Increasing Student Engagement on College Campuses
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Increasing Student Engagement on College Campuses

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Presentation materials from the Saturday, November 9th session from the 2013 NAMP Conference. Presenters: Alan Brown, WolfBrown, San Francisco, CA; Michelle Witt, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Presentation materials from the Saturday, November 9th session from the 2013 NAMP Conference. Presenters: Alan Brown, WolfBrown, San Francisco, CA; Michelle Witt, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

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  • Level of involvement – what are you currently doing?The landscape is dominated by mediated experiences and participatory experiences.
  • In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of music preferences, students were asked a two-part question about a wide cross-section of 17 specific “songs” representing different genres of music. First, students were asked whether or not they had ever listened to the song. Audio samples were provided. General frequencies for the combined samples are shown at left.Familiarity ranged from a high of 85% for Adele’s Rolling in the Deep to a low of 4% for Reik’sTu Mirada, a cut from the Mexican pop group’s 2011 album Peligro.Of the three classical music pieces tested, familiarity was highest for Beethoven’s Symphony No. 6 (55%), followed by Vivaldi’s The Four Seasons (45%), and then Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring (23%) – the same level of familiarity as Miles Davis’s 1959 classic So What.
  • Music preferences were also investigated with respect to genres. The chart at left reports overall preference levels for 13 genres of music for the aggregate sample.“Contemporary Rock and Pop” is the most popular category, with 29% reporting strong affinity, and another 43% reporting some affinity, followed closely by “Indie or Alternative Rock,” about which more students feel very strongly (43% “strongly like”). Other rock styles are also well-liked by the student population:Sixty-eight percent “somewhat like” or “strongly like” “classic rock and oldies.”“Classical music” is equally liked compared to “Rap or Hip Hop” – actually a bit more liked, as “classical music” lacks the negative preference associated with “Rap or Hip Hop.”Note also that “classical music” is preferred a bit more than “jazz or blues.”Results clearly illustrate the extent to which “opera” is marginalized in the music spectrum – just behind “hymns or gospel.”
  • Focusing in on the area of the preference map associated with positive music preferences, one can see a number of groupings of individual variables following the general dimensions described by the factor analysis.Note the far right-hand placement of jazz, suggesting its position at the margin of the traditional music spectrum.Note the proximity of “classic rock” to the middle of the axes (i.e., “middle of the road”)
  • There is an abundance of anecdotal evidence that younger adults are consuming a wider array of music, driven by the availability of inexpensive music online. This was a theme of the focus groups, and has been a consistent finding in our other research.The fragmentation and diversification of cultural tastes is one of the key trends re-shaping demand for cultural experiences of all sorts.A composite indicator of omnivorousness was created to reflect the number of “strongly like” answers to the list of 17 individual songs and 13 genres of music. The chart at left illustrates the raw distribution of ominvorousness scores.The average respondent “strongly likes” a total of 5 of the 30 songs and genres.
  • Positive preferences for classical music and opera are associated with higher levels of omnivorousness in musical tastes in general.Students are more likely to acquire affinity for classical music in the context of broadening their musical tastes more generally. Thus, orchestras would be better served by taking a more holistic approach to the musical development of young adults, rather than focusing exclusively on classical music.
  • By extension, counteracting this perception requires presenters to do one of two things: 1) re-frame the concert experience as more of a “show” – with additional layers of artistic and social stimulation; or 2) acquiescing to the perception of classical music as a secondary activity, and creating concert events at which students may do other things, like study or paint – however antithetical this may seem to the principles of “good listening” advocated by Aaron Copland and others.
  • Respondents who cited “tickets cost too much” as a barrier were asked an additional question: “Suppose that you learned that the following artists were going to play a This chart illustrates the percentage of students willing to pay up to $50. The flatter the line, the more they are willing to pay. The average prices that students are willing to pay for each artist are:YoYo Ma: $15.51Vienna Phil $14.15A string quartet $10.62

Increasing Student Engagement on College Campuses Increasing Student Engagement on College Campuses Presentation Transcript

  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Engaging Next Generation Audiences: A Study of College Student Preferences towards Music and the Performing Arts Alan Brown, WolfBrown Michelle Witt and Elizabeth Duffell, UW World Series, University of Washington 1
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts How many of you have specific marketing or programming initiatives for college students? 2
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts We need audiences. Where are they going to come from? 3
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 2008 NEA SPPA ARTS PARTCIPATION RATE BY DISCIPLINE, BY LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT 37.9% Graduate School 24.3% 27.1% 10.5% 7.3% 30.1% 16.7% 17.5% Bachelors Degree 4.1% 6.7% Insert graph on educational attainment. Some College or Assoc. Degree 17.1% 9.1% 9.0% 4.4% 1.7% Less emphasis on music. High school involvement in the arts High School Graduate (or GED) Some High School Grade School 8.1% 3.1% 4.0% 1.6% 0.7% 2.3% 2.8% 1.4% 0.5% 5.2% Musical Theatre Classical Music Stage Plays 1.7% 1.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.2% 0.0% Dance (all forms) Opera 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% % Who Reported Attending At Least Once in the Past 12 Months 35.0% 40.0% 4
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts The Hopkins Center study addressed the following research question: What should campus-based performing arts presenters and their partners be doing to engage more students in the performing arts? 5
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Research Partners • • • • • • • • Hopkins Center for the Arts, Dartmouth College Carolina Performing Arts, University of North Carolina Hancher, University of Iowa Krannert Center for the Performing Arts, University of Illinois Lied Center of Kansas, University of Kansas Texas Performing Arts, University of Texas University Musical Society, University of Michigan UW World Series, University of Washington 6
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Learning Approach • A total of 18 staff-led focus groups with students • Survey of undergraduates on seven campuses • Case study research on good practices in student engagement • Pilot projects led by student researchers 7
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Download the reports at: www.wolfbrown.com/college More info. for campus presenters:https://hop.dartmouth .edu/online/student_engagement 8
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Overview: Most frequent performing arts activities 9
  • 54% 20% 20% 38% 40% 30% 10% 0% 6% 53% Watch TV shows about dancing or dance competitions 30% 34% 59% 59% 7% 80% 58% 7% 15% 78% 5% 19% 15% 80% 5% 11% 83% 5% 8% 88% 20% 31% 28% 36% 35% 73% 39% 41% 50% 48% 76% 63% 68% 6% 91% 92% Take acting lessons or classes Act in theater productions 83% 2% 6% Dance in a performance group 14% 2% 91% 3% 3% 6% 4% Attend performances by prof. dance companies 4% Attend stage plays with prof. actors Attend performances by student dance companies 83% 7% Sing in a vocal group or choir 8% Occasionally Take dance lessons or classes 100% Compose or arrange music 34% 7% Attend stage plays with student actors 8% Attend musicals by prof. perf. Rarely or never Take music lessons 40% Attend live concerts by student singers or musicians 34% 13% 9% Attend musicals by student perf. 13% Play music in a group 70% DJ or make playlists 60% 22% Watch TV shows about music or music competitions 23% Attend live concerts by prof. singers or musicians 90% Social dancing at clubs or parties Download or stream music from the Internet % of Non-Arts Majors Student Engagement in the Performing Arts CURRENT LEVEL OF INVOLVEMENT IN ARTS ACTIVITIES - NON-ARTS MAJORS ONLY Frequently 10
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts PERCENT CITING FREQUENT INVOLVEMENT IN COLLEGE MUSIC ACTIVITIES, BY FREQUENT PARTICIPATION IN HIGH SCHOOL BAND OR CHOIR (NON ARTS MAJORS ONLY) No H.S. Band or Choir High school band or choir activity is highly predictive of college music activities High School Band or Choir 73% Download or stream music from the Internet 77% 18% Watch TV shows about music or music competition 30% 21% Attend live concerts by professional singers or musicians 28% 7% Play music in a band or orchestra 23% 3% Sing in a vocal group or choir 21% 6% Take music lessons (any instrument or voice) 16% 13% DJ or make playlists 14% 5% Compose or arrange music 11% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Percent of Valid Responses 70% 80% 90% 11
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Music Preferences 12
  • 10% 0% 26% 18% 30% 52% 55% 58% 62% 40% 66% 45% 39% 100% 7% 24% 23% 50% 77% 77% 93% Tu Mirada (Reik) 76% The Look of Love (Diana Krall) 73% The Rite of Spring (Igor Stravinsky) 34% So What (Miles Davis) 38% 27% Mississippi Girl (Faith Hill) 90% Izzo HOVA (Jay Z) 20% 45% Skinny Love (Bon Iver) Yes Ordinary People (John Legend) 48% Howlin for You (Black Keys) 55% The Four Seasons (Antonio Vivaldi) 74% Enter Sandman (Metallica) 85% Symphony No 6 (Beethoven) 70% Turn Me On (DJ David Guetta 26% Stronger (Kanye West) 60% Come Together (The Beatles) 15% Party Rock Anthem (LMFAO) 80% Rolling in the Deep (Adele) Student Engagement in the Performing Arts PERCENT "EVER HEARD" SONG (AGGREGATED SAMPLES) No 4% 23% 61% 42% 82% 74% 96% 13
  • 26% 55% 42% 0.6 58% 62% 66% 7% 1.1 82% 0.7 73% 76% 23% 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.7 77% 77% Tu Mirada (Reik) 1.5 The Look of Love (Diana Krall) 26% 1.0 24% The Rite of Spring (Igor Stravinsky) 15% 0.3 52% 1.1 34% 27% So What (Miles Davis) 1.4 Mississippi Girl (Faith Hill) 48% 38% Izzo HOVA (Jay Z) 0.8 45% 1.3 Skinny Love (Bon Iver) 61% No Ordinary People (John Legend) 1.6 4% 23% 80% 1.1 1.0 74% 96% 93% 45% 18% 0.0 70% 0.7 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% % of Respondents Familiarity with Artist 0.2 55% Howlin for You (Black Keys) Yes The Four Seasons (Antonio Vivaldi) 1.2 Enter Sandman (Metallica) 85% Symphony No 6 (Beethoven) 0.3 Turn Me On (DJ David Guetta feat. Nicki 0.4 74% Stronger (Kanye West) 1.4 Come Together (The Beatles) 0.9 Party Rock Anthem (LMFAO) 1.0 Rolling in the Deep (Adele) Average Preference Score: -2=Strongly Dislike; +2=Strongly Like Student Engagement in the Performing Arts COMPARISON OF "EVER HEARD" SONG WITH AVERAGE PREFERENCE RATING (AGGREGATED SAMPLES) Average Preference 100% 90% 39% 10% 0% 14
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Classical Music is preferred as much as Rap or Hip Hop PREFERENCES FOR TYPES OF MUSIC, AGGREGATED SAMPLE Strongly Dislike Somewhat Dislike Neutral Somewhat Like Strongly Like 100% 90% 21% 29% 80% 22% 19% 18% 17% 13% 34% 31% 35% 60% 31% 27% 19% 27% 33% 17% 43% 25% 18% 24% 24% 29% 23% 13% 28% Opera 8% 28% 26% 16% 9% Latin 4% 10% Jazz or Blues 4% 12% House, Trance, Electronic Dance Music 3% 6% Classical 9% Classic Rock or Oldies 8% Indie or Alternative Rock 7% 16% 15% Rap or Hip Hop 11% Hymns or Gospel 18% 17% Country 15% World Music 20% 27% 20% Broadway Musicals or Show Tunes 17% Contemporary Rock and Pop 0% 17% 28% 36% 36% 26% 30% 10% 13% 34% 28% 40% 20% 15% 4% 43% 70% 50% 6% 18% 18% 26% Percent of Total Sample 7% 15
  • Opera Hymns or Gospel Latin Country World Music Broadway Musicals or Show Tunes Jazz or Blues House, Trance, Electronic Dance Music Rap or Hip Hop Classical Classic Rock or Oldies Indie or Alternative Rock Contemporary Rock and Pop Average Preference (Scale: ‐2=Strongly Dislike; +2=Strongly Like)  Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Classical music is equally preferred by male and female students 1.5  AVERAGE RATING OF PREFERENCE FOR TYPES OF MUSIC, BY GENDER  Female Male 1  0.5  0  ‐0.5  ‐1  ‐1.5  16
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Music preference clusters, based on multiple correspondence analysis MAP OF MUSIC PREFERENCES - ALL SAMPLES Like DJ David Guetta Like Faith Hill Like Reik Like LMFAO Like Jay Z Like Country Like Rap/hip hop Like John Legend Like Kanye Like Latin Like Adele Like House/electronic dance Like Hymns/gospel Like Contemporary rock/pop IndieLike Broadway or show Like The Beatles tunes Like Metallica Rock/Soul Don't Like Miles Davis Like Classic rock/oldies Like Diana Krall Like Black Keys Don't Like Faith Hill Like World music Don't Classical Don't Like Symph. No 6 Like Bon Iver Don't Like Jay Z Like Indie/alternative rock Like Don't Like Jazz or blues Don't Like Bon Iver Don't Like Diana Krall Like Jazz or blues Opera Don't Like Opera Don't Like Hymns/gospel Don't Like Vivaldi Don't Like Black Keys Like Symph. No 6 Like Miles Davis t Like World music Don't Like John Legend Like Classical Like Vivaldi Don't Like Indie/alternative Don't Like Latin Don't Like Metallica Don't Like Reik rock Don't Like Broadway or show Like Stravinsky Don't Like DJ David Guetta tunes Don't Like Classic rock/ Don't Like Stravinsky Don't Like Country oldies Don't Like The Beatles Don't Like LMFAO Don't Like House/electronic dance Don't Like Adele Don't Like Kanye Don't Like Rap/hip hop 17
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts A word about omnivorousness 18
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts The average student “strongly likes” 5 out of 30 songs and genres OMNIVOROUSNESS (NUMBER OF "STRONGLY LIKES" FOR 17 SONGS AND 13 GENRES) 1400 1200 Number of Respondents 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 30 Number of "Strongly Likes" 19
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Preference for classical music moves with preference for other types of music 8.0 OMNIVOROUSNESS IN MUSICAL TASTES APART FROM CLASSICAL MUSIC AND OPERA, BY PREFERENCE LEVEL FOR CLASSICAL MUSIC AND OPERA 7.0 7.2 Average Omnivorousness Score 6.0 6.0 5.0 5.2 4.5 4.0 4.1 3.7 4.2 3.8 4.4 4.0 Classical Music Opera 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 Strongly Dislike Somewhat Dislike Neutral Preference Level Somewhat Like Strongly Like 20
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Relationship to Classical Music 21
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts AGGREGATE CLASSICAL MUSIC PREFERENCE SCORE, WITH QUARTILES DENOTED 800 700 Number of Respondents 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -90 -80 -70 -65 -60 -55 -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 Fourth Quartile (Lowest) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Third Quartile Second Quartile First Quartile (Highest) 22
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts As students age, their interest in classical music grows slightly AVERAGE CLASSICAL MUSIC PREFERENCE SCORE, BY AGE Average Classical Music Preference Score 60 40 20 10 11 13 18 19 20 16 13 21 19 20 23 24 23 0 -20 -40 -60 22 25+ AGE 23
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 76% of students pass the litmus test of interest If a Friend or Family Member Had a Free Ticket to a Classical Music Concert and Invited You to Join them, Would You Go? No Maybe Yes 100% 90% Percent of Total Sample 80% 70% 60% 75% 79% 78% 77% 74% 72% 71% 71% 50% 40% 30% 20% 17% 15% 16% 8% 6% 5% All Sites Krannert (Illinois) 17% 18% 18% 17% 20% 10% 0% 7% 8% UW World Hopkins U. Texas Series (Dartmouth) Perf. Arts 10% 12% UMS (Ann Arbor) Lied (Kansas) 9% Hancher (Iowa) 24
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts PERCENT OF STUDENTS WHO'VE ATTENDED AT LEAST ONE CLASSICAL MUSIC CONCERT SINCE BEING AT COLLEGE, BY PREFERENCE QUARTILE 100% Percent Who've Attedned at Least One Concert 90% 23% 37% 80% 48% 70% 63% 60% Yes (Has Attended at Least One Concert) 50% 40% 77% 63% 30% 52% 20% 37% 10% No (Has Not Attended a Classical Concert since being at College) Of those with the highest preference levels for classical music, 37% have not attended a concert since being at school. 0% Highest Preference Quartile Second Quartile Third Quartile Lowest Preference Quartile Classical Music Preference Quartile 25
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Why are they not attending? What are the barriers? 26
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts From focus group research: • Classical music is primarily a personal listening experience - Used as a study aid, a sleep aid • Classical music is a background phenomenon - At best, a sort of creative elixir • Regarded by some as a scholarly intellectual challenge - Where do you start, if you don’t know the way in? 27
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts From focus group research: • Live concerts lack sufficient interactivity, and lack sufficient sensory stimulation - “If I’m just listening to something, I will probably zone out and stop paying attention. I need something to keep my eyes busy.” • High commitment threshold - Duration of concert - Can’t talk, can’t mediate, can’t opt out 28
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts What do college students cite as the #1 barrier? PERCENT CITING REASONS FOR NOT ATTENDING, AMONG STUDENTS WHO'VE NOT ATTENDED A CLASSICAL CONCERT AT COLLEGE (MULTIPLE RESPONSE ALLOWED) Im too busy 59% I dont have anyone to go with me 42% Tickets cost too much 28% I dont know enough to enjoy it 23% I dont like the music 12% I won't be able to meet new people my age there 5% I cant move around in a concert I can't talk to people during the concert “I’m too busy.” 4% 4% I cant drink at a concert 3% I cat text or use my phone 2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Percent of Students Who've Not Attended a Classical Music Concert at College 60% 29
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts PERCENT CITING REASONS FOR NOT ATTENDING, COMPARED BY CLASSICAL MUSIC PREFERENCE LEVEL (HIGHEST AND LOWEST QUARTILES) First Quartile (Highest Preference) For newcomers to classical music, the first barrier is not price or lack of social stimulus, but fear of the unknown. Fourth Quartile (Lowest Preference) 45% I dont have anyone to go with me 34% 36% Tickets cost too much 24% I wont be able to meet new people my age there 3% I dont know enough to enjoy it 2% I cant move around in a concert 1% I cant talk to people during the concert 1% 8% 50% 7% 8% 1% I cant drink at a concert 6% 0% I cat text or use my phone 4% 0% I dont like the music 37% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Percent of Respective Quartile 30
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts What will students pay? PRICE WILLING TO PAY FOR THREE ARTISTS (AMONG THOSE WHO SAY PRICE IS A BARRIER) Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra Yo Yo Ma A String Quartet Vienna Phil (Smoothed Curve) Yo Yo Ma (Smoothed Curve) A String Quartet (Smoothed Curve) 100% 90% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% About $10 to $15 20% 10% 0% $$1.00 $2.00 $3.00 $4.00 $5.00 $6.00 $7.00 $8.00 $9.00 $10.00 $11.00 $12.00 $13.00 $14.00 $15.00 $16.00 $17.00 $18.00 $19.00 $20.00 $21.00 $22.00 $23.00 $24.00 $25.00 $26.00 $27.00 $28.00 $29.00 $30.00 $31.00 $32.00 $33.00 $34.00 $35.00 $36.00 $37.00 $38.00 $39.00 $40.00 $41.00 $42.00 $43.00 $44.00 $45.00 $46.00 $47.00 $48.00 $49.00 $50.00 Percent of Valid Responses 80% PRICE WILLING TO PAY 31
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Eight strategies for motivating attendance amongst college students 32
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 1. Assure a minimum level of accessibility through pricing incentives 33
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 2. Offer curated music listening spaces (e.g., a music lounge) 34
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 3. Experiment with new combinations of setting and format 35
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 4. Engage students in the curatorial mode of music participation (i.e., downloading, organizing, ed iting, making and sharing playlists) 36
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 5. Add visual elements to live music; offering multi-layered experiences 37
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 6. Ensure that students have an opportunity to meet personally with artists 38
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 7. Hire artists who are closer in age to students 39
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 8. Provide social opportunities adjunct to concerts 40
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Summary: Six-point approach to increasing student engagement in the performing arts 41
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Mul ple programma c entry points Social fulfillment Low barriers Ac ve involvement and co-crea on Ar st interac on Academic integra on 42
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts Student Engagement in Practice: Additional Discussion Student Engagement in the Performing Arts 43
  • Student Engagement in the Performing Arts The Long Pathway from Research to Be er Prac ce Introduce New Vocabulary Cross-Cu ng Themes You Are Here Reflect, Discuss, Disagree See Implica ons for Prac ce Conceive Experiments Synthesis Social & Financial Incen ves Findings Data Hypotheses & Ques ons Research Dissemina on, Diffusion & Uptake Uptake Be er Prac ce 44