Swedish Energy Agenda _ Sweden's waste and energy strategy

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  • The development of waste management systems in Sweden has been very successful. Today, waste is looked upon and used as a resource rather than a problem. An impressive 99 percent of the household waste is recycled as energy or material.

    2012
    Landfill 0,7%
    Energy recovery 51,6%
    Biological treatment 15,3 %
    Recycling (material) 32,3 %

    13 TWh district energy -> 20 % of the total district energy in Sweden / the heating need of 900 000 homes
    1,7 TWh electricity -> need of 250 000 homes

    353 GWh vehicle-fuel produced from foodwaste replaced about 30 millions liters of petrol.
    725 000 tonnes biofertilizer replacing industrial fertilizer

  • One successfactor has been clear national targets and long-term regulations and economical steering instruments, allowing necessary investments and time for technical development and other innovations.

    In the 1990’, necessary regulations and economical steering instruments were decided about, to support the extensive reconstruction of the waste management system that started with focus on waste as a resource. Thoose were implemented in the 2000, and the final effect could be seen in 2010.

    Observation: between 1995 and 2011 the total amount of genereted waste increased with 27 %
  • The resource recovery focus has been a red thread in the devopment of the waste mangament system in Sweden. Different treatment methods are used depending on the character of the waste.
    This gives a long number of savings and benfits.
  • Collection and treatment of source-separated food waste increased by 20 percent in 2010 compared with 2009 and close to 60 percent of Sweden’s municipalities have now introduced collection systems for source-separated food waste and an additional 70 municipalities are planning to follow suit.
  • Biogas is as you produced when organic material is degraded without access to air. The energy carrying part of biogas is methane.
    In Sweden statistics concerning the production and usage of biogas is compiled each year since 2005. In my presentation I will use this statistics as a starting point. The different classes of biogas production units are: Waste Water Treatment Plants, Co-digestion, Land fills, Industrial plants and farm based plants.
    The division into different types are not always that sharp, but is a good basis for the discussion. In 2012 nearly 1600 GWh of biogas was produced.
  • First I would like to highlight the waste water treatment plants. Here Sewage sludge is digested. The lions share of these plants were built 40-60 years ago. Without these, I don’t think that the development the last 10 years had been possible. Today 135 WWTP are digesting sludge in Sweden.
    They form the backbone of biogas production in Swedenand are therefore a good basis to start with when the municipality whats to start production of vehicle gas. And the people that work there forms a competence pool concerning AD in general.
  • Ten to 15 years ago some important measures were taken that later resulted in a boost in biogas production. 15 aspiring environmental goals were set, a climate investment programme was launched and landfilling of organic waste was banned. As a result, gas production from landfills began to decline and biogas plants based on source separated organic waste from house holds and industry were built.
    In 2018, Sweden will digest 40 % of all organic waste from households, stores, etc.
  • The farm based biogas production was for a long time limited to a few enthusiasts. However, in 2012 something happened. A new investment subsidy programme was launched in 2009, that resulted in an increase of the production a few years later. However, this development started 2005/2006 with information campains, etc. to farmers.
  • Another strong trend is the large increase of biogas as a vehicle fuel. Today 53 upgrading units are producing vehicle gas in Sweden. Water scrubbing is the dominating technology.
  • Accordingly, the number of filling stations has increased as well. The Swedish experience is that it is important to start with a nursing market, that is fleets with buses and taxi cars, that will consume enough gas to make an investment in a biogas system feasible.

Transcript

  • 1. Policy Instruments and Best Practices from Swedish Sustainable Transport Solutions - an integrated approach Ludvig Lindström Swedish Energy Agency
  • 2. • Background - Experiences • Driving factors • Case – biogas for transports • Success factors • In the crystal ball Swedish Sustainable Transport Solutions - an integrated approach
  • 3. BACKGROUND – OUR EXPERIENCE we have an amazing story to share!
  • 4. BNP in relation to emissions 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year Indexyr1990=100 CO2e BNP, fixed prices SO2 NOx VOC
  • 5. Unique results
  • 6. Waste - a resource Treatment of household waste in Sweden, 2012 (%) and the resources produced from it Material recycling Biological recycling Energy recovery Landfill 32 15 52
  • 7. Public and Private Stakeholders Waste Construction Water and Waste Water Energy Traffic and Transport Urban functions Social functions Urban Planning SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT – FROM SILO TO SYNERGY SUSTAINABILITY BY SWEDEN
  • 8. COUNTRYSIDE CITY Biogas train 230 km Waste Water Waste WaterWWTP WWTP Biofertilzer..... Biogazownia Food Waste Waste Waste Electricity Electricity Heat & hot tap water Heat & hot tap water SludgeSludge Biogas PlantBiogas Plant CHP CHP Steam CHPCHP Grain Bioetanol Bioethanol Refinery FeedingStuff Biogas Plant Plants Food Industry Meat, milk, vegetables Food Restaurants Biogas Plant Restaurants Biodiesel Plant Biodiesel CHP Biogas Grid Vehicle Fuel V.F. V.F. Biogas Plant Biogas Plant Biogas Plant Biofertilzer Waste Cooling (absorption) Cooling (electrical) Biodiesel Biofertilizer Forestry and agriculture waste and energy crops Forestry and agriculture waste and energy cropsBiofertillizer BiofertilizerBiofertilizer Biofertilizer Heat IndustriesLinköping 140 000 inhabitants Norrköping 130 000 inhabitants Biogas PlantPlants
  • 9. COUNTRYSIDE CITY Biogas train 230 km Waste Water Waste WaterWWTP WWTP Biofertilzer..... Biogazownia Food Waste Waste Waste Electricity Electricity Heat & hot tap water Heat & hot tap water SludgeSludge Biogas PlantBiogas Plant CHP CHP Steam CHPCHP Grain Bioetanol Bioethanol Refinery FeedingStuff Plants Food Industry Meat, milk, vegetables Food Restaurants Biogas Plant Restaurants Biodiesel Plant Biodiesel CHP Biogas Grid Vehicle Fuel V.F. V.F. Biogas Plant Biogas Plant Biogas Plant Biofertilzer Waste Cooling (absorption) Cooling (electrical) Biodiesel Biofertilizer Forestry and agriculture waste and energy crops Forestry and agriculture waste and energy cropsBiofertillizer BiofertilizerBiofertilizer Biofertilizer Heat IndustriesLinköping 140 000 inhabitants Norrköping 130 000 inhabitants Biogas PlantPlants From silo to synergies
  • 10. More efficient cars – decrease in fuel demand 34% 2011 – 2012, 2% decrease of energy use in the transport sector EU target 2020: 10% of vehicle fuels to be renewable Sweden 2012; 12,6%. 2013; 15,6% (prel) Transport sector - More energy efficient and increasing share of renewable vehicle fuels
  • 11. DRIVING FACTORS Policy instruments - Market Based and General • Energy tax since 1950’s • Increased rates during 1970’s to reduce dependence of oil (oil crisis) • CO2-tax in 1991 – to reduce the use of fossil fuels • Ban on waste deposits • Green tax shift in 2001 • Green Certificates (2003) • Emissions Trading (2005) • Tax Reduction on Biofuels for Transport • Research, Innovation & Development • International Cooperation
  • 12. Municipal waste planning compulsory Clear national targets and long-term regulations and economical steering instruments 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1400000 1600000 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Producers’ responsibility introduced Landfill tax introduced Ban on combustible waste to landfill Ban on organic waste landfill Household waste to landfill per year (tonnes) National target on food waste recycling 50 %
  • 13. Driving factors
  • 14. A system based on resource focus Combustible wasteFood waste Products District energy BiofertilizerBiogas Electricity Hazardous waste Direct environmental benifit Petrol saved and industrial fertilizer saved Fossil and other fuels saved Virgin materials and energy saved Environmental protection costs saved Materials
  • 15. A system based on finding the value of the resources Combustible wasteFood waste Products District energy BiofertilizerBiogas Electricity Hazardous waste Direct environmental benifit Petrol saved and industrial fertilizer saved Fossil and other fuels saved Virgin materials and energy saved Environmental protection costs saved Materials
  • 16. Why is a Swedish W2E Plant so profitable? Revenues from selling power Income from selling heat, hot tap water, cooling, process steam Gate-fee for receving waste paid by the citicens 34 plants: • Receiving 50 000 – 700 000 tonnes yearly (2012: 32 plants) • Recovering annually – totally 5 042 000 tonnes – of which 2 270 000 tonnes municipal waste • Gate fee average 500 SEK/tonnes
  • 17. CASE – BIOGAS FOR TRANSPORTS 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 GWhy-1 WWTP Co-digestion Landfills Industrial Farm-based Source: Production and usage of biogas 2012 Production in Sweden
  • 18. Biogas production in Sweden 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 GWhy-1 WWTP Co-digestion Landfills Industrial Farm-based Type No of plants 2012 WWTP 135 Co-digestion 21 Industrial 5 Farm-based 26Source: Production and usage of biogas 2012
  • 19. Biogas production in Sweden 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 GWhy-1 WWTP Co-digestion Landfills Industrial Farm-based Type No of plants 2012 WWTP 135 Co-digestion 21 Industrial 5 Farm-based 26Source: Production and usage of biogas 2012 During 2012, 353 GWh vehicle-fuel was produced from foodwaste replacing about 30 millions liters of petrol. 725 000 tonnes biofertilizer is produced yearly in Sweden.
  • 20. Biogas production in Sweden 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 GWhy-1 WWTP Co-digestion Landfills Industrial Farm-based Type No of plants 2012 WWTP 135 Co-digestion 21 Industrial 5 Farm-based 26Source: Production and usage of biogas 2012
  • 21. Biogas usage in Sweden 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 GWhy-1 Heat Electricity Up-grading Flared Source: Production and usage of biogas 2012
  • 22. Public and non-public filling stations for vehicle gas in Sweden Source: Swedish Gas Association public Non-public
  • 23. Uppsala Helsingborg Jönköping Borås Göteborg Örebro Malmö Västervik Stockholm Motala Biogas Buses
  • 24. Success factors • General policies and aspiring environmental goals combined with defined investment subsidy programmes showing the direction and long-term regulations and economical steering instruments • Waste management is a public service - holistic system view, an integrated part of the sustainable society. Co-operation within municipalites (Waste-, Energy-, Water-, Urban- planning-, etc departements) • Co-operation between municipalities. Choose the right scale - Build competence • Driving spirits in municipalities • Collaboration between public and private sectors, with clear division of roles and responsibilities • A system based on source separation with focus on communication and public engagement • A system based on resource recovery • Strong R.I.D. Material recycling Biological recycling Energy recovery Landfill
  • 25. In the crystal ball GoBiGas Gazification of forest residues Step one; 20 MW Step two; 80 – 100 MW 2020 Target: 1 TWh = 100 000 cars Preem ACP Evolution Diesel: 30% renewable resource > reduction of CO2 SunPine - PnP > Black liqour > Tall Oil The reduction is equal to the emissions from 174 000 cars New substrates from forest industry, sea and agriculture More efficient biological processes thanks to better pretreatment and process technology Liquefied biogas Regional gas grids mainly relying on biogas
  • 26. Innovative people learn together Thank you