTERROGATION OF GLOBAL CASE STUDIES, METHODOLOGIES, BEST PRACTICE→STUDYING, UNDERSTANDING AND USE OF THE VSM AND OTHER RELEVANT THEOREMS, METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS→EXTRACTED FACT-BASED PROPOSITIONS→CATEGORISED AND LABELLED→SATURATED CATEGORIES→EXTRACTED TWO SETS OF EMPIRICAL VARIABLES→RAN TWO SCENARIOS USING ID’S AND CAUSAL MECHANISMS→TOOK INTO ACCOUNT THE PRINCIPLES AND OUTCOMES OF THE FISHBANKS GAME→ →To test for the validity and credibility of our situation, concern, question, answer as well as for the ethical implications of what we are proposing. A.3.2 ARGUMENT FOR VALIDITY We feel satisfied that our report as well as the demonstration of the processes employed to ensure validity and credibility, which are contained within our Appendices B, C and D, satisfy all criterion in respect of validity. We also concluded that the application of our answer is transferable not only to other natural resource intensive industries, but that it could be employed within businesses and organisations in any industry or sector. 26
    • Figure 16: Graphic Representation of Methodology for Validity and Data Credibility + COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY + assures and contributes to + + SUSTAINABLE FISHING STOCKS leading to long-term + R ensure the availability of + STRONG LEADERSHIP & COHESIVE, COLLABORATIVE FISHING INDUSTRY + REBUILDING OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRTY + + via + which, when coupled with ROBUST, CREDIBLE, TIMELY RESEARCH DATA + R + + + which in combination create the conditions for which provides the incentives for the continued + SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE + R SUFFICIENT MARINE RESOURCES TO FEED & NOURISH ALL STAKEHOLDERS + SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH + with the ultimate outcome of Figure 17: Scenario 1: CLD: Confirming the SCQARE within the RUVE 27
    • Figure 18: Redesign of the SA Fishing Industry using VSD within the VSM We include the redesign of the SA Fishing Industry, using the VSD within the VSM within this section, as we firstly, within our Appendix B workings, investigated and substantiated the use of the VSD and VSM as appropriate tools for complex unitary systems. These systems are subject to constant environmental changes, yet are by nature able to be unified towards achieving mutually beneficial goals and objectives. The methodology therefor works perfectly for the fishing industry, which has the characteristics as described above. Within Appendix B, we demonstrate our understanding of the VSM as well as the practical applications of the tool, so as to arrive at a new design for the SA Fishing Industry. Within our very basic, Phase 0 re-design, we use the Institutional and Development Framework [AID] to aid in our diagnosis and to guide our design. The scope of this paper does not allow for a detailed diagnosis and resultant diagnostic report, nor for a comprehensive narrative regarding how each of the systems should ideally be structured, using the array of methodologies, tools, methods and frameworks at our disposal. We did however, within Appendix B, provide a snapshot of our diagnosis, as well as a summary of the key areas that we believe would have to be dealt with, addressed, monitored and measured, so as to evolve the VSM structure of the SA Fishing Industry over time, so as to reach the end goal – which is a long-term, sustainable marine resource and a thriving fishing industry and economy. 28
    • A 3.3 TRANSFERABILITY Given the nature inherent in our solution – focusing upon long-term sustainability, involving all stakeholders, collaborating in the interest of the greater good and being adaptable, emergent and evolving by nature, transferability to other natural resource management systems seems natural. We do however believe that this model of long-term sustainability has application across sectors, industries, businesses and organisations. In fact, it is particularly relevant in the era where we have reached the Limits to traditional growth and where total organisational wellness will lie at the heart of its future existence. Figure 19: Transferability of the Solution A 4 ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS AND THE ARGUMENT FOR ETHICS The solution or answer that we propose is aimed at securing the long-term sustainability, economic and social well-being as well as ecosystems health of the SA Fishing Industry and all of the stakeholders affected by its well-being and/or who may have an impact on its long-term well-being. We therefore tested our conclusions and recommendations against all of the principle of ethical decision-making, but emphasised the following areas of ethics:   Our approach finds resonance with the “Common Good” principle, in that it implies that all policy, systems, social systems and society as a whole work towards a common good – which ensures that the benefits accrue to all – now and for future generations. The “Justice and Fairness” principle, which implies that equal benefits and burdens accrue to all stakeholders holds true. A Sustainable resource will ensure the fair distribution for current and future generations in an equal, environmentally sensitive and economically viable manner. Figure 20: Considering Ethics: Common Good as well as Justice & Fairness A 5 OVERALL CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries Management will ensure that we avert “The Tragedy of the Commons” and can be embedded within the organisational systems of the SA Fishing Industry, by using the Viable Systems Model to redesign and adapt this emergent, future-focused solution. 29
    • Figure 21: Conclusions and Recommendations: EAF using VSD and VSM as foundational models 30
    • Appendix B: DOING THE WORK B.1 RESEARCHING AND TESTING FOR THE SITUATION, CONCERN, QUESTION, ANSWER, RATIONALE AND ETHICS: RETHINKING THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY WITH THE VIEW OF IMPROVING ITS VIABILITY B.1.1 CONTEXTUAL INTRODUCTION The nature of the assignment requires that we have to firstly understand the situation in as much detail as possible, before we are able to formulate our concern and from there, the question and answer that would flow from the concern. Given the dynamic complexity of the SA Fishing Industry, it is patently clear that there are a range of concern variables that could be dealt with. We felt strongly that we needed to find a concern variable that carried gravitas and that had the potential, if dealt with in a holistic manner, to positively impact the future sustainability and viability of the industry in a meaningful manner. Our approach has therefore been to research and test for these core issues, so as to ensure that relevance, utility and validity are assured, before we are able to delve deeper into the concern, question and answer variables. B.2 PROJECT PURPOSE STATEMENT B.2.1 OVERVIEW OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS The South African Fishing Industry forms part of the Regional [Southern Africa] as well as Global Fishing Industries; all of whom are reliant on a resource which could deplete completely, if not managed in a collaborative and sustainable manner. It is fair to state that any natural resource is finite by nature and as such, susceptible to what is known as “The Tragedy of the Commons.” [Hardin, G. 1968.] The Tragedy of the Commons is defined as: Figure 1: Tragedy of the Commons [ Source: World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011. Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa. Sponsored and published by Pick ‘n Pay.] Investopedia [Investopedia US. 2013.] offers the following two adjuvant definitions; Definition of 'Tragedy of the Commons' “An economic problem in which every individual tries to reap the greatest benefit from a given resource. As the demand for the resource overwhelms the supply, every individual who consumes an additional unit directly harms others who can no longer enjoy the benefits. Generally, the resource of interest is easily available to all individuals.” 31
    • Investopedia explains 'Tragedy of The Commons' “The tragedy of the Commons occurs when individuals neglect the well-being of society (or the group) in the pursuit of personal gain. For example, if neighboring farmers increase the number of their own sheep living on a common block of land, eventually the land will become depleted and not be able to support the sheep, which is detrimental to all.” As we will demonstrate within this Appendix as well as within our core thesis, the data are clear in that the SA Fishing Industry is standing on the precipice of collapse. The current status quo is the result of a large variety of internal as well as external factors and variables interacting with one another over a prolonged period of time; all of whom have conspired to create the situation that we are faced with currently. We expound on the current Situation in greater detail within the body of this document. However, to demonstrate the relevance of expounding on The Tragedy of the Commons, Figure 2 below paints a disconcerting picture of the status of global fish stocks. At the time of releasing these statistics, 53% of the global marine resources were described as being fully fished, 3% completely depleted and 28% over-fished. Given the fragmented nature of the local as well as global fishing industries, the lack of co-ordination, communication and resource management, we fear that this situation may have become far worse in the ensuing five[5] years. These statistics speak to an industry teetering on the brink of collapse and therefore, susceptible to The Tragedy of the Commons. Figure 2: Status of Global Fishing Stocks in 2008; [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011. Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa. Sponsored and published by Pick ‘n Pay.] B.2.2 THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL IN CONTEXT A Viable systems is by inference one that is able to function autonomously and which is organized so that it is able to deal with dynamic complexity in order to survive. [. Beer, S. 1972.] Adaptability and emergence are two core features of viable systems. As the environment changes, so the system must be designed so as to adapt to the internal and external dynamics that affect it. The Viable Systems Model [VSM] [Beer, S. 1972.] is based upon an abstracted cybernetic description that is applicable to any viable system; implicit within this system is the fact that regulation theory underpins the design of the system. As we hope to demonstrate within our first attempt at 32
    • redesigning the SA Fishing Industry, using the VSM, we have placed emphasis upon the regulation theory of cybernetics, as well as other tools and methodologies to ensure that the control, co-ordination and strategic systems are equipped so as to ensure the high-functioning of System One [1], which is where the actual work is done with in the VSM. In Systems Theory, this system one would be akin to the GEMBA – defined as GEM – specific work – BA – the place – or the core system that produces the customer’s value and work. [Scholtes, P.R. 1998.] Using Viable Systems Diagnosis [Flood, R.L. July 1991], which provides the foundation for creative problem solving and total systems intervention, our aim was to arrive at a broad systems diagnosis and to re-design the existing SA Fishing Industry, using the Viable Systems Model. We remain fully alive to the fact that such a diagnosis and Phase 0 re-design are the mere beginnings of an on-going, organic and emergent process. The Deming Wheel or PDCA [ Plan→Do→Check→Action]process [Scholtes, P.R. 1998.] should be one of the methodologies or tools used to ensure the constant cycle of planning, doing, checking and action so as to adapt, improve, adjust and shape the SA Fishing Industry into a highfunctioning, sustainable and independently functioning, self-organising system. The Viable Systems Model [VSM] [Espejo, R. 2003.] is a foundational instrument via which we are able to observe collective behaviours from a systemic or holistic perspective. It is a useful tool to gain a comprehension of why a system, business, organisation or institution is as it is at a given moment in time. Most importantly, it provides the methodologies and theory of practice to enable systems interventions so that it works optimally and in the interest of all stakeholders or role players. It is however one tool in a much larger toolbox of theorems, methodologies, processes and frameworks – and would be used in combination with a range of methodologies, such as: inter-relationship diagraphs [ID’s], Causal Loop Diagramme [ CLD] mechanisms, Activity Systems & Activity Theory[Engestrom, Y. 2009.], The Law of Requisite Variety[Espejo, R; Reyes, A. 2011.], Scenario planning, The Laws of Cybernetics[Clemson, B. 2013 – EMBA 15.], Institutional and Analysis Framework [AID][ Polski, M.M; Ostrom,E. 1999.] as well as the Context, Mechanism, Outcome [ CMO] model and its companion model, the CIMO[Denyer, D; Tranfield, D; Van Aken, J.E. 2008.], which includes the Intervention that is proposed so as to change the behaviour of the concern variable and bring it back into the envelope of acceptance. Bounded Rationality [Herbert, S. 1957.], Decision Rule Theory [Helmy, H. November 1990.], Technological Rules [Van Aken, J. E. 2005.] as well as Design Propositions are taken into account during this process of redesign. The successful re-design and the implementation of a new functional structure, may take years of learning, development, adaptation, updating, expansion, analysis and synthesis – so as to finally arrive at a fully functioning system. Given the value of the fishing industry, in respect of its contribution to export revenue, job creation, food security as well as socio-economic impacts, there can be no doubt that urgent interventions are required in the now, so as to secure the long-term sustainability of this resource. Our responsibility is not confined to the present, but has specific bearing on the ability of future generations to continue benefiting from the rich bounty of the oceans. B.2.3 BROAD & DEFINED PROJECT PURPOSE STATEMENTS     TO GAIN A WORKING UNDERSTANDING OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY – CURRENT SITUATION TO GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL AS A DIAGNOSTIC AS WELL AS SYSTEMS DESIGN TOOL TO MAKE THE CONNECTIONS WITH COMPLEMENTARY AND RELATED THEOREMS, METHODOLOGIES AND TOOLS TO AID IN THE DIAGNOSTIC & SOLUTIONS/ANSWER IDEATION PROCESS TO ARRIVE AT THE SITUATION, CONCERN, QUESTION, ANSWER, RATIONALE AND ETHICS IN REGARDS TO THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY AND TO APPLY THE VSM IN ITS BASIC FORMAT TO PROVIDE A PHASE 0 RE-DESIGN ENCAPSULATED AS: DEFINED PROJECT PURPOSE STATEMENT: RETHINKING THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY WITH THE VIEW OF IMPROVING ITS VIABILITY 33
    • B.3 PROCESS FLOW Figure 3: PROCESS FLOW/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: TO ARRIVE AT SITUATION, CONCERN, QUESTION, ANSWER, RATIONALE & ETHICS [SCQARE]: WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE RELEVANCE, UTILITY, VALIDITY AND ETHICS [RUVE] FRAMEWORK Before we were able to embark upon the construction of our core thesis within the Relevance, Utility, Validity and Ethics [RUVE] framework, we had to first establish as well as validate the constituent parts of the SCQARE within the context of the RUVE. The following non-linear, non-concurrent processes were employed: B.3.1 ESTABLISHING THE SITUATION WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF RELEVANCE    The collecting of our propositions required the study of: * various research reports *peerreviewed articles and research papers *extracts from presentations made by Fishing Industry Specialists * additional desk research to source news reports, press statements and additional research data related to Global Resource Management Best practice models. This provided a sound foundation to sufficiently understand the fishing industry as a whole [systemic view] and the SA Fishing Industry in context of the global marine ecosystem as a whole. It furthermore ensured that the current SITUATION that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in, which we describe within our report, is factually based and based upon sound, deductive as well as inductive [“bottom-up” logic] reasoning. In other words, we constructed and evaluated our general propositions which were drawn from specific, empirical sources, by using ‘bottom up” logic, also known as induction. We naturally did the opposite, which involved using some of the more general propositions, to derive more specific propositions, via a process of deduction. [Trochim, W.M.K. 2006.] As such, the propositions used are empirical and factually based, in contrast to subjective, opinion-based propositions. 34
    •    Given the factual basis of the propositions [Appendix C], we are comfortable that they are able to accurately describe and validate the SITUATION that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in. These propositions were thereafter categorised and labelled [Appendix D]; within the limited scope and timeframe of this assignment, the categories were saturated so as to be able to extract the core variables that are responsible, via their inter-play with one another, for the sustainability [or not] of the SA Fishing Industry. In terms of the elements contained within our Broad Project Purpose Statement, the process as described above, allowed us to achieve the objective: TO GAIN A WORKING UNDERSTANDING OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY – CURRENT SITUATION. B.3.2. THE SITUATION Based on the methodological approach described above, we populated a comprehensive factbased Proposition Log [See Appendix C: Proposition Log] as well as Categorising, labelling and saturating the categories [See Appendix D: Categorisation, labelling and category saturation: Propositions] to arrive at a succinct summation and conclusion about the current state of the SA Fishing Industry; we describe the SITUATION as follows: “The SA Fishing Industry is a vital component of the SA economy as a whole, provides substantial employment and job creation opportunities, contributes to the country’s export revenues as well as local economy and provides food security and subsistence to a great many coastal fishing communities. Due to decades of resource mismanagement, a dearth of strategic leadership, a general lack of credible research data, no patrol vessels in operation and the inability to unite the industry around the collaborative, sustainable management of our marine resources, the SA Fishing industry stands on the precipice of collapse. This is particularly true of its in-shore fishing resources, which are by nature more accessible to subsistence fishers, small-scale fisheries as well as recreational fishing. The off-shore marine resources are in a slightly better position due to an attempt by the large commercial fishing companies to comanage the resource. As the data will show, urgent interventions are required to prevent the complete collapse of the marine resource, which would in turn lead to the Tragedy of the Commons – the point of no return and complete collapse of both the resource and therefore the fishing industry. This would have dire socio-economic consequences for the country as a whole.” B 3.2.1 SUBSTANTIATING OUR ANALYSIS AND STATEMENT OF THE SITUATION: A SUMMARY OF DATA AND FACTS Our description of the SITUATION is based upon the analysis and synthesis of the information contained within Appendices C and D and is further validated within the body of this section. In the Business Day article, “Minister insists there is no crisis in fishing industry”, [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013.] the author provides the following information:      Forestry and Fisheries Minister, Tina Joemat-Pettersson and fishing industry CEO’s have insisted there is no crisis in the sector. Almost no fishery protection patrols have been performed over the past year [+]. There has been a disruption of the economically important fishing surveys. [ Required and used to calculate fishing density, so as to inform the allocation of fishing rights and quotas and to ensure the sustainable regeneration of fishing stocks so as to keep the industry viable] There is confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. [ A great many long-term quotas/rights are expiring at the end of 2013 and into 2014; without credible research data and the required institutional skills and capacity, it is doubtful whether new long-term rights will be issued by the due deadline – further placing economic pressure on the fishing industry and creating further insecurity as well as the impetus for over-fishing and maximal extraction of the resource] The Minister of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry [ DAFF] took office in 2009 and met with the fishing industry for the first time in 2013 – four [ 4] years after taking office. At this 35
    • meeting, the Minister, under pressure of national government, expressed the need for the industry to advise her, to have their valued voice hear and to look at how opportunities for both commercial and small-scale fishers can be expanded. She furthermore spoke to a ‘game change’ within the industry. She also made a commitment that the fishing patrol and research vessels, currently in the custody of the SA Navy, would be made operational as soon as possible. [ As at July 2013, these vessels have not left the harbour in Simon’s Town, Cape Town – and given their state of disrepair, it is estimated that it will take another year before they are ready and seaworthy] In an article titled, “Nautic Africa supporting DAFF patrol and research vessels”, [Martin, G. 30 April 2013] the author confirms that Nautic Africa has signed an agreement with DAFF to support its four fisheries protection and two fisheries research vessels, as part of the attempt of DAFF to get the fleet to full operational status again. Before Nautic Africa can however assist in vessel operations, which will include bunkering, crewing and other logistics to ensure that the vessels are put to see as quickly and efficiently as possible, DAFF has contracted with a service provider to repair the fleet for sea[use]. According to Shaheen Moola, during his presentation titled, “Managing Commercial Fisheries in SA”, Nautic Africa has no experience in patrolling and managing marine resources. He furthermore contends that the company that DAFF has contracted with to repair the existing fleet, built the original ships, but is not schooled in the repair of vessels. Their primary focus is manufacturing of new boats, not the repair of unseaworthy vessels. He expressed his concern about their ability to fulfill the task, including the fact that this will more than likely delay the readiness of the vessels further. According to Shaheen Moola, MD of Feike Natural Resource Management Advisors, [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] industry CEO’s have no choice but to co-operative with the Minister of DAFF, as she had threatened to withdraw their fishing rights. He furthermore indicated that DAFF still had to allocate 1000 fishing-right quotas, but had not yet appointed a service provider. It is therefore unlikely that this process will be completed by year-end [2013]. It goes without saying that regular surveys of South Africa’s fishing resources are important for the country to prove that it has sustainable fishing stocks in order to keep export markets. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] These surveys have not happened for at least two [2] or more years, placing our marine resources under extreme threat. According to Shaheen Moola, from Feike, extracted from his presentation to the EMBA 15.2 class during Module 2, the SA Fishing Industry faces a large range of challenges:    With the rise of populist, political rhetoric, there has been the accompanying emergency of failed fishing policy. Cadre deployment has paralysed DAFF and a failed Minister, who is, in Moola’s opinion completely lacking in understanding of the fishing industry. There has been rampant corruption under her watch; there is a need for strong political leadership to nurse the fishing industry back to optimal health. There is a general lack of political leadership, policy and vision for the SA fishing industry. With the collapse of in-shore fisheries, this has led to greater unemployment, poverty and social instability. Fishing co-operatives create further and deeper poverty as well as resource degradation; this is due to the ownership of the resource being unclear; it is spread thinly between too many stakeholders and their portion of the resource cannot sustain them. This leads to over-fishing, poaching and further exploitation of the resource just to survive. There is no fisheries patrol and research capacity and the potential loss of the Marine Stewardship Council [MSC] sustainable fishing certification for hake trawl Fisheries. 36
    • Figure 4: MSC Certified Sustainable Seafood Mark; Eco-label Loss of this certification would have negative impact on these fisheries having access to export markets, where consumers are the drivers of ecosystems approaches to fisheries and want confirmation that they are consuming seafood that has been sustainably managed and caught.  There is a high cost attached to extracting and processing seafood; the biggest investment is in the technology to find the fish in the first place. The large commercial fishing companies trade together in respect of the market. They co-operate so as to be able to collaboratively meet market demands and have access and marketing capabilities.  3000 artisanal fisheries quotas where allocated – out of these quotas, 250 of the quota holders earned nothing more than R 350; these quotas are in essence paper quotas and are generally ‘ hawked’ to the larger fishing companies.  The 8-15 year quotas are distributed between 3222 quota holders and on an ad hoc, random basis by the Minister. There are currently no specialists within DAFF, with the 11th Deputy Director-General being in the acting position in the past 4 years.  Undue political pressure is exactly what is not required in fisheries management. Government intervention has in fact contributed to the collapsed state of fishing stocks. Because of the ad hoc, populist nature of the allocation of rights, key sustainable management methodologies have been abandoned.  DAFF presented to the National Parliament and admitted that they have no idea as to state of the SA marine resources and admitted that the impact of not having functioning patrol and research vessels means that no-one is certain about where we stand as an industry. Trevor Manuel, in his role as a Commissioner on the Global Ocean Commission, [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] made the following statements: The task that the Global Ocean Commission has set itself is to demonstrate how the ocean can be sustainably and equitably managed. All evidence will be assessed, from sectors of society, including science, economics, business and law. This will be distilled into a to-do list for global leaders – a list of practical and efficient measures that via their implementation will reverse the degradation of marine resources in the high seas and restore them to full health and productivity. He reiterates that the large rewards lie in the high seas and that this where the largest challenges are. He goes on to confirm that 80 million tonnes of food is extracted from the world’s oceans annually. The United Nations [UN] Food and Agriculture Organisation calculates that half of the world’s fisheries are providing as much as they sustainably can, whilst one-third are being exploited beyond that limit, leading to diminishing returns. In its publication, ‘Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa”, the World Wildlife Organisation [WWO] [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.], the following facts emerge: Morne Du Plessis, CEO of the World Wildlife Fund [WWF] states that this report provides a clear picture of the precarious state of the SA Fishing Industry after decades of mismanagement of our marine systems. For him, this report and its findings, underscores the drive to promote an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries [EAF]. This approach recognises the pivotal role that marine ecosystems play in maintaining resilient, socio-cultural systems in the face of growing threats of climate change and food security. SA has a coastline stretching 3000 km; our oceans support both commercial and artisanal fisheries. In order to ensure the social and economic well-being of South Africa’s coastal people, collaborative and responsible management is required to create a long-term, sustainable marine resource. The historical 37
    • practice of single species management has failed. Holistic environmental management strategies and sustainable fishing practices, taking the whole ecosystem into consideration, are now imperative. An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [EAF] is being adopted globally. This approach considers all marine organisms and the processes that inter-connect them. It recognises that alterations in any processes are difficult to recognise and even more difficult to restore, once disrupted. An EAF aims to: “balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries” (FAO 2003).[ World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 5: Tracking Tool: EAF implementation in SA Fishing Industry 38
    • Figure 6: Global Facts: Fishing extraction and consumption; state of the resource [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 7: Status of Global Fish Stocks in 2008: Level of Resource Depletion [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 39
    • Figure 8: Recreational Fishing in SA; Economic benefits and environmental impacts [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 9: Status of Commercial Line fish in South Africa: State of over-exploitation and collapse [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 40
    • Figure 10: Status of SA Marine Resource [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 11: Good Practice: Marine Protected Areas in South Africa[World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] From the data provided and the propositions log, it is clear that this good practice is absent within the SA Fishing Industry. 41
    • Figure 12: SA Seafood; Contribution to Export Revenue [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 13: SASSI – Fish markets in SA; Eco-labelling and awareness [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Consumer awareness programmes are starting to pay off in terms of providing the incentives for the SA Fishing Industry to commit to sustainable fishing practices. Consumers are demanding eco-products and want to be assured that they are not contributing towards the denigration of the ecosystem. Figure 14: Three [3] pillars of Food Security: A Complex system [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 42
    • Figure 15: SA Fisheries Management Mission Statement [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] This is a near perfect example of a vision and mission statement that has been devised at the highest level, which has good intentions, but that is far removed from the realities on the ground and falls far short of being implemented or implementable, given the current situation of the SA Fishing Industry. Figure 16: Contribution of the SA Fishing Industry to Revenue and job creation [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 17: Direct employment within SA Commercial Fishing Industry [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 43
    • It is estimated that in addition to these formal and direct jobs, the commercial fishing industry creates an additional 100 000 jobs within ancillary sectors. All of these factual propositions, with additional propositions extracted from an array of additional resources are contained within our Proposition log [Appendix C] as well as our Categorisation, labelling and saturation log [Appendix D]. All of these facts were analysed and synthesised so as to establish and confirm the current SITUATION within the SA Fishing Industry. B.3.3 ESTABLISHING THE CONCERN WITHIN THE SITUATION After analyzing, synthesising, categorising, labelling and saturation of the propositions, two sets of variables were created, so as to test two [2] scenarios, which served as the basis to establish and validate our: Concern, Question, Answer or C<>Q<>A statements as well as their linkages. These variables were drawn from Appendix D: Categorisation, labelling and category saturation: Propositions. LABEL STATE OF FISHING STOCKS AQUACULTURE CONCEPT UNCERTAIN/ UNDER THREAT GROWTH INDUSTRY RESEARCH IMPERATIVE TO REBUILD & MANAGE MARINE RESOURCES REQUIRED TO REBUILD RESOURCE & PREVENT TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS INTEREST OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY INDUSTRY COHESION/COLL ABORATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SOCIOECONOMIC SITUATION & IMPACTS FOOD SOURCE/SECURITY SUSTAINABLE, RESPONSIBLE, COLLABORATIVE GLOBAL MANAGEMENT HEALTH & WELL-BEING OF COMMUNITIES, INDUSTRY AND ECONOMY SOURCE OF NUTRITION AND INCOME VARIABLES SCENARIO 1 SUSTAINABLE FISHING STOCKS SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE ROBUST, TIMELY, CREDIBLE RESEARCH DATA COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY-SKILLED CAPACITY VARIABLES SCENARIO 2 COLLAPSED/COLLAPSING FISHING STOCKS IRRESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE COHESIVE INDUSTRY – STRONG LEADERSHIP FRAGMENTED INDUSTRY – SEEKING INDIVIDUAL BENEFIT TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS REBUILDING OF LONGTERM SUSTAINABILITY OF FISHING INDUSTRY SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH SUFFICIENT MARINE RESOURCES FOR HEALTH AND WELLNESS Figure 18: Table of Concepts and Variables for Scenario testing/planning NO OR INFREQUENT RESEARCH DATA FRAGMENTED, UNSKILLED CAPACITY SOCIETAL & INDUSTRY COLLAPSE & DECAY MALNUTRITION & POVERTY The set of variables was used to create two [2] Inter-Relationship Digraphs [ID] – these were in turn used to test the Scenarios within Causal Loops Diagramme [CLD] Mechanisms. 44
    • B.3.3.1 SCENARIO PLANNING/TESTING Using the Scenario one [1] variables contained within Figure 18: Table of Concepts and Variables for Scenario testing/planning, an ID was constructed to interrogate and understand the drivers of the long-term sustainability and viability of the SA Fishing Industry. Figure 19: Scenario 1: IDEAL REALITY LEADING TO IDEAL FUTURE: SUSTAINABLE SA FISHING INDUSTRY The following was deduced from the analysis of Figure 19: Scenario 1: IDEAL REALITY LEADING TO IDEAL FUTURE: SUSTAINABLE SA FISHING INDUSTRY:   The three [3] primary drivers of the future sustainability and viability of the SA Fishing Industry, in descending order, are: * Strong leadership & Cohesive, Collaborative Fishing Industry * Robust, Credible, Timely Research Data * Collaborative, Highly Skilled, Institutional Capacity. These drivers in turn lead to three [3] primary outcomes, in ascending order: * Sustainable Fishing Stocks, leading to * Sufficient Marine Resources to feed and nourish all stakeholders, which in turn assures * Sustainable Livelihoods and Economic Growth. Using the same variables from Scenario one [1], a Causal Mechanism was constructed to verify the veracity of the deductions made from the ID. Figure 20: Scenario 1: CAUSAL MECHANISM: TESTING THE ID AND FEASIBILITY OF THE SCENARIO below confirms that Scenario one [1] creates the foundation for the design, adaptation and implementation of a Viable SA Fishing Industry, by taking a Collaborative, Integrated, Sustainable and Holistic Approach to Resource Management. Such a system is described by the World Wildlife Organisation’s Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [EAF], to which South Africa is a signatory, but with limited implementation having taken place to date. [ World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 45
    • + COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY + assures and contributes to SUSTAINABLE + FISHING STOCKS + leading to long-term + R ensure the availability of + STRONG LEADERSHIP & COHESIVE, COLLABORATIVE FISHING INDUSTRY + REBUILDING OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRTY + + via + which, when coupled with ROBUST, CREDIBLE, TIMELY RESEARCH DATA + R + + + which in combination create the conditions for which provides the incentives for the continued + SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE R + SUFFICIENT MARINE RESOURCES TO FEED & NOURISH ALL STAKEHOLDERS + SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & + ECONOMIC GROWTH with the ultimate outcome of Figure 20: Scenario 1: CAUSAL MECHANISM: TESTING THE ID AND FEASIBILITY OF THE SCENARIO Based on the reinforcing loops contained within the Causal Mechanism above, it points towards the benefits of the Implementation of the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries to ensure the long-term sustainability and viability of the SA Fishing Industry. This in turn led to the inclusion of the Nonimplementation of the EAF as an additional variable within our “Business as Usual” Scenario 2 testing below. Figure 21: Scenario 2: CURRENT REALITY “BUSINESS AS USUAL” SCENARIO 46
    • Using the Scenario two [2] variables contained within Figure 18: Concepts and Variables: Scenario testing/planning, an ID was constructed to interrogate and understand what the probable outcomes of a Current Reality, “Business as Usual” scenario would be. The following was deduced from the analysis of Figure 21: Scenario 2: CURRENT REALITY “BUSINESS AS USUAL” SCENARIO:   In descending order, the drivers of the collapse of the SA Fishing Industry are: * Lack of or weak leadership & unskilled institutional capacity leading to the * WWF Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF] NOT being implemented, allied to which * No or infrequent research data being available with an Adjuvant Driver * Fragmented Fishing Industry seeking Individual Benefit & ROI Leading to the following disturbing and disconcerting outcomes: * Collapsed Fishing Stocks * The Tragedy of the Commons * Societal, Social, Industry Collapse & Decay, culminating in * Malnutrition, Food Insecurity & Poverty From the scenario above, it seems patently clear that if the SA Fishing Industry continues on its current trajectory, it is doomed to complete failure and collapse. Such a situation would have dire socioeconomic impacts on the 147 fishing communities along our 3000 km coastline as well as to the economy as a whole. Using the same variables as per the ID above, a Causal Mechanism was constructed to verify the conclusions drawn from the ID above. - IRRESPONSIBLE EXPANSION & MANAGEMENT OF AQUACULTURE which leads to - NO OR INFREQUENT DATA ARE COLLECTED AND ANALYSED - and therefore - SOCIAL & SOCIETAL DECAY & INEQUALITY contributing significantly to FRAGMENTED FISHING INDUSTRY SEEKING HIGHEST INDIVIDUAL ROI NOT ADOPTING THE LACK OF/WEAK/ABSENT LEADERSHIP thereby which manifests as further - which all adds up to - - - creating the PERFECT STORM - SA AS A WHOLE INTER-RELATED COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEMS HOMEOSTASIS AND HUMAN ESCHATOLOGY - INCREASED POVERTY THROUGH UNEMPLOYMENT - AT A HUGE COST TO ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT - COLLAPSE OF A VITAL SOURCE OF PROTEIN & FOOD SECURITY - - SOCIO-ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS FOR FISHING COMMUNITIES AND SA AS A WHOLE WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES - COLLAPSING/COLLAPSED FISHING STOCKS - - which in turn leads to - -R CREATING THE CONDITIONS FOR - ENVIRONMENTAL, MARINE ECOSYSTEMS DEGRADATION which ultimately leads to THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS INCREASE IN LOCAL MALNUTRITION - - leading to the - - as a consequence of which THE FISHING INDUSTRY COLLAPSES Figure 22: Scenario 2: CAUSAL MECHANISM: TESTING THE ID AND “BUSINESS AS USUAL” SCENARIO 47
    • As is clearly evidenced from Figure 22 above, the consequences of continuing on the current path within the SA Fishing Industry has the potential to lead to an array of dire consequences. These include: * The Tragedy of the Commons which means that * The Fishing Industry collapses or has collapsed, leading to * Collapse of a vital source of protein and food security; Increased poverty through unemployment; increase in local malnutrition with all add up to * Socio-Economic Hardships for Fishing Communities and SA as a whole. The knock-on effect of the situation as described above, further leads to social and societal decay and inequality, at a huge cost to Economic Growth and Development, SA as an inter-related system and community and lastly, poses a real threat to ecosystems homeostasis and human eschatology. In fact, it would be safe to say that the latter two issues would be in a state of crisis. B.3.3.2 THE CONCERN All of the work done, the analysis of the data as well as the collaborative management of the marine resource within the Fishbanks Game and the positive outcomes thereof, point towards the possibility or probability of The Tragedy of the Commons being a real threat to the continued viability of the SA Fishing Industry. Our CONCERN is therefore expressed as: THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY B3.3.3 RELEVANCE OF THE CONCERN WITHIN THE SITUATION The SITUATION is characterised by:           A lack of strategic leadership at strategic as well as institutional level No clear or stable policies to manage and sustain the SA Fishing Industry No research data available to plan and manage the SA marine ecosystem sustainably; which further implies that the state of biomass of fishing stocks is unknown This in turn means that we cannot accurately allocate fishing rights and quotas and could already be in a state of total depletion of important marine resources No patrol vessels at sea to regulate, monitor and protect the SA marine resources – which creates the conditions for exploitation of all marine resources as well as poaching Marine resources which are mostly depleted, over-fished, over-exploited or on the verge of collapse Exacerbated by the non-implementation of the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF] Could lead to the total collapse of SA Fishing Stocks Which will become The Tragedy of the Commons – the point of no return for our marine resources Creating large, negative, socio-economic impacts, by the collapse of the SA Fishing Industry and therefore, devastating impacts on the SA Economy as a whole The CONCERN is centrally situated as an outcome of the SITUATION and made relevant, due to the dire consequences of inaction or continuing on the current path as is prevalent within the current SITUATION. Relevance is further clearly states within the outcomes of the two [2] scenarios which we ran. B.3.3.4 ESTABLISHING UTILITY: THE C<>Q<>A LINK B.3.3.4.1 THE QUESTION Based on our findings and research, the logical question to ask, would be; HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY? Given the state of the SA Fishing industry, its already depleted and over-exploited stock, the lack of research data for planning and resource management, our question is particularly useful, in that it 48
    • seeks to explore how we avoid the collapse of a vital natural resource and all of the concomitant consequences. B.3.3.4.2 THE ANSWER: THE FRAMING PROCESS In starting the process of framing our answer, we felt that the EAF offers the most practical and cogent long-term, sustainable solution to the viability of the SA Fishing Industry. Figure 23 : Scenario: How to avoid The Tragedy of the Commons: The argument for Utility ANSWER in PART: BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT This empirically proven, best practice model takes a holistic approach, which includes consideration of whole ecosystems impacts, the well-being of fishing communities as well as the long-term socioeconomic well-being of the Fishing Industry as its ultimate outcome. With the World Wildlife Fund [WWF] and the United Nations as its progenitors and the WWF as the specialist implementation partners globally, the EAF Management System carries gravitas and inherent credibility from successes that have already been achieved in a variety of other fishing territories. An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [EAF] is being adopted globally. This approach considers all marine organisms and the processes that inter-connect them. It recognises that alterations in any processes are difficult to recognise and even more difficult to restore, once disrupted. An EAF aims to: “balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries” (FAO 2003).[ World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 49
    • Figure 24: Tracking Tool: EAF implementation in SA Fishing Industry Implementation of the EAF will however require that it is embedded within the very organisational structure of the SA Fishing Industry, which implies the redesign of the current organisational structure and system, so as to allow for change management and improvements, with the ultimate outcome of a long-term, sustainable resource and industry. Having studied a large range of theorems, methodologies, frameworks and tools, it was found that the Viable Systems Model [Flood, R.L. July 1991.], with specific reference to the Viable Systems Diagnostics tools that are built into this model, are most appropriate as a point of departure. The VSM and VSD aided with the confirmation of the diagnosis of the current system and structure and with a Phase 0 re-design of the SA Fishing Industry. In addition to the VSM, a range of other tools, methods and methodologies would be employed as part of the emergent process of adapting, improving, checking, adjusting, measuring, communicating, co-ordinating and rebuilding the SA Fishing Industry. At the heart of this emergent process, that is inherent in using the Viable Systems Model to re-design the structure of the SA Fishing Industry, would be the use of the Deming Wheel or Plan→Do→Study/Check→Act[ion] [ PDCA][ Scholtes, P.R. 1998.] to constantly improve upon the structural design and functional systems and their interactions. The control [System 2] and co-ordination systems [ System 3] [Beer, S. 1972.]will be specific areas of emphasis, so as to ensure that communication of any variances are dealt with as swiftly as possible and the system as a whole adjusted and adapted to deal with complexity, variety and variances. The more comprehensive first framing of the ANSWER is therefore expanded as: BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT which includes use of the VSM AND OTHER METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS AND METHODS TO REDESIGN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY FROM A STRUCTURAL, SYSTEMS & ORGANISATIONAL PERSPECTIVE 50
    • Figure 25: Tools, theorems, methodologies and methods to re-design the SA Fishing Industry B.3.3.4.3 PHASE 0 – REDESIGN OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY USING THE VSM B.3.3.4.3.1 THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL – VALIDITY AS CORE METHDOLOGY FOR THE RE-DESIGN OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY In “Creative Problem-solving: Total Systems Intervention”, the author [Flood, R.L. July 1991.] makes us aware that the Viable Systems Model [ VSM] is particularly useful as a diagnostic tool, when one is dealing with problems and challenges arising from complex probabilistic systems. What this means, is that these systems are made up of purposefully organized parts and are particularly exposed to complexity, because of the fact that they are part of a constantly changing environment. At the same time, within these systems, there is either already consensus or it can be reached quite swiftly, because the goals and objectives that need to be achieved are generally communal and mutually beneficial. In other words, the relationships and inter-relationships of the role players within such a system are unitary or also known as a complex, unitary system. In respect of the validity of using the VSM as foundational methodology to assist in the diagnosis and redesign of the SA Fishing industry, it is clear that the industry is indeed a complex, unitary system, with a vested interest in the long-term sustainability of the resource in the interest of all role players. B.3.3.4.3.2 REVISITING THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL To describe as well as demonstrate our understanding of the Viable Systems Model as both a Design and Diagnostic Tool, we draw from, “Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems Intervention: Chapter 5: Viable Systems Diagnosis” [Flood, R.L. July 1991.] – all information contained within the body of this section of our report is drawn from this reference document. Robert Flood, in setting the tone of this chapter, references Stafford Beer, the father of Cybernetics and the Viable Systems Model, as follows: “We have to become efficient in order to solve our problems and we have to accept the threat to freedom that this entails – and handle it.” This citation is drawn from “Designing Freedom – The Free Man in the Cybernetic World” – Stafford Beer. Essentially, the VSM works out ideas from the science of organisation or cybernetics is similar to the systems dynamics approach in that they focus on the inter-related nature of complex networks. The qualitative aspects of the VSM are ideal for social contexts and how they are able to portray a picture of a well-organised system. The VSM furthermore focuses on organisation rather than structures and is 51
    • evolutionary by nature; quantitative simulations from systems dynamics can be integrated into the VSM model, if required or necessary. Any system containing humans is by nature more dynamically complex and therefore, less predictable. The qualitative realisations of cybernetic conceptions assist management to deal more effectively with these social organisations or systems. As stated before, as a diagnostic tool, the VSM is well-suited to problems arising from complex, probabilistic systems. These systems are comprised of purposefully organised parts and are subject to a constantly changing environment and complexity. Within such a system, there is near inherent consensus and/or agreement is relatively easy to attain. This is because of the fact that the objectives and goals are in the interest of all stakeholders within the system. The SA Fishing Industry would be an example of such a system. As has been evidenced by the rigorous and in-depth processes and methodological approach followed within this report, creative pre-examination is a pre-requisite to reach logical and credible conclusions and recommendations for problem-solving. The Cybernetic approach is particularly useful in that the issues that have to be dealt with are usually characterized by particular or specific defects and pathologies, all of whom are generally localized. These pathologies are normally either resistant to or ignored by a ‘business-as-usual’ approach. The Viable Systems view assumes that the natural laws of cybernetics have been violated and therefore, the need for diagnosis and use of cybernetic findings are required to re-organise or re-design the system. Figure 26: The Three Cybernetic Laws: Managerial Implications [Clemson, B. 2013 – EMBA 15.] 52
    • As is demonstrated with Figure 26 above, the three Cybernetics Laws are: [Clemson, B. 2013 – EMBA 15.] Law 1: SELF ORGANIZING SYSTEMS LAW: Complex systems organize themselves; the characteristic structural and behavioural patterns in a complex system are primarily a result of the interactions among the system parts. Law 2: FEEDBACK: The output of a complex system is dominated by the feedback and, within wide limits, the input is irrelevant. All outputs that are important to the system will have associated feedback loops. Law 3 - THE LAW OF REQUISITE VARIETY: Given, a system and some regulator of that system, the amount of regulation attainable is absolutely limited by the variety of the regulator. Most of the regulation of very complex systems is achieved through the interaction of’ the parts (i e. one part acts to regulate some other part) These natural laws are borne in mind when re-designing the SA Fishing Industry, as they are core to the successful functioning of the system as a whole and core to serving the needs of System 1, which is the system where the real work is done. Figure 27: The Law of Requisite Variety: Amplification and Attenuation of Variety [Espejo, R; Reyes, A. 2011.] The heuristic inherent within the Law of Requisite Variety is that only variety absorbs variety. In designing any organisation or system, it is vital to ensure that the structure is of such a nature that variety is attenuated at all levels of the system, via the empowerment of the stakeholders to act autonomously and make decisions, so as to reduce variety as it travels upwards in the system to the ultimate strategic management level. The Philosophy of Viable Systems Diagnosis [VSD] is premised upon the statement that new ways are needed to deal with the speed of change, which leads to organisational and social problems stemming from increased complexity and the inter-dependence of all things. 53
    • VSD crosses various disciplines and is based on scientific management, with a focus on taking advantage of technological advances. Within the redesign of the SA Fishing Industry, various technologies would be required so as to ensure the smooth functioning of the system as a whole. The design is based on the neurocybernetic processes of the human brain and central nervous system, which is mirrored within the VSM as the replication of tried and tested control systems. Organisations are constantly evolving in response to its rapidly changing environment and are designed to achieve its goals and objectives. The Principles of the VSD are all cybernetic in nature. What this means is that if an organisation is not performing or functioning optimally, it is automatically assumed that all or parts of the three [3] Cybernetic Laws have been violated. The VSM is not an organisational diagramme or hierarchy and it does not prescribe structures. It is rather concerned with the essentials of the organisation and the maintenance of its identity. Recursion is fundamental to the principles of the VSM. This ensures that vertical inter-dependencies are dealt with and that the whole system is replicated within its parts. This means that the same VSM principles are used to model sub-systems. In any viable unit, the horizontally inter-dependent sub-systems are integrated and guided by the ‘meta-system’ or higher management levels. Within VSM, the sources of command and control require emphasis. These sources are spread throughout the systems architecture of the viable system and this enhances self-organisation and localized management of problems; autonomy is implied. These are the laws of cybernetics in action – thereby attenuating variety and ensuring the smooth running of an autonomous, self-organising system. There is furthermore a focus on the relationship of every viable unit with its specific environment – either influencing or being influenced by it, but mostly, using this environment to promote active and on-going learning. The VIABLE SYSTEM MODEL itself comprises an arrangement of FIVE [5] functional elements or systems – simply named: System 1 to 5. These systems are inter-connected via complex information and control loops via the principles of recursion. Figure 28, The Viable System, provides a graphic representation of the basic structure of design of the VSM and is described as follows: SYSTEM 1: This system is directly concerned with implementation. Each part is autonomous and has, inherent in each of its constituent parts, the features of the total viable system, with specific emphasis on all five [5] levels or Systems 1-5 in recursion. Each part of system 1 connects to it local environment and absorbs as much variety as possible from this environment. SYSTEM 2: This is the co-ordination function that has as its central goal, the objective of ensuring that the System 1 parts remain in harmony. It also dampens uncontrolled oscillations between the different parts of System 1. SYSTEM 3: This is the control function, which has the primary function maintaining internal systems stability. It interprets policy decisions made by higher management levels and allocates resources to the various parts of System 1. It furthermore ensures effective implementation of policy. It is responsible for complete systems audits using the System 3 auditing channels. SYSTEM 4: This is the intelligence gathering and reporting function and captures all relevant information about the system and its total environment. This system provides the model for the organisational environment and distributes environmental information both upwards and downwards within the organisation according to the degree of importance. System 4 brings both internal and external information together within an environment that enables decision-making. Most importantly, if System 4 is functioning optimally, it is able to rapidly transmit urgent information emanating from Systems 1 to 3 to System 5. This is done via Algedonic Alerts – Algedonic, from the Greek, meaning pain and pleasure. It 54
    • stands to reason that if there is a pain signal, the system needs to respond to contain and manage this aspect of the signal and if there is a pleasure signal, this needs to be circulated throughout the system. In all instances, learning must take place. SYSTEM 5: This is the system that is responsible for policy, strategy and leadership and responds to significant signals filtered from systems 1 to 4. This system arbitrates between sometimes conflicting and antagonistic internal and external demands on the organisation. The information to perform these activities is provided by Systems 3 and 4. System 5 represents the essential qualities of “The Whole System” to any wider system that it forms part of. As one connects with the structure of the VSM and the functions of each of its constituent systems, one realises the gargantuan size of the challenge to re-design the SA Fishing Industry and the degree of positive change management and improvements that will be required to turn the ship in a sustainable direction. Figure 28: The Viable System – the basic design [Flood, R.L. July 1991.] INFORMATION and COMMUNICATIONS FLOWS are absolutely vital to the system; this is about how the different parts of the organisation as well as the organisation as a whole are performing in relation to its stated goals and objectives. According to Stafford Beer, purely financial performance measures are simply no adequate measures of success. His rationale is that such information ignores how well prepared an organisation is for the future, how adaptable it is to complexity and change or more abstract issues such as for instance, employee morale. The VSM therefore suggests THREE LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENT as the basis for the measurement of the overall performance of the system as demonstrated within Figure 29 below: 55
    • Figure 29: VSM Indices of Performance [Flood, R.L. July 1991.] The THREE LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENT are: ACTUALITY: the current achievement of the system within its existing resources and constraints CAPABILITY: the possible achievement using the existing resources within the existing constraints POTENTIALITY: what could be achieved by developing resources and removing the constraints It is at the level of Potentiality that we aim to re-design the SA Fishing Industry – in other words, a move away from all current constraints over time and pushing for excellence and sustainability, by pooling resources, capacity, capabilities towards a systemic, long-term, collaborative approach to managing the industry and its resources. These three [3] levels combine to create THREE INDICES that are used as comprehensive measures of performance in relation to all types of resources throughout the organisation. It is encouraging to note that there are software packages available to measure the performance of the individual components of each system as well as the individuals systems and ultimately, the Viable System as a whole. This measurement allows for adjustment and adaptation in the areas where red flags are shown and where the efforts can be focused so as to ensure further improvements. The three indices are: PRODUCTIVITY AND LATENCY – which combines to calculate and measure overall PERFORMANCE of the system. Using the VSM for diagnostic purposes is indeed a complex and complicated process and can be divided into TWO MAIN ACTIVITIES This is a specifically directed process which is necessary so as to identify the purpose that must be pursued. Once the purpose has been determined, the relevant systems for achieving the purpose, or the ‘SYSTEM IN FOCUS’ [SIF] is confirmed. We have to remind ourselves that the purpose of the system is what it does and what the system does is done by System 1; ergo, it is System 1 that produces the SIF. 56
    • During this process, one specifies the viable parts of System 1 of the SIF as well as specifying the Viable System of which the System in Focus is part. [The wider system, environment etc] This part of the process draws on cybernetic principles to carry out the following: In short, this requires that for each part of System 1, the environment, operational and localized management must be interrogated. Gaining an understanding of:  what the constraints are that are imposed on each part of System 1 by management  how accountability is exercised for each part  what indicators of performance are taken and used  modeling of System 1 according to the VSM diagramme During this phase, a list of possible sources of oscillation or conflict between the various parts of the system and their environments is created. The purpose of this process is to identify the elements of System 2 that have harmonizing or damping effects. This asks how System 2 is perceived within the organisation – as threatening or facilitating. This phase lists the system 3 components of the System in Focus. The following questions are asked:  how System 3 exercises authority  how resource bargaining with the various parts of System 1 are carried out  determine who is responsible for the parts of System 1  clarify what ‘ audit’ enquiries into the aspects of System 1 should be conducted by System 3  understand the relationship between Systems 3 and 1 and find out how much system freedom the System 1 elements possess As with the processes in the systems above, a list of System 4 activities of the System in Focus is created. The following questions are asked:  how far ahead these activities consider the future of the system  do these activities guarantee adaptation to the future  determine if System 4 is monitoring what is happening to the environment and accessing and analyzing trends  assessing in what way, if any, System 4 is open to novelty – innovation, creativity and new ways of doing things  does System 4 provide a management centre and/or control room, which brings together internal and external information so as to provide the enabling environment for intelligent and informed decision-making  does System 4 have the facilities and capabilities for alerting System 5 to urgent developments within the system as a whole Within this system, we ask:  who is on the ‘Board’ or management team and how it acts  does System 5 provide sufficient and cogent identity for the entire System in Focus  how does the ethos set by System 5 affect the perception of System 4  how the ethos set by System 5 affects Systems 3, 4 and 5 homeostasis – does it take Systems 3 and 4 seriously  does System 5 share an identity with System 1 or does it claim to be something different 57
    •  are ALL information channels, transduction and control loops properly designed and implemented In the end, DIAGNOSIS often leads to the discovery of violations of the Cybernetic Principles. The complete approach as described above was contemplated and considered as part of the redesign process of the SA Fishing Industry.            mistakes in articulating different levels of recursion importance of certain parts of System 4 not recognised, leading to it not being treated as a viable system, added to which lack of localised management to tend to their affairs existence of additional, irrelevant features of the structure which hamper the viability of the system systems 2 to 5 become ‘ autopeitic’ and seek viability in their own right; within the VSM, Systems 2 to 5 should serve the whole system via the promotion of the implementation function and should not be allowed to function at the expense of the system as a whole – these systems cannot become bureaucratic system 2 not fully established, because system 1 management resent interferences system 4 is weak because it is viewed as a ‘ staff’ function and its recommendations are therefore ignored; according to Stafford Beer, system 4 should be an integral part of Line management system 5 collapses into system 3 because system 4 is weak system 3 managers found interfering into the management processes of system 1 system 5 not creating an identity and not representing the essential qualities of the whole system to the wider system of which it is part communication channels within the organisation and between the organisation and its environments do not correspond to the information flows said to be necessary in any viable system transmission of the indices of performance is not rapid enough It is fair to say, based upon the facts that have been interrogated, analysed and synthesised into the Situation, Concern, Question and Answer, in context of Relevance, Utility, Validity and Ethics, that the SA Fishing Industry currently falls foul of the entire complete list of common faults or pathologies that are found in dysfunctional organisational systems. Looking at the application of the VS ideas as a Framework for Diagnosis, the simplified process followed, also in the diagnosis and re-design of the VSM of the SA Fishing Industry, is expressed as follows: 58
    • [Source; Flood, R.L. July 1991. Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems Intervention. Chapter 5: Viable Systems Diagnosis. John Wiley & Sons.] The VSD as described within the context of the VSM was fully employed as part of the diagnostic and redesign process. The VSD structure and processes find strong resonance with the SCQARE methodology that is embedded with the RUVE. The two methodologies are therefore mutually reinforcing and complementary. B.3.3.4.3.3 PHASE 0 RE-DESIGN OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY, USING THE VSD AND VSM The scope of this research paper does not allow for a comprehensive diagnosis of the SA Fishing Industry, as such a diagnosis would require in-depth interrogation of the system as a whole, using a variety of methods, models, methodological approaches and most definitely, interaction and engagement with a large range of the stakeholders. Such a diagnostic report would no doubt be sizeable in format and content. The scope is furthermore limited to demonstrating an understanding of the VSM and its capabilities as well as the functions, inter-relatedness and recursion within its five [5] systems levels. The Phase 0 design that was done for the purposes of the report, therefore touches mostly on the surface of a new proposed structure within each of the systems. Our very broad diagnosis with top-line conclusions and recommendations in respect of how systems should be structured as we have proposed and what the possible outcomes could be, therefore scratch the surface of the process. We do however feel that this first iteration of a re-design could form a solid foundation from which to evolve and adapt the SA Fishing Industry, towards adoption and full implementation of the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [EAF]. Our observations, cursory diagnosis and proposed re-design solutions are therefore summarized as follows: SYSTEM 1:          SYSTEM 1 [S1] is currently fragmented with all of the stakeholders essentially working in isolation of one another and within a greater systems that is fragmented and where the Systems 3 to 5 have collapsed into one another; this means that there seem to be no clear strategies, policies, regulations or sense of collective ownership in respect of the current or future sustainability of the marine resource or the fishing industry. We have found very little evidence that the existing S1 parts are connected to the system as a whole, nor that recursion of Systems 2 to 5 are inherent as features of the Viable Systems in S1. Whilst each of the existing S1’s may connect to their local environment, this is done without collaboration, with no information being circulated by System 4 [ as System 4 seems not to exist at present], no allocation of resources done adequately by System 2 and no clear audit functions being in place by System 3. Each of the S1’s seem to have their own regulatory and controlling bodies, each with their own set of rules, research [ where this is indeed present – scarce] and management approaches. It would seems that the Regional partners within the SADC region are not in communication with most of the stakeholders at all. As a result, it would seem that the Regional Fishing partners do not form part of the S1 system at present; this is a major failure, given that there is an imperative to manage the marine resource collaboratively and sustainably. Whilst the commercial fisheries S1’s are collaborating and attempting to produce their own research so as to manage the resource so as to sustain the off-shore resources that they are mostly engaged with, the opposite is true of the in-shore S1’s. At the recreational, subsistence and small-scale fisheries S1 levels, there is little or no collaboration, there is a lack of skills, capacity, equipment and capabilities to manage the marine resource sustainably. This is evidenced by the near collapse of the in-shore marine resources. There is instability surrounding the allocation of fishing rights and communal fishing rights have led to the further exploitation of the resource, because of survivalist behaviour. There are furthermore no patrol or research vessels active, so as to manage and regulate the overexploitation of the resource. 59
    •      These communities do have not have the capacity at present to function within Decision Rules – which imply that the specific nature of the decision rules and patterns of connections between the stakeholders, determine the overall performance of the system – these are the causal connections that produce the current outcomes of the system as a whole. [Herbert, S. 1957.][ Ostrom, E; Gardner, R; Walker, J. 1994][Helmy, H. November 1990.]. The stakeholders at the S1 level do not have the necessary skills and capacity to make use of heuristics, which is premised upon making intuitive judgements, based on common sense – a great many of these stakeholders are making judgements and decisions based upon their immediate need for survival. The long-term sustainability of the marine resource is at present of little or no consequence to them as they have not been educated or involved in understanding the balance that needs to be kept in order to keep the marine resource within its envelope of acceptance. It is clear from the data that the SA marine resource has moved far out of its envelope of acceptance and that urgent interventions are required to return it to an acceptable level. Our concern variable – The impact of the Tragedy of the Commons on the SA fishing Industry – has the potential of becoming a reality, specifically for the in-shore fisheries – with dire consequences to the economy and lives of the communities that rely on this resource. SYSTEM 2:    System 2 [S2 ] is the where the co-ordination of all activities within the systems should be happening, so as to ensure that S1 remains in harmony. It is also responsible for uncontrolled oscillations between the parts within S1 to be dampened. It is at this level that the Regional Fisheries Management Organisations [ RFMO’s], the industry and sectoral bodies, along with the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries [ DAFF] as well as civil society organisations should be collaborating so as to ensure that there is one vision and one strategy. There is currently no collaboration from an inter-sectoral, inter-governmental, inter-disciplinary perspective and so, it would appear, given the state of the marine resources and the Situation that we have described earlier within this document, that System 2 is non-functional or even non-existent. SYSTEM 3:      System 3 [S 3] is responsible for the control function within the system, for maintaining internal systems stability. It must furthermore interpret policy decision from Levels 4 and 5 and ensure the effective implementation of these policies throughout the system, with emphasis of S1. It should have a complete structure for systems audit via an array of S3 auditing channels and should be using what Van Aken [Van Aken,J. E. 2005] calls Technological Rules of Decision-making. S 3 is however unable to fulfill any of its obligations to any significant extent, as it has no resources to audit the system – there are no research and patrol vessels in use, therefore no data available to audit and manage policy and the system seems to be driven by an ad hoc philosophy, which is determined by the ethos of System 5. There are no clear policy directives or strategies to follow – only a confabulation of discombobulated policies, regulations, bits of legislation, white papers, ancient research data and ad hoc decisions by the System 5. There are no audit channels specified for the system as a whole or for S3 – therefore, the lack of data, information, capacity and tools, has made this function obsolete and has contributed to the SA Fishing Industry standing on the brink of collapse. SYSTEM 4:  System 4 [ S4] has the difficult, if not impossible task, of intelligence gathering and reporting. S4 should be capturing all information about the system and its total environment so as to create a model for the organisation or system as a whole. This information should be distributed in both direction with in the systems levels and must be done on an on-going basis, so that the system is able to adapt to subtle changes and shifts in the markets and environments. 60
    •        S 4 is also tasked with bringing both external and internal information together, so as to enable intelligent decision-making within the system as a whole, but specifically, to drive policy and strategic decision-making at the System 5 level. If S4 is functioning optimally, it would be able to transmit urgent information that it has filtered from S1-4, to System 5 via a system of Algedonic Alerts. There would be contingency plans in place to activate and deal with any threatening or concerning alerts. It is fair to say, that our research indicates that S4 does not exist within the current SA Fishing situation. The patrol and research vessels have not been out to sea in a number of years, no research data is available to plan and manage the marine resource and those who have been ‘put in charge’ of this S4 function, have evidently not had any experience in the fishing industry. This is evidenced by the 11th Deputy Director-General being in an acting position at the Department of Fisheries in Cape Town. Information and Communications flows are vital to the performance of the system as a whole – these are non-existent at present. IF there is any information flowing, the credibility thereof is called into question immediately. DAFF admitted in the SA national Parliament that it has no idea about the current state of our marine resources, nor can it commit to a date when the 6 patrol and research vessels will be seaworthy. This furthermore means that there are no measures for levels of achievement. In the first instance, there is no clarity on which measures should be measured, by whom and how – or for what reason or use. There are no goals set for actuality or capability of the system. The non-existence of this function has been demonstrated within our ID’s as well as CLD’s as one of the primary drivers of collapse of the SA marine resource, leading to the Tragedy of the Commons. SYSTEM 5:          System 5 [S5] is responsible for policy, strategy and leadership. It should be in a position to respond to the signals that are filtered through the system to S4 level, so that S5 is able to arbitrate conflicting or antagonistic internal and external pressures and agendas, so as maintain balance and systems homeostasis. S5 should be working closely with S 3 and 4, so as to ensure the sustainability of the system as a whole. As per our diagnosis, there is no real S 3 or S4 within the current system and situation – which starts pointing out the reasons why S 5 is so far removed from the realities of the system as a whole, but specifically from S1 – the purpose of the existence of the system. S 5, very worryingly within the current context, represents the essential qualities of the whole system; if our analysis is accurate, this would mean that the current systems is running on ad hoc basis, there is very little knowledge about the fishing industry, there is little or no interest in the future of the industry and no capacity or motive to deal with the challenges that the industry finds itself in. There is no clear strategy, policy direction and therefore, no shared concepts in the minds and routines of the stakeholders at S1 level or throughout what are at best, the skeleton of the system. S 5 is experienced as isolationist with hardly any communication being done – the Minister took 4 years after taking office to meet with the stakeholders within the industry for the first time. The S4 function has collapsed and so the S5 has no credible information, counsel or an enabling environment for decision-making to take place. Current policy is disconnected and creates perverse incentives within a fragmented and survivalist fishing industry. There is a culture of personal gain, to the detriment of the industry and resource as a whole and this is an outflow of the ethos set by S 5. The institution at S 5 creates the incentives for the behaviour of the social system as a whole and creates the patterns of observable patterns of interactions, which in turn create the policy outcomes – which are dire, as is evidenced by the content of our report and research. In essence it is fair to say, that the common faults or pathologies of systems diagnosis are ALL present within the current situation that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in. These are: 61
    •            mistakes in articulating different levels of recursion importance of certain parts of System 4 not recognised, leading to it not being treated as a viable system, added to which lack of localised management to tend to their affairs existence of additional, irrelevant features of the structure which hamper the viability of the system systems 2 to 5 become ‘ autopeitic’ and seek viability in their own right; within the VSM, Systems 2 to 5 should serve the whole system via the promotion of the implementation function and should not be allowed to function at the expense of the system as a whole – these systems cannot become bureaucratic system 2 not fully established, because system 1 management resent interferences system 4 is weak because it is viewed as a ‘ staff’ function and its recommendations are therefore ignored; according to Stafford Beer, system 4 should be an integral part of Line management system 5 collapses into system 3 because system 4 is weak system 3 managers found interfering into the management processes of system 1 system 5 not creating an identity and not representing the essential qualities of the whole system to the wider system of which it is part communication channels within the organisation and between the organisation and its environments do not correspond to the information flows said to be necessary in any viable system transmission of the indices of performance is not rapid enough The diagnosis of the SA Fishing Industry, using the VSD in context of the VSM, follows, in terms of its framework, exactly the process employed within the body of this report: The simplified process and framework of the VSD [Flood, R.L. July 1991.] was followed and again, provides post-rationalisation of the SCQARE within the RUVE and specifically, for the ANSWER and proposed systems interventions. The analysis done via our ID’s and CLD’s earlier within this report, confirm the following in respect of the Context, Intervention, Mechanism, Outcome [CIMO] model:   O – the Outcome, which is our concern variable – The impact of the Tragedy of the Commons on the SA Fishing Industry – has moved out of its envelope of acceptance. This is validated by the state of the SA marine resource and specific fishing stocks; most close to depletion or on the brink of collapse. M – the Mechanisms or Causal Mechanisms that we used, clearly indicate how the negative behaviours of the system are produced and will continue to be produced, with the potential of our Concern Variable being the ultimate outcome from the behaviour of the system. 62
    •   C – the Contextual issues and activities that impact both negatively and positively on the core variables within the Mechanism have been explored within the ID’s and CLD’s. The outcomes from both scenarios, clearly indicate where the negative as well as positive issues and activities are located and how these should be restructured so as to redesign the SA Fishing Industry towards long-term sustainability. I – the Intervention that we have proposed has the potential to change the behaviour of the concern variable completely and bring the system back into its envelope of acceptance. Our intervention or answer – which recommends the Implementation of the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF] via the re-design of the SA Fishing Industry, using the VSD and VSM as foundational tools, has the intent of removing the possibility that the concern variable would ever occur. Whilst we used a variety of other mechanisms and tests in terms of our diagnosis, we feel that what we have described so far is sufficient and accurate and lays the basis for the rationale and re-design of the S1 to 5 of the SA Fishing Industry. Figure 30: Phase 0 Re-design of the SA Fishing Industry: Embedding the EAF into the System structure serves as reference for our broad description of intended structures within the systems levels and their potential outputs and outcomes. It furthermore has to make a range of assumptions, for the sake of cogence:          The system as a whole is assumed to have adopted the Ecosystems Approach for Fisheries [EAF] and this is embedded within the strategies, policy directives, regulatory frameworks as well as structured within all of the systems. It is furthermore assumed that through a process of thorough stakeholder engagement, research and generative dialogic practices, the industry has been brought together as a complex unitary system,that seeks the same sustainable goals and objectives. It is assumed that the S5 level, has realised that it cannot function as an island and a Ministerial Task team has been put in place and mandated to advise on and guide policy, with credible, reliable and cogent data and information flowing from S4. This task team is interdepartmental, inter-sectoral, includes civil society, industry and related specialists and ensures that the S5 is transparent, communicative, responsive and collaborative – and focused on the long-term sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry. At S 4 level, specialists from the WWO/WWF have been put in place to take the leadership role at this level – they do however consult and collaborate with the Department of Fisheries, DAFF, the Fishing Industry as a whole – and they assure a fisheries management team that gathers useful information on an on-going basis, monitors, makes recommendations regarding strategic, operational and policy adjustments and adaptations, based on the information flows from S1-3; it reports on agreed sustainability and growth and developmental milestones. At S3, there is a cross-disciplinary, inter-sectoral, inter-governmental, public and private specialist control system – it uses technology effectively to assure its audit channels and measurements and areas of audit have been defined and agreed. S 3 is constantly communicating with S 4 and the rest of the systems. S 2 is comprised of a co-ordination task team, which has collective representation – which rotates according to a pre-agreed schedule and is enabled so as to keep S 1 in harmony at all times. The tools and capacity has been built and established to accomplish this task. S 1 now comprises of: S1 A: SADC Fishing Partners; S1 B: Small-scale Fisheries; S1 C: Recreational Fishing; S 1 D: Aquaculture; S 1 E: Commercial Live Capture Fisheries. Each of these S 1’s are structured in levels of recursion so as to emulate S2-5 of the newly designed system. The entire S1 system is structured around collaboration, open communication, co-operation, coopetition, information sharing, best practice sharing and a combined focus and belief in the purpose of rebuilding a long-term, sustainable SA Fishing Industry. There is also an openness to innovation. Within the System as a whole, as a policy decision made by all, the larger operators within the S1 level, have agreed to collaborate with the small-scale fisheries, to assist in the building of capacity, access to production facilities so as to beneficiate their products and thereby earn higher profits and in general, a process of collaborative enterprise and skills development. The end goal of all involved is to restore all marine resources to within their optimal levels and there is agreement that short term financial losses will be cushioned, so as to ensure the 63
    •  possibility not only of restoration, but of growth of the fish biomass so that the industry can expand. Responsible Aquaculture has been flagged as a growth industry and specialists from within the industry and abroad are working together with government to make this a reality. Figure 30: Phase 0 Re-design of the SA Fishing Industry: Embedding the EAF into the System structure The innovation of the SA Fishing Industry as a Learning Organisation is a phased, incremental and evolutionary process. There is however complete buy-in and support from all parties involved, open communications channels and disincentives to not sticking to the decision-rules that have been established mutually. Such an Ideal reality may take a great many years to achieve, but it is our belief that it can be done and we are in agreement with Trevor Manuel’s contention that we are able to, in this lifetime, rebuild fishing stocks to levels where we could in fact increase the economic and social value related to the resource. 64
    • B.3.3.4.3.4 THE ARGUMENT FOR UTILITY – THE C<>Q<>A<>LINK In respect of Utility, the CONCERN, stated as the Tragedy of the Commons, poses a real threat to the future of the SA Fishing Industry. The QUESTION seeks to find ways in which to turn around the downward spiral that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in and to move in a complete opposite direction of the Tragedy of the Commons, towards complete long-term sustainability and viability. The ANSWER, which recommends the adoption and implementation of the EAF via the redesign of the SA Fishing Industry, using the VSM as a foundational tool, seeks to address both the CONCERN AND QUESTION by putting a system in place that:          Seeks to understand the whole ecosystems impact within the SA Fishing Industry Management systems Has societal well-being of all dependent fishing communities, companies and stakeholders included within management advice and practice Focuses on the long-term economic well-being of the SA Fishing Industry as the mutually beneficial, communal outcome Is transparent and participatory in totality Reduces the overall environmental impacts of the SA Fishing Industry Builds sufficient skills, capacity, appropriate equipment and funding into the systemic structure, so that all stakeholders may reap maximal, long-term benefits from the marine resource Provides robust scientific data on a regular and in a regulated and managed manner, so as to ensure the sustainable management of the marine resource Puts controls, co-ordination and communications functions in place, to the benefit of the larger systems viability Seeks to put a unifying strategy in place and to ensure the buy-in and commitment of all stakeholders, based upon the principles of working together for the common good The linkage between the CONCERN, QUESTION and ANSWER and how they inter-link and inter-relate, speaks to the utility of proceeding with the redesign of the SA Fishing Industry. Without these interventions, the prospects for the survival of the SA marine resources are not at all positive. B.3.4 THE ARGUMENT FOR VALIDITY AND CREDIBILITY Figures 31 and 32 below the narrative provide graphic representations of the methodologies followed so as to establish validity and credibility.      The collecting of our propositions required the study of: * various research reports *peerreviewed articles and research papers *extracts from presentations made by Fishing Industry Specialists * additional desk research to source news reports, press statements and additional research data related to Global Resource Management Best practice models. This provided a sound foundation to sufficiently understand the fishing industry as a whole [systemic view] and the SA Fishing Industry in context of the global marine ecosystem as a whole. It furthermore ensured that the current SITUATION that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in, which we describe within our report, is factually based and based upon sound, deductive as well as inductive [“bottom-up” logic] reasoning. In other words, we constructed and evaluated our general propositions which were drawn from specific, empirical sources, by using ‘bottom up” logic, also known as induction. We naturally did the opposite, which involved using some of the more general propositions, to derive more specific propositions, via a process of deduction. [Trochim, W.M.K. 2006.] As such, the propositions used are empirical and factually based, in contrast to subjective, opinion-based propositions. Given the factual basis of the propositions [Appendix C], we are comfortable that they are able to accurately describe and validate the SITUATION that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in. These propositions were thereafter categorised and labelled [Appendix D]; within the limited scope and timeframe of this assignment, the categories were saturated so as to be able to extract the core variables that are responsible, via their inter-play with one another, for the sustainability [or not] of the SA Fishing Industry. 65
    •               In terms of the elements contained within our Broad Project Purpose Statement, the process as described above, allowed us to achieve the objective: TO GAIN A WORKING UNDERSTANDING OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY – CURRENT SITUATION. Based on the methodological approach described above, we populated a comprehensive fact-based Proposition Log [See Appendix C: Proposition Log] as well as Categorising, labelling and saturating the categories [See Appendix D: Categorisation, labelling and category saturation: Propositions] to arrive at a succinct summation and conclusion about the current state of the SA Fishing Industry; we describe the SITUATION. After analyzing, synthesising, categorising, labelling and saturation of the propositions, two sets of variables were created, so as to test two [2] scenarios, which served as the basis to establish and validate our: Concern, Question, Answer or C<>Q<>A statements as well as their linkages. These variables were drawn from Appendix D: Categorisation, labelling and category saturation: Propositions. The CONCERN is centrally situated as an outcome of the SITUATION and made relevant, due to the dire consequences of inaction or continuing on the current path as is prevalent within the current SITUATION. Relevance is further clearly states within the outcomes of the two [2] scenarios which we ran. Our ANSWER: BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT emerged from the two Scenarios that we ran, coupled with the in-depth research into global best practice in natural resource management and the avoidance of The Tragedy of the Commons. We verified that An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [EAF] is being adopted globally. This approach considers all marine organisms and the processes that inter-connect them. It recognises that alterations in any processes are difficult to recognise and even more difficult to restore, once disrupted. Our answer was further supported by the statement below: An EAF aims to: “balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries” (FAO 2003).[ World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The outcomes of the Fishbanks Game, which relied on collaborative, sustainable, evidence-based management of the natural resource, served as another health and sanity check to rationalise our research, conclusions and recommendations. Lastly, in “Creative Problem-solving: Total Systems Intervention”, the author [Flood, R.L. July 1991.] makes us aware that the Viable Systems Model [ VSM] is particularly useful as a diagnostic tool, when one is dealing with problems and challenges arising from complex probabilistic systems. What this means, is that these systems are made up of purposefully organized parts and are particularly exposed to complexity, because of the fact that they are part of a constantly changing environment. At the same time, within these systems, there is either already consensus or it can be reached quite swiftly, because the goals and objectives that need to be achieved are generally communal and mutually beneficial. In other words, the relationships and inter-relationships of the role players within such a system are unitary or also known as a complex, unitary system. In respect of the validity of using the VSM as foundational methodology to assist in the diagnosis and re-design of the SA Fishing industry, it is clear that the industry is indeed a complex, unitary system, with a vested interest in the long-term sustainability of the resource in the interest of all role players. Our study, understanding and use of the VSM and VSD as demonstrated within this document, as well as the Phase 0 re-design of the SA Fishing Industry using the VSM as foundational tool, serves as a further argument for validity and credibility. The VSM is however one tool in a much larger toolbox of theorems, methodologies, processes and frameworks – and would be used in combination with a range of methodologies, such as: interrelationship diagraphs [ID’s], Causal Loop Diagramme [ CLD] mechanisms, Activity Systems & Activity Theory[Engestrom, Y. 2009.], The Law of Requisite Variety[Espejo, R; Reyes, A. 2011.], Scenario planning, The Laws of Cybernetics[Clemson, B. 2013 – EMBA 15.], Institutional and Analysis Framework [AID][ Polski, M.M; Ostrom,E. 1999.] as well as the Context, Mechanism, Outcome [ CMO] model and its companion model, the CIMO[Denyer, D; Tranfield, D; Van Aken, J.E. 2008.], which includes the Intervention that is proposed so as to change the behaviour of the concern variable and bring it back into the envelope of acceptance. Bounded Rationality [Herbert, S. 1957.], Decision Rule Theory 66
    • [Helmy, H. November 1990.], Technological Rules [Van Aken, J. E. 2005.] as well as Design Propositions are taken into account during this process of redesign. Figure 31: Methodology to assure data credibility and validity Figure 32: Concept Map of the Process Flow of the Methodological Rigour: Establishing Validity 67
    • We used rigorous and multi-based methodologies to test for the validity and credibility of our situation, concern, question, answer as well as for the ethical implications of what we are proposing. We feel satisfied that our report as well as the demonstration of the processes employed to ensure validity and credibility, which are contained within our Appendices, satisfy all criterion in respect of validity. We also concluded that the application of our answer is transferable not only to other natural resource intensive industries, but that it could be employed within businesses and organisations in any industry or sector. B.3.5 ETHICS B 3.5.1 ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS The solution or answer that we propose is aimed at securing the long-term sustainability, economic and social well-being as well as ecosystems health of the SA Fishing Industry and all of the stakeholders affected by its well-being and/or who may have an impact on its long-term well-being. We therefore tested our conclusions and recommendations against all of the principle of ethical decision-making, but emphasised the following areas of ethics as reiterated within Figure 33 below: B 3.5.2 THE ARGUMENT FOR ETHICS   Our approach finds resonance with the “Common Good” principle, in that it implies that all policy, systems, social systems and society as a whole work towards a common good – which ensures that the benefits accrue to all – now and for future generations. The “Justice and Fairness” principle, which implies that equal benefits and burdens accrue to all stakeholders holds true. A Sustainable resource will ensure the fair distribution for current and future generations in an equal, environmentally sensitive and economically viable manner. Figure 33: Considering Ethics: Common Good & Justice and Fairness Principles B.3.6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries Management will ensure that we avert “The Tragedy of the Commons” and can be embedded within the organisational systems of the SA Fishing Industry, by using the Viable Systems Model to redesign and adapt this emergent, future-focused solution. 68
    • B 3.7 REFERENCES: GROUP 3 FISHING INDUSTRY VSM PROJECT Bailey, M; Gakushilshimura; Paisley, R; Sumaila, U, R. 2012. Marine Policy. Elsevier Ltd. Basurto, X. 2005. How Locally Designed Access and Use Controls Can Prevent the Tragedy of the Commons in a Mexican Small-Scale Fishing Community. Society & Natural Resource. Vol 18. Pp. 643-659. Taylor & Francis Inc. DOI: : 10.1080/08941920590959631 Beer, S. 1972. Brain of the Firm. The Penguin Press. London. Blaine, S. 5 March 2013. SA lacks analysis of its fishing markets. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013. Fishing on the brink of disaster. BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Clemson, B. 2013 – EMBA 15. Three Key Cybernetic Laws. Crawford, S; Ostrom, E.1995. A Grammar of Institutions. American Political Science Review 89(3)(Sept.):582600. Denyer, D; Tranfield, D; Van Aken, J.E. 2008. Developing Design Propositions through Research Synthesis. Organisation Studies Vol. 29: 393 Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012. Status of the South African Marine Fishery Resources. www.nda.agric.za Engestrom, Y. 2009. From Learning Environments and Implementation to Activity Systems and Expansive Learning. An International Journal of Human Activity Theory. No.2. Pp. 17-33. The Centre of Human Activity Theory. Kansai University. Espejo, R. 2003. The Viable System Model: A Briefing about Organisational Structure. Syncho Limited. www. syncho.com Espejo, R; Reyes, A. 2011. On Managing Complexity: Variety Engineering: Chapter 4; Organisational Systems. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Heidelberg. Flood, R.L. July 1991. Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems Intervention. Chapter 5: Viable Systems Diagnosis. John Wiley & Sons. Hardin, G. 1968. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, New Series. Vol. 162, No. 3859. Pp.1243 – 1248. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Harris, J.M; Codur, A. Nov 2008. Economics of Fisheries. Global Development and Environment Institute. www.eoearth.org Helmy, H. November 1990. Decision Rule Theory and its use in the Analysis of the Organisation’s Performance. Baligh Organisation Science, Vol.1, No. 4. www.enotes.com Herbert, S. 1957. A Behavioural Model of Rational Choice; Extracted from Models of Man, Social and Rational: Mathematical Essays on Rational Human Behaviour in Social Setting. New York. Wiley & Sons. Hurwicz, L. 1994. Economic Design, Adjustment Processes, Mechanisms, and Institutions.‖ Economic Design 1(1):1-14. Investopedia US. 2013. Definitions: The Tragedy of the Commons. A Division of ValueClick, Inc. www.investopedia.com/terms/t/tragedy-of-the-commons.asp 69
    • Korten, D.C. 1980. Community Organization and Rural Development: A Learning Process Approach.‖ Public Administration Review (Sept./Oct.): 480-511. Manuel, T. 19 March 2013. Tie to make the high seas our business – for our future. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Martin, G. 30 April 2013. Nautic Africa supporting DAFF patrol and research vessels. www.defenceweb.co.za Ostrom, E. 1999. Coping with the Tragedies of the Commons. Centre of the Study of Institutions, Population and Environmental Change. Indiana University. Bloomington. U.S.A. Annual Reviews. Ostrom, E; Gardner, R; Walker, J. 1994. Rules, Games and Common-Pool Resources. Ann Arbor. MI University. University of Michigan Press. Pauly, D; Alder, J; Bennett, E; Christensen, V; Tyedmers, P; Watson, R. 21 November 2003. The Future of Fisheries. Science Vol 302. www.sciencemag.org Polski, M.M; Ostrom,E. 1999. An Institutional Framework for Policy Analysis and Design. Department of Political Science. Indiana University. USA. Sauer, W.H.H; Hecht, T; Britz, P.J; Mather, D. 2003. An Economic and Sectoral Study of the South African Fishing Industry. Economic and regulatory principles, survey results, transformation and socio-economic impact Report. Volume 1. Prepared for Marine and Coastal Management by Rhodes University. www.envirofisharica.co.za Scholtes, P.R. 1998. The Leader’s Handbook. United States of America. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Trochim, W,M,K. 2006. Deduction & Induction. Web Center for Social Research Methods. Research Methods Knowledge Base. www.socialresearchmethods.net Van Aken, J. E. 2005. Improving the Relevance of Management Research by Developing Tested and Grounded Technological Rules. Eindhoven Centre for Innovation Studies. Eindhoven University of Technology. Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013. Minister insists there is no crisis in fishing industry. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Velasquez, M; Andre, C; Shanks, T; Meyer, M.J. Ethical Decision Making: Introduction to Ethics. www.scu.edu World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011. Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa. Sponsored and published by Pick ‘n Pay. 70
    • APPENDIX C: PROPOSITION LOG: EMPIRICAL, REFERENCED SOURCES PROPOSITION LOG: LOG OF FISHING INDUSTRY FACTS/DATA RELEVANCE TO CONCERN, QUESTION & ANSWER – PREVENTING THE TRAGEDY OF COMMONS WITHIN THE SOUTH AFRICAN FISHING INDUSTRY AGRICULTURE, Forestry and Fisheries Minister Tina Joemat-Pettersson and fishing industry CEOs have insisted there is no crisis in the sector [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Denialism and subterfuge – statements without foundation. Almost no fishery protection patrols being performed over the past year [Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013] Exposure of SA Fishing Territories to poaching as well as foreign vessels entering territorial fishing grounds. Disruption of economically important fishing surveys [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Lack of credible data to base Ministerial statement on. Confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. Already fragmented industry in further disarray and placed under financial pressure. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] First meeting with fishing industry role players only in 2013 by Minister of DAFF since taking office in 2009. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] “The meeting has been a chance for industry to advise me, as a valued voice, on how we can expand opportunities for commercial and small-scale fishers.” - Min Joemat—Pettersson [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] No constructive communication or relationship building. Sends message that fishing industry is not governmental priority. No common ground in respect of goals and objectives. Indication of realisation of value of fishing industry within SA economy. Timing in respect of state of fishing stocks and industry as a whole remains a concern. “There is a game change in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector; we value these interactions as an opportunity to receive advice from industry leaders” – Min Joemat Pettersson [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Commitment that the fishing patrol and research vessels in the South African Navy’s custody would be made operational as soon as possible. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Statement could be linked to National Development Plan job creation prioritisation of fishing industry. Cautious optimism that the door has been opened for generative dialogue towards finding sustainable socio-economic solutions. Cape Town-based shipyard Nautic Africa has signed an agreement with the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) to support its four fisheries protection and two fisheries research vessels, as the Department attempts to get the fleet fully operational again.[Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Movement in positive directions – vessels have been in harbour for more than 12 months – negative impact on industry and marine resources as a whole system. Department is “engaging with its nominated service provider to repair the DAFF fleet for sea [use].” [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] No indication of state of disrepair, cost or timeframe within which these vital vessels will be seaworthy. Nautic’s role in terms of the Service Level Agreement is to assist in vessel operations, which will include bunkering, crewing and other logistics to ensure that the vessels are put to sea as quickly and efficiently as No indication of timeframe for seaworthiness of vessels and/or when it can be expected that fisheries resource management functions will resume. Putting threatened resource under further risk and No active fishing and research patrols since 2012 due to DAFF Institutional failure related to tender irregularities. Navy not capacitated to take research and patrol vessels into open seas. Impact on estimation of fish biomass and sustainability planning as well as enforcement of territorial boundaries and poaching control. 71
    • possible so that vital fisheries management functions can be performed. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] pressure. The DAFF fleet comprises the four Fisheries Protection Vessels Sarah Baartman, Lilian Ngoyi, Victoria Mxenge and Ruth First and two Fisheries Research Vessels (FRS Africana and FRS Ellen Khuzwayo). [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Given a marine coastline that stretches for more than 3000 km’s and the territorial fishing distance of 200 nautical miles from this coastline, as well as the threat of over-fishing in the open ocean, within the common-pool resources, this appears to be an extremely under-resourced fleet. There is doubt whether this fleet is adequate to manage the protection of our marine resources. Shaheen Moolla, MD of Feike Natural Resource Management Advisers, said the industry CEOs had no choice but to co-operate with Ms JoematPettersson as she had threatened to withdraw fishing rights. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Mr Moolla said that according to the department it still had to allocate 1,000 fishing-right quotas but had not yet appointed a service provider and so it was unlikely this would be completed by year-end. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Regular surveys of South Africa’s fishing resources are important for the country to prove that it has sustainable fishing stocks in order to keep export markets. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] WHEN the world you inhabit is beset by economic ills, the last thing a sensible society should do is ignore a valuable resource. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] When your country and continent are doing their best to develop and bring the good things in life to all of their people, the last thing they should do is forgo an opportunity to secure a more equal share of the world’s riches. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] I’m talking here about the international waters that begin 200 nautical miles off our coast and most other coasts. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] The task we have set ourselves is to show how the ocean can be sustainably and equitably managed in the 21st century. Global Ocean Commission [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] The task we have set ourselves is to show how the ocean can be sustainably and equitably managed in the 21st century. Working independently, we will assess all the evidence we can muster, from sectors of society including science, economics, business and law. All these good ideas we will distil into what you might call a "to-do list" for world leaders — a list of pragmatic and efficient measures that, if implemented, will reverse degradation of the high Command and Control style of leadership – not conducive to functional and balanced relationships. Creating uncertainty and insecurity within industry as a whole. Long-term quotas expiring at end of 2013 – financial sustainability of fishing companies threatened. Further erosion in capacity of DAFF to be a trusted partner. Surveys have had to be paid for and done by the private sector despite the fact that they pay a levy which has the intent of funding DAFF research and patrol vessels. A voice of hope and reason in terms of recognizing the importance of the fishing industry to the SA economy. Asserting SA’s ‘equal rights’ to the common-pool resource beyond territorial boundaries. At the same time, this raises concerns regarding the management of this resource which is owned by everyone and by no-one. The possibility of creating expanded economic opportunities for growth within the industry. Without global treatise and policy, this could however lead to further depletion of the marine resource. Encouraging signs of movement towards global cooperation and sustainable management of Marine Resources. This process and commitment represents the beginning of global co-operation to prevent the tragedy of the commons, reversing existing degradation of fishing stocks and ensuring long-term sustainability of the industry and resource. 72
    • seas and restore them to full health and productivity. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Securing the ocean’s benefits for future generations is a goal within the reach of humanity.[Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Move towards recognizing the inter-relatedness of all things and the global imperative to work together to sustain our natural resources – now - and into the future. The big challenge and the big rewards lie in the high seas. .[Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Both risk and rewards could abound if this resource is managed and shared. At present, we obtain about 80-million tons a year of food from the ocean. .[Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Source of protein and food security. The United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organisation calculates that half of the world’s fisheries are providing as much as they sustainably can, while a further one-third are being exploited beyond that limit, so must produce diminishing returns. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Yet the ocean could provide more seafood, not less, if we managed it properly. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] The state of global marine resources is at a tipping point. Without intervention we run the risk of depleting all resources beyond the point of return. The disconnect between what happens at the top and at the coalface is especially striking in the fishing sector, where recent events illustrate that South Africa is trying to play a leading role on the international stage even as our own fisheries management system is imploding .[ Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] The most important challenge concerns the management of seafood stocks, many of which are being exploited in an unsustainable manner. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] At the same time, South Africa, Namibia and Angola have just signed a convention defining the boundaries of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem, which stretches from Port Elizabeth in the east around the southern African coast to as far west as Angola’s Cabinda province. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] This, too, has the goal of managing the rich ecosystem associated with the cold waters from the southern ocean that flow northwards along the African coastline, with special emphasis on research, conservation and sustainable exploitation of the benefits it brings to all three countries, which are estimated to be worth more than $50bn a year. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] According to natural resources advisory firm Feike, which is run by a former fisheries management head at Marine and Coastal Management, gross mismanagement of South Africa’s fish stocks threatens the commercial viability of several Sustainable management of the resource is required. It is possible to expand capacity and yield over the longer term. No apparent cohesion between DAFF and the stakeholders within the SA Fishing Industry. A sense that the industry is on the verge of imploding. Evidenced by the latest state of the SA marine resources and in line with global decline and degradation of fish stocks. Regional co-operation treatise – encouraging. The question of enforcement, control and management remains the large question mark. Recognition that co-operation is required in order to sustain the future of this vital source of food. Reality appears to be far removed from the picture of hubris painted by government. 73
    • industries, with both the resource and thousands of jobs now at risk of being destroyed. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] The department admitted in its recent presentation to the parliamentary portfolio committee that South Africa’s economic exclusion zone is not being patrolled or monitored, because of its failure to ensure the proper functioning of its research and patrol vessels, leaving South Africa’s fish resources wide open to exploitation by South African and foreign vessels. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] Almost no research is being conducted into the actual state of the country’s fish stocks, as opposed to the output of computer models, so overfishing is a real danger and there is little factual basis for the allocation of annual quotas; species recovery plans are not being implemented; and poaching remains rife. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] A NEWLY released discussion document on South Africa’s fisheries reveals little economic analysis has been done of the size of the country’s fishing markets over the past decade.[ Blaine, S. 5 March 2013] The Stats SA document echoes sentiments expressed by the department in December that noted a "general trend of deteriorating resource status". [ Blaine, S. 5 March 2013] Other depleted fish stocks include deep-water hake, sharks (optimal to depleted), west and south Coast rock lobster, tuna (abundant to depleted), tuna (abundant to heavily depleted) and abalone. [ Blaine, S. 5 March 2013] This report presents the most up-to-date information and analyses of the status of the marine living resources in 17 fishery sectors in South Africa.[ Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] The general trend of deteriorating resource status with accessibility continues, with near-shore resources more accessible and likely to be overexploited than resources farther offshore. [ Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] The commercial fishery for abalone was reopened in 2010 after being closed in 2008, but this resource continues to decline due to increasing levels of poaching, and remains in a depleted to heavily depleted state. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Confirmation that we cannot be managing our marine resources optimally, given that we do not have access to information, capacity and resources to do so. This threatens the long-term future of the fishing industry. An industry setting itself up for complete depletion, degradation and the tragedy of the commons – unless there is urgent action and intervention. Deeply concerning and has a direct bearing on the sustainability and actual status of the fish stocks within our territorial boundaries. This could well indicate that some species and stocks may have declined beyond the point of return. Confirming the general trend and concern. These species combine to be the mainstay of the SA Fishing Industry. Uncertainty as to veracity of information- given that research vessels have been in docks for 2 years. Confirmed by other independent reports as well as industry specialist presentations. Great threat to small scale fisheries – the most vulnerable communities. On verge of Tragedy of Commons?? Without vessels and capacity to manage and control this resource, poaching will continue unabated and the prospect of the resource depleting is high. 74
    • The abundance of Agulhas sole has remained relatively constant over the past 15 years and this resource is considered to be abundant, and under catching of the total allowable catch (TAC) in recent years is primarily due to a reduction in effort. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Deep-water hake remain depleted but the status of this resource is improving, whereas shallow-water hake are considered optimal to abundant. The implementation of precautionary management approaches in the hake fishery in recent years has resulted in a faster-than-anticipated recovery of deep-water hake. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Cape horse mackerel have increased in abundance in recent years due to good recruitment, and the stock is considered to be in an optimal state. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Line fish resources range from heavily depleted to optimal states depending on species, but there are signs of a positive response (increased catch per unit effort [CPUE]) of some species to the emergency management measures implemented in 2000. Given the low population sizes of many line fish species, however, present management measures need to remain in place for sufficiently long so as to allow stock sizes to increase. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Harders, which are the main target of the beachseine and gillnet fisheries, remain in a depleted to heavily depleted state. Increased illegal netting in some areas, and environmental anomalies that have negatively impacted recruitment in recent years, are likely to retard recovery of this species. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Oyster resources in KwaZulu-Natal are considered to be in an optimal state and optimally utilised. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] A paucity of suitable data for oysters in the Southern Cape means that their status in this region is unknown, but their overexploitation, particularly in the intertidal zone but also in sub-tidal ‘mother beds’, is cause for concern. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] The status of Patagonian tooth fish remains unknown although some data suggest that this resource is depleted and may be declining, and the TAC for 2011/2012 has been reduced by 20%.[Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Prawn resources are considered to be in an optimal (deep water) to depleted (shallow-water) state, with optimal to light fishing pressure. Continued low catches of shallow water prawns are attributed to Could be due to low yield and lack of resources and equipment. Deep-water hake is subject to the commons – no control over who is able to enter these waters and fish to their heart’s content. NO SA patrols into the deep seas. Some evidence of resource management; source is however not entirely credible. Some evidence of resource management; source is however not entirely credible. In-shore fish species – in state of near collapse and depletion. Urgent resource management measures required to avoid Tragedy of the Commons. Some evidence of resource management; source is however not entirely credible. Confirmation of impact of no research data available – pushing a high value resource to the point of depletion. No data = resource at risk. Reduction of TAC by only 20% could be viewed as insufficient, given that this resource may be close to depletion. Evidence of lack of data and resource management as well as controls. In-shore stocks depleted due to survivalism and no control or 75
    • recruitment failure. %.[Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] The status of seaweeds ranges from optimal to abundant and fishing pressure from optimal to light. Kelp is regarded as optimally exploited in most areas but underexploited in some, whereas other seaweeds are considered underexploited. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Sharks range from heavily depleted to optimal states, depending on species. High shark by-catch in other fisheries remains a major concern. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Small pelagic resources are in optimal or abundant states and fishing pressure is optimal to light. Recruitment of all three species was relatively low in 2011 and the anchovy stock is at the lowest level observed during the past 15 years, but sardine and round herring stocks continue to increase. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] South Coast rock lobster is in an optimal to depleted state, fishing pressure on this resource is optimal to light and catches are stable. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] The status of the squid resource is considered optimal and catches in this fishery remain high. Uncertainties in CPUE data make it difficult to assess fishing pressure, but the total allowable effort (TAE) has remained unchanged for the past five years. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Tuna resources range from heavily depleted to abundant in status depending on species and region, and swordfish are considered to be in an optimal state. Fishing pressure on tuna and swordfish is mostly light to optimal. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] There are some signs of recovery of the heavily depleted to depleted West Coast rock lobster resource under the current operational management procedure, but reducing illegal harvesting is critical to ensuring that stock rebuilding is not compromised. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Despite steeply increasing harvests of white mussels in recent years a continuing paucity of data means that the status of and fishing pressure on this, and other small invertebrate resources, remains unknown. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Scientific Working Groups of Fisheries Research and Development[SWGFRD] comprise both internal [Fisheries] and external [ fishing industry associations, NGO’s etc] – parties appointed to evaluate data to assess the status of the fish stocks. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] regulation. Some evidence of resource management; source is however not entirely credible. Paucity of data and resource management pushing this species to a state of emergency. Some evidence of resource management; source is however not entirely credible. Some evidence of resource management; source is however not entirely credible. Some evidence of resource management; source is however not entirely credible. Concern that with insufficient data the TAE has remained the same – no real concept of what status of resource really is. Some evidence of resource management; source is however not entirely credible. These are off-shore species and so the collaborative efforts of the Big Five within the fishing industry may be contributing to keeping this resource stable. Lack of resource management, control and regulation of quotas. Subsistence fishing and extraction continues unabated – puts resource at great risk. No data or regulation may have placed this resource under threat. All good and well, but no independent research done for at least 2 years. Private research done by off-shore fisheries – manipulation of data and outcomes possible. 76
    • [SWGFRD] assesses status of fish stocks & make recommendations regarding sustainable utilisation of SA Marine Living Resources. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] [SWGFRD] responsible for prioritising & directing research on fisheries and/or target species with which they deal – to increase accuracy of the status assessments – also to improve understanding of biology, ecology, population dynamics and other life-history attributes of exploited species. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] 2 categories of classification are used – each with a distinct and different attribute. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] First category deals with CURRENT status of resource – cannot be managed directly as it is the results of combination of different pressures over time, including fishing and environmental fluctuations. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Aim of sustainable management is to have resources that are in an optimal state and fished at optimal levels. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Historical over-exploitation may have reduced some stocks to depleted or heavily depleted. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Rebuilding depleted stocks will be attempted by reducing fishing pressure. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Rebuilding and recovery could take years and even decades as the rate of recovery is dependent on the biology of the species and the natural recruitment fluctuations. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Short-lived species like squid and anchovy show high levels of recruitment variability – this can result in significant inter-annual fluctuations in population; resource status can change from depleted to optimal year on year. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Five categories for stock status defined: Abundant, Heavily depleted and including Unknowns – for which there is insufficient or conflicting data to enable estimation. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Four categories of fishing pressures are defined: Light, Optimal, Heavy and Unknown. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Decades of mismanagement of our marine systems has placed SA in a precarious state. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] WWF is pushing for an Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF], recognising critical role of marine Has not happened – non-functioning. No credible data available on current state of all marine resources. No credible data available on current state of all marine resources. No credible data available on current state of all marine resources. No credible data available on current state of all marine resources. No controls and regulations in place. No credible data available on current state of all marine resources. No controls and regulations in place. No credible data available on current state of all marine resources. No controls and regulations in place. No credible data available on current state of all marine resources. No controls and regulations in place. No credible data available on current state of all marine resources. No controls and regulations in place. No credible data available on current state of all marine resources. No controls and regulations in place. Dearth of leadership and resource management. SA has adopted this approach – but implementation is fragmented due to dearth of strategic leadership, 77
    • ecosystems in maintaining resilient socio-cultural systems in the face of growing threats to climate change and food security. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The 3000 km stretch of coastline and oceans support diverse artisanal and commercial fisheries in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic well-being of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The single species strategy of resource management of the past has failed SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The single species approach did not consider the greater impact on the marine ecosystem. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that all marine organisms and processes are inter-connected. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that alterations in processes are not easily recognised and difficult to restore once disrupted. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] EAF aims to “ balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of the ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries.” [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] EAF approach in South Africa uses tracking tools to examine progress towards implementation – it evaluates a range of objectives. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Good understanding of the ecosystem impacts of the fisheries and impacts are included in management advice. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Social Well-being of dependent fishing communities is accounted for in management advice. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Economic well-being of the fishing industry is maintained. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Marine authority has transparent and participatory management structures. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Management plans incorporate EAF considerations. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] political will and collaboration/co-ordination of fishing industry as a whole. Most practical and pragmatic approach to ensure long-term future of fishing industry and resources. Without a thriving fishing industry, huge potential socio-economic impacts. Without a thriving fishing industry, huge potential socio-economic impacts. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to 78
    • ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Compliance to regulations reduces the ecosystem impacts of the fishery. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Sufficient capacity, skills, equipment and funding exist to support EAF implementation. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Good data collection procedures exist to support EAF implementation. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] External impacts of the fisheries are addressed – climate change, other industries etc. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Fisheries and aquaculture have traditionally been regarded as part of the solution to the global dilemma of providing affordable, high-quality protein from the fishing sector – as well as being a source of employment and livelihoods. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 81% of fish products are consumed by humans. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In 2007, more than 1.5 billion people derived 20% of their annual protein intake from fish. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Global production from marine wild capture fisheries peaked at 86 million tonnes in 1996 – this has declined to 79.5 million tonnes in 2008. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 7 of the 10 top wild-capture species – accounting for 30% of global catch – are considered exploited with 1 over-exploited and 1 under-exploited. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 63% of assessed fish stocks require rebuilding. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Farmed fish products has grown significantly over recent years and is now the fastest growth animal food producing sector in the world. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Production of aquaculture species globally accounted for 52.5 million tonnes in 2008 – comprising over 3600 species. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 25 of these farmed species are considered important global trade commodities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Aquaculture remains highly reliant on capture fisheries for dietary nutrients such as fish oil and fishmeal. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In 2010, 85% of fish oil purchased was used as shrimp and finfish aquaculture feed. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Major source of protein and food security. Major source of protein and food security. Major source of protein and food security – in state of decline because of mismanagement and non-coordinated efforts. Major source of protein and food security – in state of decline because of mismanagement and non-coordinated efforts. Major source of protein and food security – in state of decline because of mismanagement and non-coordinated efforts. Good alternative source of the fishing resource – but requires planning, management and regulation – so as not to denigrate the environment. Good alternative source of the fishing resource – but requires planning, management and regulation – so as not to denigrate the environment. Good alternative source of the fishing resource – but requires planning, management and regulation – so as not to denigrate the environment. Good alternative source of the fishing resource – but requires planning, management and regulation – so as not to denigrate the environment. Good alternative source of the fishing resource – but requires planning, management and regulation – so as not to denigrate the environment. 79
    • The Southern African region has a total of 8 states: Angola, DRC, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa and Tanzania. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Living marine resources in the region’s water, including migrating fish stocks are shared between two or more of these Southern African countries. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Trends indicate a decline in most marine stocks in the Southern African region – driven by demand due to local population increases, higher consumer rates, emergent export markets and tourism. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] There are several Regional Fishery Management Organisations [ RFMO’s] and regional fishery bodies within the Southern African region. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The RFMO’s are tasked with managing high seas fisheries and migratory fish stocks which straddle the water of more than one state. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The Large Marine Ecosystems [ LME] concept characterises marine regions in the world, according to ecological [ rather than political or economic] criteria. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An estimated 500 000 people participate in recreational fishing in South Africa. World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The value of the recreational fishery was estimated to be R 3 billion in 2011. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] South African Fisheries have two components: Wild capture fishing and aquaculture. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Some studies estimate that some 850 000 people in SA participate in shore-based recreational fisheries – with a total economic impact of R 2.5 billion. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Aquaculture is relatively new in SA and is considered as under-developed by DAFF. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Aquaculture has been focused on high value species such as abalone, mussels and oysters. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The SA Government has identified aquaculture as an area of expansion. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Regional collaboration in resource management is essential for current and future sustainability. Strong leadership required. Regional collaboration in resource management is essential for current and future sustainability. Strong leadership required. Regional collaboration in resource management is essential for current and future sustainability. Strong leadership required. Signs of mismanagement, lack of data, dearth of leadership and controls mirrored via state of the resource. Regional collaboration in resource management is essential for current and future sustainability. Strong leadership required. Regional collaboration in resource management is essential for current and future sustainability. Strong leadership required. Data suggests that this is not happening adequately or sufficiently. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Holistic Ecosystems Approach required so as to ensure long-term sustainability of the resource and industry. Major source of income as well as food security. Major source of income as well as food security. Major source of income as well as food security. Major source of income as well as food security. Alternative source of fishing resources – but will require capacity building, strategic leadership, management and resource management so as mitigate possible negative impacts. Could create significant nr of jobs and spin-offs. Alternative source of fishing resources – but will require capacity building, strategic leadership, management and resource management so as mitigate possible negative impacts. Could create significant nr of jobs and spin-offs. Alternative source of fishing resources – but will require capacity building, strategic leadership, management and resource management so as mitigate possible negative impacts. Could create significant nr of jobs and spin-offs. 80
    • It is estimated that SA contributes approx. 21% to global abalone production. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In 2008, SA Mariculture was comprised of: abalone, oysters, mussels, prawn, finfish and seaweeds. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Aquaculture is expected to experience substantial regional growth in the coming years. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Challenges and lessons learnt globally about aquaculture should benefit the South African industry so as to ensure responsible and sustainable management and practices. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Wild capture fisheries in SA include commercial, recreational and subsistence fisheries – each with their own research and management mandates. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Commercial fishing sector can be divided into highly industrialised fisheries – operating off-shore and nearshore fisheries, generally more traditional and less capital intensive. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Management and exploitation of SA’s fisheries are governed by an over-arching policy known as the Marine Living Resources Act [ MLRA]. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Many of SA’s in-shore marine resources are considered to be over-exploited or collapsed, with a few being fully exploited. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Full stock assessments are lacking in the majority of SA’s line fish species and existing stock assessments for other species are several years old and considered outdated. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] There is an urgent need for updated stock assessments to inform appropriate management measures and to allow for the implementation of rebuilding strategies. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, SA undertook to maintain and rebuild fish stocks to levels able to produce maximum sustainable yields by no later than 2015. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Status of commercial line fish in SA: 11% overexploited, 68% collapsed, 16% optimally exploited and 5% under review. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Mostly aquaculture – poaching continues unabated – no patrol vessels or appropriate management methods in place. Alternative source of fishing resources – but will require capacity building, strategic leadership, management and resource management so as mitigate possible negative impacts. Could create significant nr of jobs and spin-offs. Alternative source of fishing resources – but will require capacity building, strategic leadership, management and resource management so as mitigate possible negative impacts. Could create significant nr of jobs and spin-offs. Alternative source of fishing resources – but will require capacity building, strategic leadership, management and resource management so as mitigate possible negative impacts. Could create significant nr of jobs and spin-offs. Fragmented industry – all with different control, regulatory, research bodies – no research done, therefore state of near collapse of resource. Fragmented industry – all with different control, regulatory, research bodies – no research done, therefore state of near collapse of resource. Fragmented industry – all with different control, regulatory, research bodies – no research done, therefore state of near collapse of resource. Fragmented industry – all with different control, regulatory, research bodies – no research done, therefore state of near collapse of resource. Fragmented industry – all with different control, regulatory, research bodies – no research done, therefore state of near collapse of resource. Fragmented industry – all with different control, regulatory, research bodies – no research done, therefore state of near collapse of resource. Fragmented industry – all with different control, regulatory, research bodies – no research done, therefore state of near collapse of resource. Lip service – scant chance that SA will live up to these commitments given that there are less than 2 years left to achieve these lofty ideals. Fragmented industry – all with different control, regulatory, research bodies – no research done, therefore state of near collapse of resource 81
    • DAFF has “South Africanised” the fishing industry – no foreign licences. . [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The Allocation of long-term rights encourage community involvement in fisheries and their management, but also promotes a sense of stewardship for resources that fishers will have to access over the 7-10 year period. . [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Long-terms rights issued in 22 fishing sectors, with over 2900 rights holders and 1788 vessels. . [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Status of SA Marine Resources: 29.6% uncertain, 7.4% under-exploited, 48.1 % optimally exploited, 14.8% over-exploited. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Large scale capital investment is required for many fisheries – this has made it difficult for much of SA’s fishing community to develop skills and technologies to participate in the commercial fishing activities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Trade of fishery products is of integral importance to government revenue, income and employment generation in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Fish trade is governed by complex multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and negotiations at the national, regional and international levels determine the amounts of fish imported and exported in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In 2009, SA exported fish and fishery products to the value of USD 75.5 million. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Fish and seafood markets in SA are largely influenced by market price, species availability and ease of accessibility for consumers. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Market trends are increasingly influenced by consumer awareness programmes and eco-labels. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Diversification of the SA seafood industry refers to the broadening of the market and access to new markets. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Eco-labels offer an avenue to enter new markets or create niche markets for which consumers may pay a premium for SA seafood products. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] SA consumer and retailer awareness of environmental and sustainability issues has resulted in increased demands for eco-friendly and sustainable seafood products. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Fragmented industry – all with different control, regulatory, research bodies – no research done, therefore state of near collapse of resource Noble ideal – but state of collapse of in-shore fishing demonstrates that there has been little or no incentive for subsistence and small-scale fishermen to manage the resource. It is close to being depleted. Viability and feasibility of current system under question – smaller rights holders unable to access beneficiation and processing capacity. Fragmented industry – all with different control, regulatory, research bodies – no research done, therefore state of near collapse of resource Viability and feasibility of current system under question – smaller rights holders unable to access beneficiation and processing capacity. Important source of export revenue as well as socioeconomic activity and well-being – under threat with large potential negative consequences to SA economy. Leadership, collaboration, controls and regulations and enforcement required to give effect to these agreements. Dearth of all of the above has brought the SA Fishing Industry to its knees. Important source of export revenue as well as socioeconomic activity and well-being – under threat with large potential negative consequences to SA economy. Important source of export revenue as well as socioeconomic activity and well-being – under threat with large potential negative consequences to SA economy. Eco-labelling and consumer pressure may assist with overall improved resource management. May act as incentive for industry to become eco-efficient. Eco-labelling and consumer pressure may assist with overall improved resource management. May act as incentive for industry to become eco-efficient. Eco-labelling and consumer pressure may assist with overall improved resource management. May act as incentive for industry to become eco-efficient. Eco-labelling and consumer pressure may assist with overall improved resource management. May act as incentive for industry to become eco-efficient. 82
    • This growing market is a powerful force in shaping what happens out at sea – a range of global initiatives have been developed to harness the power of the market and incentivise responsible fisheries and suppliers. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Food security is complex and linked not only to food availability but also to human health, sustainable economic development, environment and trade. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] SA’s rich marine ecosystems have attracted fishers and their families to the shoreline where they have developed communities whose cultural values, customary practices and social dynamics are intricately linked to the ocean. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] SA has around 147 fishing communities, 28 338 fisher households and 30 000 people are considered to be true subsistence fishers. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 53% of traditional fishing community’s countrywide are still considered to be food insecure. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] SA features as one of the top 20 countries with the highest burden of under-nutrition. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The health of fishing communities is inextricably linked to the health of the adjacent fisheries resources and raises the importance of the sustainable and responsible management of these resources to ensure job and food security for these communities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In 2008, commercial fishing industry in SA employed approx. 27 000 directly, while 100 000 people were employed in fishery related enterprises. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The SA Government considers the fishing industry as a sector for employment expansion within the country. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Job creation can only take place with progressive stock rebuilding strategies. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The immediate goal of fisheries management should be on job security with job creation being a longerterm vision. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Financial capital or income of a fisher – or fishing community – cannot be achieved through increasing catches along – due to the state of the global marine fisheries. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Beneficiation and value adding activities within the sector has the potential to create livelihoods while the stocks replenish. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Eco-labelling and consumer pressure may assist with overall improved resource management. May act as incentive for industry to become eco-efficient. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. 83
    • Marine eco-tourism is also become increasingly attractive and viable. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In 2009, 583 000 tonnes of fish to the value of R 4.4 billion were landed in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The annual revenue from commercial fisheries exports were estimated at R 3.3 billion in 2008. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Commercial Fisheries contribute 0.5% to SA GDP. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In the W/Cape – fishing contributes .2% to Gross Geographic Product. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In the impoverished E/Cape, squid fisheries contributed R 500 million in foreign revenue. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] SA’s commercial fishing industry employs approximately 48 500 people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. Vital to ensure the sustainability and growth of the SA Fishing Industry; implosion will have large adverse socio-economic and social impacts. 84
    • APPENDIX D: CATEGORISING, LABELLING AND SATURATING: PROPOSITIONS STATE OF AQUACULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONAL INDUSTRY FISHING STOCKS CAPACITY COHESION & COLLABORATION Almost no fishery protection patrols being performed over the past year [Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013] WWF is pushing for an Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF], recognising critical role of marine ecosystems in maintaining resilient sociocultural systems in the face of growing threats to climate change and food security. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] PAGE 86 ONWARDS Almost no fishery protection patrols being performed over the past year [Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013] AGRICULTURE, Forestry and Fisheries Minister Tina JoematPettersson and fishing industry CEOs have insisted there is no crisis in the sector [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Almost no fishery protection patrols being performed over the past year [Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013] SOCIOECONOMIC SITUATION & IMPACTS Confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] FOOD SOURCE/SECURITY Confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013]
    • Disruption of economically important fishing surveys [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Commitment that the fishing patrol and research vessels in the South African Navy’s custody would be made operational as soon as possible. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic well-being of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Disruption of economically important fishing surveys [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Almost no fishery protection patrols being performed over the past year [Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013] First meeting with fishing industry role players only in 2013 by Minister of DAFF since taking office in 2009. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Disruption of economically important fishing surveys [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Shaheen Moolla, MD of Feike Natural Resource Management Advisers, said the industry CEOs had no choice but to co-operate with Ms JoematPettersson as she had threatened to withdraw fishing rights. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Mr Moolla said that according to the department it still had to allocate 1,000 fishing-right quotas but had not yet appointed a service provider and so it was unlikely this would be completed by year-end. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Commitment that the fishing patrol and research vessels in the South African Navy’s custody would be made operational as soon as possible. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Disruption of economically important fishing surveys [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] “The meeting has been a chance for industry to advise me, as a valued voice, on how we can expand opportunities for commercial and small-scale fishers.” - Min Joemat— Pettersson [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Commitment that the fishing patrol and research vessels in the South African Navy’s custody would be made operational as soon as possible. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Mr Moolla said that according to the department it still had to allocate 1,000 fishing-right quotas but had not yet appointed a service provider and so it was unlikely this would be completed by year-end. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Securing the ocean’s benefits for future generations is a goal within the reach of humanity.[Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.]
    • Nautic’s role in terms of the Service Level Agreement is to assist in vessel operations, which will include bunkering, crewing and other logistics to ensure that the vessels are put to sea as quickly and efficiently as possible so that vital fisheries management functions can be performed. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Production of aquaculture species globally accounted for 52.5 million tonnes in 2008 – comprising over 3600 species. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Cape Town-based shipyard Nautic Africa has signed an agreement with the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) to support its four fisheries protection and two fisheries research vessels, as the Department attempts to get the fleet fully operational again.[Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] “There is a game change in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector; we value these interactions as an opportunity to receive advice from industry leaders” – Min Joemat Pettersson [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Regular surveys of South Africa’s fishing resources are important for the country to prove that it has sustainable fishing stocks in order to keep export markets. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] 25 of these farmed species are considered important global trade commodities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Department is “engaging with its nominated service provider to repair the DAFF fleet for sea [use].” [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] First meeting with fishing industry role players only in 2013 by Minister of DAFF since taking office in 2009. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Cape Town-based shipyard Nautic Africa has signed an agreement with the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) to support its four fisheries protection and two fisheries research vessels, as the Department attempts to get the fleet fully operational again.[Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Shaheen Moolla, MD of Feike Natural Resource Management Advisers, said the industry CEOs had no choice but to co-operate with Ms Joemat-Pettersson as she had threatened to withdraw fishing rights. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Nautic’s role in terms of the Service Level Agreement is to assist in vessel operations, which will include bunkering, crewing and other logistics to ensure that the vessels are put to sea as quickly and efficiently as possible so that vital fisheries management functions can be performed. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] WHEN the world you inhabit is beset by economic ills, the last thing a sensible society should do is ignore a valuable resource. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] When your country and continent are doing their best to develop and bring the good things in life to all of their people, the last thing they should do is forgo an opportunity to secure a more equal share of the world’s riches. [Manuel, T. March 2013.]
    • APPENDIX D: CATEGORISING, LABELLING AND SATURATING: PROPOSITIONS STATE OF AQUACULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTIONAL INDUSTRY FISHING STOCKS CAPACITY COHESION & COLLABORATION Almost no fishery protection patrols being performed over the past year [Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013] WWF is pushing for an Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF], recognising critical role of marine ecosystems in maintaining resilient sociocultural systems in the face of growing threats to climate change and food security. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] PAGE 86 ONWARDS Almost no fishery protection patrols being performed over the past year [Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013] AGRICULTURE, Forestry and Fisheries Minister Tina JoematPettersson and fishing industry CEOs have insisted there is no crisis in the sector [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Almost no fishery protection patrols being performed over the past year [Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013] SOCIOECONOMIC SITUATION & IMPACTS Confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] FOOD SOURCE/SECURITY Confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013]
    • Disruption of economically important fishing surveys [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Commitment that the fishing patrol and research vessels in the South African Navy’s custody would be made operational as soon as possible. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic well-being of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Disruption of economically important fishing surveys [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Almost no fishery protection patrols being performed over the past year [Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013] First meeting with fishing industry role players only in 2013 by Minister of DAFF since taking office in 2009. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Disruption of economically important fishing surveys [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Shaheen Moolla, MD of Feike Natural Resource Management Advisers, said the industry CEOs had no choice but to co-operate with Ms JoematPettersson as she had threatened to withdraw fishing rights. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Mr Moolla said that according to the department it still had to allocate 1,000 fishing-right quotas but had not yet appointed a service provider and so it was unlikely this would be completed by year-end. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Commitment that the fishing patrol and research vessels in the South African Navy’s custody would be made operational as soon as possible. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Disruption of economically important fishing surveys [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] “The meeting has been a chance for industry to advise me, as a valued voice, on how we can expand opportunities for commercial and small-scale fishers.” - Min Joemat— Pettersson [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Commitment that the fishing patrol and research vessels in the South African Navy’s custody would be made operational as soon as possible. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Mr Moolla said that according to the department it still had to allocate 1,000 fishing-right quotas but had not yet appointed a service provider and so it was unlikely this would be completed by year-end. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Securing the ocean’s benefits for future generations is a goal within the reach of humanity.[Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.]
    • Nautic’s role in terms of the Service Level Agreement is to assist in vessel operations, which will include bunkering, crewing and other logistics to ensure that the vessels are put to sea as quickly and efficiently as possible so that vital fisheries management functions can be performed. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Production of aquaculture species globally accounted for 52.5 million tonnes in 2008 – comprising over 3600 species. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Cape Townbased shipyard Nautic Africa has signed an agreement with the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) to support its four fisheries protection and two fisheries research vessels, as the Department attempts to get the fleet fully operational again.[Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. [Vecchiatt o, P. 21 May 2013] “There is a game change in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector; we value these interactions as an opportunity to receive advice from industry leaders” – Min Joemat Pettersson [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Regular surveys of South Africa’s fishing resources are important for the country to prove that it has sustainable fishing stocks in order to keep export markets. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] 25 of these farmed species are considered important global trade commodities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Department is “engaging with its nominated service provider to repair the DAFF fleet for sea [use].” [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] First meeting with fishing industry role players only in 2013 by Minister of DAFF since taking office in 2009. [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Cape Townbased shipyard Nautic Africa has signed an agreement with the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) to support its four fisheries protection and two fisheries research vessels, as the Department attempts to get the fleet fully operational again.[Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Shaheen Moolla, MD of Feike Natural Resource Management Advisers, said the industry CEOs had no choice but to co-operate with Ms JoematPettersson as she had threatened to withdraw fishing rights. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] Nautic’s role in terms of the Service Level Agreemen t is to assist in vessel operations , which will include bunkering, crewing and other logistics to ensure that the WHEN the world you inhabit is beset by economic ills, the last thing a sensible society should do is ignore a valuable resource. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] At present, we obtain about 80-million tons a year of food from the ocean. . [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] When your country and continent are doing their best to develop and bring the good things in life to all of their people, the last thing they should do is forgo an opportunity to secure a more equal share of the world’s riches. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] The United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organisation calculates that half of the world’s fisheries are providing as much as they sustainably can, while a further one-third are being exploited beyond that limit, so must produce diminishing returns. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.]
    • I’m talking here about the international waters that begin 200 nautical miles off our coast and most other coasts. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Aquaculture remains highly reliant on capture fisheries for dietary nutrients such as fish oil and fishmeal. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Nautic’s role in terms of the Service Level Agreement is to assist in vessel operations, which will include bunkering, crewing and other logistics to ensure that the vessels are put to sea as quickly and efficiently as possible so that vital fisheries management functions can be performed. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] “The meeting has been a chance for industry to advise me, as a valued voice, on how we can expand opportunities for commercial and small-scale fishers.” - Min Joemat— Pettersson [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] Mr Moolla said that according to the department it still had to allocate 1,000 fishing-right quotas but had not yet appointed a service provider and so it was unlikely this would be completed by year-end. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] vessels are put to sea as quickly and efficiently as possible so that vital fisheries managem ent functions can be performed . [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] The DAFF fleet comprises the four Fisheries Protection Vessels Sarah Baartman, Lilian Ngoyi, Victoria Mxenge and Ruth First and two Fisheries Research Vessels (FRS Africana and FRS Ellen Khuzwayo ). [Martin, Securing the ocean’s benefits for future generations is a goal within the reach of humanity.[Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Yet the ocean could provide more seafood, not less, if we managed it properly. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.]
    • G. 30 April 2013.] The United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organisation calculates that half of the world’s fisheries are providing as much as they sustainably can, while a further one-third are being exploited beyond that limit, so must produce diminishing returns. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] In 2010, 85% of fish oil purchased was used as shrimp and finfish aquaculture feed. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Regular surveys of South Africa’s fishing resources are important for the country to prove that it has sustainable fishing stocks in order to keep export markets. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] “There is a game change in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector; we value these interactions as an opportunity to receive advice from industry leaders” – Min Joemat Pettersson [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013] I’m talking here about the international waters that begin 200 nautical miles off our coast and most other coasts. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Regular surveys of South Africa’s fishing resources are important for the country to prove that it has sustainabl e fishing stocks in order to keep export markets. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] At present, we obtain about 80million tons a year of food from the ocean. .[Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] The Stats SA document echoes sentiments expressed by the department in December that noted a "general trend of deteriorating resource status". [ Blaine, S. 5 March 2013] The most important challenge concerns the management of seafood stocks, many of which are being exploited in an unsustainable manner. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] South African Fisheries have two components: Wild capture fishing and aquaculture. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The department admitted in its recent presentation to the parliamentary portfolio committee that South Africa’s economic exclusion zone is not being patrolled or monitored, Department is “engaging with its nominated service provider to repair the DAFF fleet for sea [use].” [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] The task we have set ourselves is to show how the ocean can be sustainably and equitably managed in the 21st century. Global Ocean Commission [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] WHEN the world you inhabit is beset by economic ills, the last thing a sensible society should do is ignore a valuable resource. [Manuel, T. 19 March The United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organisation calculates that half of the world’s fisheries are providing as much as they sustainably can, while a further one-third are being exploited beyond that limit, so must produce diminishing returns. [Manuel, T. Rebuilding and recovery could take years and even decades as the rate of recovery is dependent on the biology of the species and the natural recruitment fluctuations. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.]
    • According to natural resources advisory firm Feike, which is run by a former fisheries management head at Marine and Coastal Management, gross mismanagement of South Africa’s fish stocks threatens the commercial viability of several industries, with both the resource and thousands of jobs now at risk of being The immediate goal of fisheries management should be on job security with job creation being a longer-term vision. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] because of its failure to ensure the proper functioning of its research and patrol vessels, leaving South Africa’s fish resources wide open to exploitation by South African and foreign vessels. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] Almost no research is being conducted into the actual state of the country’s fish stocks, as opposed to the output of computer models, so overfishing is a real danger and there is little factual basis for the allocation of annual quotas; species recovery plans are not being implemented; and poaching 2013.] The DAFF fleet comprises the four Fisheries Protection Vessels Sarah Baartman, Lilian Ngoyi, Victoria Mxenge and Ruth First and two Fisheries Research Vessels (FRS Africana and FRS Ellen Khuzwayo). [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] The task we have set ourselves is to show how the ocean can be sustainably and equitably managed in the 21st century. Working independently, we will assess all the evidence we can muster, from sectors of society including science, economics, business and law. All these good ideas we will distil into what you might call a "todo list" for world leaders — a list of pragmatic and 19 March 2013.] When your country and continent are doing their best to develop and bring the good things in life to all of their people, the last thing they should do is forgo an opportunit y to secure a more equal share of Yet the ocean could provide more seafood, not less, if we managed it properly. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Decades of mismanagement of our marine systems has placed SA in a precarious state. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • destroyed. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] The department admitted in its recent presentation to the parliamentary portfolio committee that South Africa’s economic exclusion zone is not being patrolled or monitored, because of its failure to ensure the proper functioning of its research and patrol vessels, leaving South Africa’s fish resources wide open to exploitation by South African and foreign vessels. [Business Day Editorial. 22 remains rife. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] Job creation can only take place with progressive stock rebuilding strategies. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] WWF is pushing for an Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF], recognising critical role of marine ecosystems in maintaining resilient sociocultural systems in the face of growing threats to climate change and food security. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] efficient measures that, if implemented, will reverse degradation of the high seas and restore them to full health and productivity. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Shaheen Moolla, MD of Feike Natural Resource Management Advisers, said the industry CEOs had no choice but to co-operate with Ms JoematPettersson as she had threatened to withdraw fishing rights. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] the world’s riches. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Securing the ocean’s benefits for future generations is a goal within the reach of humanity.[Manuel , T. 19 March 2013.] I’m talking here about the internation al waters that begin 200 nautical miles off our coast and most other coasts. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] This, too, has the goal of managing the rich ecosystem associated with the cold waters from the southern ocean that flow northwards along the African coastline, with special emphasis on research, conservation and sustainable exploitation of the benefits it brings to all three countries, which are estimated to be worth more than $50bn a year. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] WWF is pushing for an Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF], recognising critical role of marine ecosystems in maintaining resilient socio-cultural systems in the face of growing threats to climate change and food security. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • March 2013.] Almost no research is being conducted into the actual state of the country’s fish stocks, as opposed to the output of computer models, so overfishing is a real danger and there is little factual basis for the allocation of annual quotas; species recovery plans are not being implemented; and poaching remains rife. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] The Stats SA document echoes sentiments expressed by the department in December that noted a "general trend of deteriorating resource status". [ Blaine, S. 5 March 2013] The SA Government considers the fishing industry as a sector for employment expansion within the country. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic wellbeing of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Mr Moolla said that according to the department it still had to allocate 1,000 fishing-right quotas but had not yet appointed a service provider and so it was unlikely this would be completed by year-end. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] The health of fishing communities is inextricably linked to the health of the adjacent fisheries resources and raises the importance of the sustainable and Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. I’m talking here about the international waters that begin 200 nautical miles off our coast and most other coasts. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] The big challenge and the big rewards lie in the high seas. .[Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Yet the ocean could provide more seafood, not less, if we managed it properly. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] The task we have set ourselves is to show how the ocean can be sustainabl y and equitably managed in the 21st century. Global Ocean Commissio n [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] According to natural resources advisory firm Feike, which is run by a former fisheries management head at Marine and Coastal Management, gross mismanagement of South Africa’s fish stocks threatens the commercial viability of several industries, with both the resource and thousands of jobs now at risk of being destroyed. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] The task we have set ourselves is to show how the ocean can be sustainabl y and equitably managed in the 21st century. Almost no research is being conducted into the actual state of the country’s fish stocks, as opposed to the output of computer models, so overfishing is a real danger and there is little factual basis for the allocation of annual quotas; species recovery plans are not being SA’s commercial fishing industry employs approximately 48 500 people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • responsible management of these resources to ensure job and food security for these communities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] November 2011.] Working independ ently, we will assess all the evidence we can muster, from sectors of society including science, economic s, business and law. All these good ideas we will distil into what you might call a "todo list" for world leaders — a list of pragmatic and efficient measures that, if implement ed, will reverse degradati on of the high seas and restore them to full health implemented; and poaching remains rife. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.]
    • and productivit y. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Rebuilding and recovery could take years and even decades as the rate of recovery is dependent on the biology of the species and the natural recruitment fluctuations. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Aquaculture is expected to experience substantial regional growth in the coming years. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The immediate goal of fisheries management should be on job security with job creation being a longer-term vision. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The task we have set ourselves is to show how the ocean can be sustainably and equitably managed in the 21st century. Working independently, we will assess all the evidence we can muster, from sectors of society including science, economics, business and law. All these good ideas we will distil into what you might call a "to-do list" for world leaders — a list of pragmatic and efficient measures that, if implemented, will reverse degradation of the high seas The disconnect between what happens at the top and at the coalface is especially striking in the fishing sector, where recent events illustrate that South Africa is trying to play a leading role on the international stage even as our own fisheries management system is imploding .[ Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] Securing the ocean’s benefits for future generatio ns is a goal within the reach of humanity.[ Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Rebuilding and recovery could take years and even decades as the rate of recovery is dependent on the biology of the species and the natural recruitment fluctuations. [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.]
    • and restore them to full health and productivity. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Decades of mismanagement of our marine systems has placed SA in a precarious state. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In 2008, SA Mariculture was comprised of: abalone, oysters, mussels, prawn, finfish and seaweeds. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Job creation can only take place with progressive stock rebuilding strategies. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] WWF is pushing for an The SA Government The SA Government Securing the ocean’s benefits for future generations is a goal within the reach of humanity.[Man uel, T. 19 March 2013.] Yet the ocean could provide more seafood, not less, if we managed it properly. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] The disconnect between what At the same time, South Africa, Namibia and Angola have just signed a convention defining the boundaries of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem, which stretches from Port Elizabeth in the east around the southern African coast to as far west as Angola’s Cabinda province. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] This, too, has the goal of managing The big challenge and the big rewards lie in the high seas. .[Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] The United Nations Decades of mismanagement of our marine systems has placed SA in a precarious state. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] WWF is pushing for an Ecosystems
    • Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF], recognising critical role of marine ecosystems in maintaining resilient sociocultural systems in the face of growing threats to climate change and food security. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] has identified aquaculture as an area of expansion. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] considers the fishing industry as a sector for employment expansion within the country. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] happens at the top and at the coalface is especially striking in the fishing sector, where recent events illustrate that South Africa is trying to play a leading role on the international stage even as our own fisheries management system is imploding .[ Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] the rich ecosystem associated with the cold waters from the southern ocean that flow northwards along the African coastline, with special emphasis on research, conservation and sustainable exploitation of the benefits it brings to all three countries, which are estimated to be worth more than $50bn a year. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic wellbeing of SA’s coastal people. Aquaculture is relatively new in SA and is considered as underdeveloped by DAFF. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The health of fishing communities is inextricably linked to the health of the adjacent fisheries resources and raises the importance of the sustainable The department admitted in its recent presentation to the parliamentary portfolio committee that South Africa’s economic exclusion zone is not being According to natural resources advisory firm Feike, which is run by a former fisheries management head at Marine and Coastal Management, gross mismanagement (UN) Food and Agriculture Organisati on calculates that half of the world’s fisheries are providing as much as they sustainabl y can, while a further one-third are being exploited beyond that limit, so must produce diminishin g returns. [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] Yet the ocean could provide more seafood, not less, if we managed it properly. [Manuel, T. 19 March Approach to Fisheries [ EAF], recognising critical role of marine ecosystems in maintaining resilient socio-cultural systems in the face of growing threats to climate change and food security. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic wellbeing of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social an economic well-being of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] and responsible management of these resources to ensure job and food security for these communities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Aquaculture has been focused on high value species such as abalone, mussels and oysters. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Food security is complex and linked not only to food availability but also to human health, sustainable economic development, environment and trade. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] patrolled or monitored, because of its failure to ensure the proper functioning of its research and patrol vessels, leaving South Africa’s fish resources wide open to exploitation by South African and foreign vessels. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] Almost no research is being conducted into the actual state of the country’s fish stocks, as opposed to the output of computer models, so overfishing is a real danger and there is little factual basis for the allocation of annual quotas; species recovery plans are not being implemented; and poaching remains rife. of South Africa’s fish stocks threatens the commercial viability of several industries, with both the resource and thousands of jobs now at risk of being destroyed. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] 2013.] November 2011.] WWF is pushing for an Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF], recognising critical role of marine ecosystems in maintaining resilient sociocultural systems in the face of growing threats to climate change and food security. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The disconnec t between what happens at the top and at the coalface is especially striking in the fishing sector, where recent events illustrate that South Africa is trying to play a leading role on the Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] In 2009, 583 000 tonnes of fish to the value of R 4.4 billion were landed in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that all marine organisms and processes are interconnected. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Fish trade is governed by complex multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and negotiations at the national, regional and international levels determine the amounts of fish imported and exported in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Beneficiation and value adding activities within the sector has the potential to create An EAF takes into consideration that alterations in processes are Status of SA Marine Resources: 29.6% uncertain, 7.4% under- The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic well-being of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Decades of mismanageme nt of our marine systems has placed SA in a precarious Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed internation al stage even as our own fisheries managem ent system is imploding .[ Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] The most important challenge concerns the managem ent of seafood stocks, many of which are being exploited in an unsustaina ble manner. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] At the same time, South Africa, Namibia SA’s commercial fishing industry employs approximately 48 500 people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In the impoverished E/Cape, squid fisheries contributed R 500 million in foreign revenue. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In the impoverished E/Cape, squid fisheries contributed R 500 million in foreign revenue. [World Wildlife Commercial Fisheries contribute 0.5% to SA GDP. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • livelihoods while the stocks replenish. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] not easily recognised and difficult to restore once disrupted. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] exploited, 48.1 % optimally exploited, 14.8% overexploited. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] state. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Financial capital or income of a fisher – or fishing community – cannot be achieved through increasing EAF aims to “ balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, SA undertook to maintain and rebuild fish stocks to levels WWF is pushing for an Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF], recognising critical role of marine Beneficiation and value adding activities within the sector has the potential to create livelihoods while the stocks replenish. [World and Angola have just signed a conventio n defining the boundarie s of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem , which stretches from Port Elizabeth in the east around the southern African coast to as far west as Angola’s Cabinda province. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] This, too, has the goal of managing the rich ecosystem associate d with the Organisation. November 2011.] Commercial Fisheries contribute 0.5% to SA GDP. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The immediate goal of fisheries management should be on job security with job creation being a longer-term vision. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • catches along – due to the state of the global marine fisheries. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of the ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries.” [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] able to produce maximum sustainable yields by no later than 2015. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] ecosystems in maintaining resilient sociocultural systems in the face of growing threats to climate change and food security. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Job creation can only take place with progressive stock Good understanding of the ecosystem Full stock assessments are lacking in the majority of Holistic and sustainable systemic management Financial capital or income of a fisher – or fishing community – cold waters from the southern ocean that flow northward s along the African coastline, with special emphasis on research, conservati on and sustainabl e exploitatio n of the benefits it brings to all three countries, which are estimated to be worth more than $50bn a year. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] According to natural resources advisory The annual revenue from commercial fisheries exports were estimated at R 3.3 The SA Government considers the fishing industry as a sector for employment expansion
    • rebuilding strategies. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The SA Government considers the impacts of the fisheries and impacts are included in management advice. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] SA’s line fish species and existing stock assessments for other species are several years old and considered outdated. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] cannot be achieved through increasing catches along – due to the state of the global marine fisheries. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] firm Feike, which is run by a former fisheries managem ent head at Marine and Coastal Managem ent, gross mismanag ement of South Africa’s fish stocks threatens the commerci al viability of several industries, with both the resource and thousands of jobs now at risk of being destroyed. [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] billion in 2008. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] within the country. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The RFMO’s are tasked with managing high Marine ecotourism is also become The immediate goal of fisheries management The departme nt In 2009, 583 000 tonnes of fish to the value of R 4.4 billion In 2008, commercial fishing industry in SA employed approx. 27 000 directly,
    • fishing industry as a sector for employment expansion within the country. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] seas fisheries and migratory fish stocks which straddle the water of more than one state. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] increasingly attractive and viable. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] should be on job security with job creation being a longer-term vision. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] admitted in its recent presentati on to the parliament ary portfolio committe e that South Africa’s economic exclusion zone is not being patrolled or monitored , because of its failure to ensure the proper functionin g of its research and patrol vessels, leaving South Africa’s fish resources wide open to exploitatio n by South African and foreign vessels. were landed in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] while 100 000 people were employed in fishery related enterprises. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • The health of fishing communities is inextricably linked to the health of the adjacent fisheries resources and raises the importance of the sustainable and responsible management of these resources to ensure job and food security for these communities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic wellbeing of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Job creation can only take place with progressive stock rebuilding strategies. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] [Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] Almost no research is being conducte d into the actual state of the country’s fish stocks, as opposed to the output of computer models, so overfishing is a real danger and there is little factual basis for the allocation of annual quotas; species recovery plans are not being implement ed; and poaching remains rife. [Business Marine eco-tourism is also become increasingly attractive and viable. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The health of fishing communities is inextricably linked to the health of the adjacent fisheries resources and raises the importance of the sustainable and responsible management of these resources to ensure job and food security for these communities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • Day Editorial. 22 March 2013.] Food security is complex and linked not only to food availability but also to human health, sustainable economic development, environment and trade. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The single species strategy of resource management of the past has failed SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Financial capital or income of a fisher – or fishing community – cannot be achieved through increasing catches along – due to the state of the global marine fisheries. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The SA Government considers the fishing industry as a sector for employment expansion within the country. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Trade of fishery products is of integral importance to government revenue, income and employment generation in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The single species approach did not consider the greater impact on the marine ecosystem. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The immediate goal of fisheries management should be on job security with job creation being a longerterm vision. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The health of fishing communities is inextricably linked to the health of the adjacent fisheries resources and raises the importance of the sustainable and responsible management of these resources to ensure job and food security for these The Stats SA document echoes sentiments expressed by the departme nt in December that noted a "general trend of deteriorati ng resource status". [ Blaine, S. 5 March 2013] Rebuilding and recovery could take years and even decades as the rate of recovery is dependen t on the biology of the species and the Beneficiation and value adding activities within the sector has the potential to create livelihoods while the stocks replenish. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 53% of traditional fishing community’s countrywide are still considered to be food insecure. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Financial capital or income of a fisher – or fishing community – cannot be achieved through increasing catches along – due to the state of the global marine fisheries. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] SA has around 147 fishing communities, 28 338 fisher households and 30 000 people are considered to be true subsistence fishers. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • communities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Status of SA Marine Resources: 29.6% uncertain, 7.4% under-exploited, 48.1 % optimally exploited, 14.8% over-exploited. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Status of commercial line fish in SA: 11% over-exploited, 68% collapsed, 16% optimally exploited and 5% under review. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that all marine organisms and processes are interconnected. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Food security is complex and linked not only to food availability but also to human health, sustainable economic development, environment and trade. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Job creation can only take place with progressive stock rebuilding strategies. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Fish trade is governed by complex multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and negotiations at the national, regional and international levels determine the amounts of fish imported and natural recruitmen t fluctuation s. [Departm ent of Agriculture , Forestry and Fisheries. 2012.] Decades of mismanag ement of our marine systems has placed SA in a precarious state. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] WWF is pushing for an Ecosystem s Approach to Fisheries [ EAF], recognisin g critical role of marine ecosystem SA’s rich marine ecosystems have attracted fishers and their families to the shoreline where they have developed communities whose cultural values, customary practices and social dynamics are intricately linked to the ocean. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The immediate goal of fisheries management should be on job security with job creation being a longer-term vision. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Food security is complex and linked not only to food availability but also to human health, sustainable economic development, environment and trade. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • exported in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, SA undertook to maintain and rebuild fish stocks to levels able to produce maximum sustainable yields by no later than 2015. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that alterations in processes are not easily recognised and difficult to restore once disrupted. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The SA Government considers the fishing industry as a sector for employment expansion within the country. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Long-terms rights issued in 22 fishing sectors, with over 2900 rights holders and 1788 vessels. . [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] s in maintainin g resilient sociocultural systems in the face of growing threats to climate change and food security. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] The longterm sustainabl e collaborati ve and responsibl e managem ent of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic well-being of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Job creation can only take place with progressive stock rebuilding strategies. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Long-terms rights issued in 22 fishing sectors, with over 2900 rights holders and 1788 vessels. . [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • Some studies estimate that some 850 000 people in SA participate in shore-based recreational fisheries – with a total economic impact of R 2.5 billion. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Trends indicate a decline in most marine stocks in the Southern African region – driven by demand due to local population increases, higher consumer rates, emergent export EAF aims to “ balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of the ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries.” [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] EAF approach in South Africa uses tracking tools to examine progress towards implementation – it evaluates a range of objectives. In 2008, commercial fishing industry in SA employed approx. 27 000 directly, while 100 000 people were employed in fishery related enterprises. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The Allocation of long-term rights encourage community involvement in fisheries and their management, but also promotes a sense of stewardship for resources that fishers will have to access over the 7-10 year period. . [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The health of fishing communities is inextricably linked to the health of the adjacent fisheries resources and raises the importance of Status of commercial line fish in SA: 11% over-exploited, 68% collapsed, 16% optimally exploited and 5% under review. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Organisati on. November 2011.] Holistic and sustainabl e systemic managem ent practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generatio ns to come. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] South African Fisheries have two compone nts: Wild capture fishing and aquacultu re. [World Wildlife The SA Government considers the fishing industry as a sector for employment expansion within the country. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The Allocation of long-term rights encourage community involvement in fisheries and their management, but also promotes a sense of stewardship for resources that fishers will have to access over the 7-10 year period. . [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In 2008, commercial fishing industry in SA employed approx. 27 000 directly, while 100 000 people were employed in fishery related enterprises. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Status of commercial line fish in SA: 11% over-exploited, 68% collapsed, 16% optimally exploited and 5% under review. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • markets and tourism. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The RFMO’s are tasked with managing high seas fisheries and migratory fish stocks which straddle the water of more than one state. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Good understanding of the ecosystem impacts of the fisheries and impacts are included in management advice. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic wellbeing of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife the sustainable and responsible management of these resources to ensure job and food security for these communities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Food security is complex and linked not only to food availability but also to human health, sustainable economic development, environment and trade. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] In 2009, SA exported fish and fishery products to the value of USD 75.5 million. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Organisati on. November 2011.] Trends indicate a decline in most marine stocks in the Southern African region – driven by demand due to local population increases, higher consumer rates, emergent export markets and tourism. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] There are several Regional Fishery Management Organisations [ RFMO’s] and regional fishery bodies within the Southern African region. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Marine ecotourism is also become increasingl y attractive and viable. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Beneficiati on and value adding activities within the sector has the potential to create livelihoods while the stocks The health of fishing communities is inextricably linked to the health of the adjacent fisheries resources and raises the importance of the sustainable and responsible management of these resources to ensure job and food security for these communities. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 53% of traditional fishing community’s countrywide are still considered to be food insecure. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Some studies estimate that some 850 000 people in SA participate in shore-based recreational fisheries – with a total economic impact of R 2.5 billion. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Trends indicate a decline in most marine stocks in the Southern African region – driven by demand due to local population increases, higher consumer rates, emergent export markets and tourism. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • Organisation. November 2011.] The single species strategy of resource management of the past has failed SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Fish trade is governed by complex multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and negotiations at the national, regional and international levels determine the amounts of fish imported and exported in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The RFMO’s are tasked with managing high seas fisheries and migratory fish stocks which straddle the water of more than one state. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The single species approach did not consider the greater impact on the marine ecosystem. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Trade of fishery products is of integral importance to government revenue, income and employment generation in SA. [World Wildlife The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic well-being of SA’s coastal people. replenish. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Financial capital or income of a fisher – or fishing communit y – cannot be achieved through increasing catches along – due to the state of the global marine fisheries. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] SA has around 147 fishing communities, 28 338 fisher households and 30 000 people are considered to be true subsistence fishers. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The 3000 km stretch of coastline and oceans support diverse artisanal and commercial fisheries in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] SA’s rich marine ecosystems have attracted fishers and their families to the shoreline where they have developed communities whose cultural values, customary practices and social dynamics are intricately linked The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic wellbeing of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • Organisation. November 2011.] Status of SA Marine Resources: 29.6% uncertain, 7.4% underexploited, 48.1 % optimally exploited, 14.8% over-exploited. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that all marine organisms and processes are inter-connected. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Status of commercial line fish in SA: 11% over-exploited, 68% collapsed, 16% optimally exploited and 5% under review. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that all marine organisms and processes are inter-connected. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that alterations in processes are At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, SA undertook to An EAF takes into consideration that alterations in processes are not easily recognised Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] to the ocean. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Job creation can only take place with progressiv e stock rebuilding strategies. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] The SA Governme nt considers the fishing industry as a sector for employme nt expansion within the country. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] In 2008, commerci al fishing industry in SA Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Food security is complex and linked not only to food availability but also to human health, sustainable economic development, environment and trade. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that all marine organisms and processes are interconnected. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] SA consumer and retailer awareness of environmental and sustainability issues has resulted in EAF aims to “ balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic,
    • not easily recognised and difficult to restore once disrupted. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] maintain and rebuild fish stocks to levels able to produce maximum sustainable yields by no later than 2015. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] and difficult to restore once disrupted. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] EAF aims to “ balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of the ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries.” [World Wildlife Organisation. Trends indicate a decline in most marine stocks in the Southern African region – driven by demand due to local population increases, higher consumer rates, emergent export markets and tourism. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] EAF aims to “ balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of the ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries.” [World Wildlife Organisation. employed approx. 27 000 directly, while 100 000 people were employed in fishery related enterprises . [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] The health of fishing communiti es is inextricabl y linked to the health of the adjacent fisheries resources and raises the importanc e of the sustainabl e and responsibl e managem ent of these resources to ensure increased demands for eco-friendly and sustainable seafood products. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Market trends are increasingly influenced by consumer awareness programmes and eco-labels. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] abiotic and human components of the ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries.” [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • November 2011.] EAF approach in South Africa uses tracking tools to examine progress towards implementation – it evaluates a range of objectives. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] November 2011.] There are several Regional Fishery Management Organisations [ RFMO’s] and regional fishery bodies within the Southern African region. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] EAF approach in South Africa uses tracking tools to examine progress towards implementation – it evaluates a range of objectives. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] job and food security for these communiti es. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] SA’s rich marine ecosystem s have attracted fishers and their families to the shoreline where they have develope d communiti es whose cultural values, customary practices and social dynamics are intricately linked to the ocean. [World Wildlife Organisati on. In 2009, SA exported fish and fishery products to the value of USD 75.5 million. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • Good understanding of the ecosystem impacts of the fisheries and impacts are included in management advice. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The RFMO’s are tasked with managing high seas fisheries and migratory fish stocks which straddle the water of more than one state. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic wellbeing of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November Good understanding of the ecosystem impacts of the fisheries and impacts are included in management advice. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] November 2011.] Food security is complex and linked not only to food availability but also to human health, sustainabl e economic developm ent, environme nt and trade. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] SA consumer and retailer awareness of environme ntal and sustainabili ty issues has resulted in increased demands for ecofriendly Fish trade is governed by complex multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and negotiations at the national, regional and international levels determine the amounts of fish imported and exported in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Trade of fishery products is of integral importance to government revenue, income and employment generation in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • 2011.] Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that all marine organisms and processes are interconnected. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] and sustainabl e seafood products. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Market trends are increasingl y influenced by consumer awareness programm es and ecolabels. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Fish trade is governed by complex multilatera l and bilateral trade agreemen ts and negotiatio ns at the national, Status of SA Marine Resources: 29.6% uncertain, 7.4% under-exploited, 48.1 % optimally exploited, 14.8% over-exploited. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Long-terms rights issued in 22 fishing sectors, with over 2900 rights holders and 1788 vessels. . [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • An EAF takes into consideration that alterations in processes are not easily recognised and difficult to restore once disrupted. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] EAF aims to “ balance diverse societal regional and internation al levels determine the amounts of fish imported and exported in SA. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Trade of fishery products is of integral importanc e to governme nt revenue, income and employme nt generatio n in SA. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Status of SA Marine Resources: The Allocation of long-term rights encourage community involvement in fisheries and their management, but also promotes a sense of stewardship for resources that fishers will have to access over the 7-10 year period. . [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Status of commercial line fish in SA: 11% over-exploited, 68%
    • objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of the ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries.” [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] EAF approach in South Africa uses tracking tools to examine progress towards implementation – it evaluates a range of objectives. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] 29.6% uncertain, 7.4% underexploited, 48.1 % optimally exploited, 14.8% overexploited. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] collapsed, 16% optimally exploited and 5% under review. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The Allocation of longterm rights encourag e communit y involveme nt in fisheries and their managem ent, but also promotes a sense of stewardshi p for Some studies estimate that some 850 000 people in SA participate in shorebased recreational fisheries – with a total economic impact of R 2.5 billion. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • Good understanding of the ecosystem impacts of the fisheries and impacts are included in management advice. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] resources that fishers will have to access over the 710 year period. . [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Status of commerci al line fish in SA: 11% overexploited, 68% collapsed, 16% optimally exploited and 5% under review. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainabl e Developm ent, SA undertook to Trends indicate a decline in most marine stocks in the Southern African region – driven by demand due to local population increases, higher consumer rates, emergent export markets and tourism. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The RFMO’s are tasked with managing high seas fisheries and migratory fish stocks which straddle the water of more than one state. [World Wildlife Organisation.
    • maintain and rebuild fish stocks to levels able to produce maximum sustainabl e yields by no later than 2015. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Full stock assessmen ts are lacking in the majority of SA’s line fish species and existing stock assessmen ts for other species are several years old and considere d outdated. [World Wildlife November 2011.] The 3000 km stretch of coastline and oceans support diverse artisanal and commercial fisheries in SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • Organisati on. November 2011.] The SA Governme nt has identified aquacultu re as an area of expansion. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Some studies estimate that some 850 000 people in SA participat e in shorebased recreation al fisheries – with a total economic impact of R 2.5 billion. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] The long-term sustainable collaborative and responsible management of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic wellbeing of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] The single species strategy of resource management of the past has failed SA. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • Trends indicate a decline in most marine stocks in the Southern African region – driven by demand due to local populatio n increases, higher consumer rates, emergent export markets and tourism. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] There are several Regional Fishery Managem ent Organisati ons [ RFMO’s] and regional The single species approach did not consider the greater impact on the marine ecosystem. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Holistic and sustainable systemic management practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generations to come. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • fishery bodies within the Southern African region. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] The RFMO’s are tasked with managing high seas fisheries and migratory fish stocks which straddle the water of more than one state. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] The longterm sustainabl e collaborati ve and responsibl e An EAF takes into consideration that all marine organisms and processes are inter-connected. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] An EAF takes into consideration that alterations in processes are not easily recognised and difficult to restore once disrupted. [World
    • managem ent of coastal marine resources plays a vital role in social and economic well-being of SA’s coastal people. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] The single species strategy of resource managem ent of the past has failed SA. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] The single species approach did not Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] EAF aims to “ balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of the ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries.” [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] EAF approach in South Africa uses tracking tools to
    • consider the greater impact on the marine ecosystem . [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Holistic and sustainabl e systemic managem ent practices are being employed to secure the future of the resource for generatio ns to come. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] An EAF takes into considerat ion that all marine organisms and examine progress towards implementation – it evaluates a range of objectives. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Good understanding of the ecosystem impacts of the fisheries and impacts are included in management advice. [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
    • processes are interconnecte d. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] An EAF takes into considerat ion that alterations in processes are not easily recognise d and difficult to restore once disrupted. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] EAF aims to “ balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledg e and
    • uncertainti es about biotic, abiotic and human compone nts of the ecosystem s and their interaction s and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecological ly meaningfu l boundarie s.” [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] EAF approach in South Africa uses tracking tools to examine progress towards implement ation – it evaluates a range of
    • objectives. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.] Good understan ding of the ecosystem impacts of the fisheries and impacts are included in managem ent advice. [World Wildlife Organisati on. November 2011.]