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CLASSIFICATION by Johnson (1965)• I – ulcers of small curvature (for 3 cm higher from a goalkeeper);• II– double localization of ulcers simultaneously in a stomach and duodenum;• III – ulcers of goalkeeper part of stomach (not farther as 3 cm from a goalkeeper)
DIAGNOSIS PROGRAM• 1. Anamnesis and physical examination.• 2. Endoscopy.• 3. X-Ray examination of stomach.• 4. Examination of gastric secretion by the method of aspiration of gastric contents.• 5. Gastric pH metry.• 6. Multiposition biopsy of edges of ulcer and mucous tunic of stomach.• 7. Gastric Dopplerography.• 8. Sonography of abdominal cavity organs.• 9. General and biochemical blood analysis.• 10. Coagulogram.
X-Ray examinationTHE DIRECT SIGNS:• symptom of “Haudeks niche”• ulcerous billow and convergence of folds of mucous tunic.INDIRECT SIGNS:• symptom of “forefinger” (circular spasm of muscles)• segmental hyperperistalsis,• pylorospasm,• delay of evacuation from a stomach• duodenogastric reflux• disturbance of function of cardial part (gastroesophageal reflux).
SYMPTOM OF“Haudeks niche”
DEVICE FOR GASTRIC DOPPLEROGRAPHY
Endoscopic picture of the normal stomach wall
Endoscopic picture of the peptic ulcer
CONSERVATIVE THERAPYa) Omeprazole 20 mg 2 time per day or Н2- blocker histamine receptor (ranitidine) — 150 mg in the evening, famotidine — 40 mg at night, roxatidine — 150 mg in the eveningb) antiacid drugs — in accordance with the results of pH-metry;c) reparative drugs (dalargin, solcoseryl, actovegin) — for 2 ml 1–2 times per daysd) antimicrobial drugs (clarytromicine 500 mg twice daily, de-nol, metronidazole)
SURGICAL TREATMEN• at the relapse of ulcer after the course of conservative therapy;• in the cases when the relapses arise during supporting antiulcer therapy;• when an ulcer does not heal over during 1,5–2 months of intensive treatment, especially in families with “ulcerous anamnesis”;• ulcer with complications (perforation or bleeding);• at suspicion on malignization ulcers, in case of negative cytological analysis.
Billroth I and Billroth II resection
Billroth II resection
Billroth I resection:
CLASSIFICATIONI. By etiology: А. True duodenal ulcer. B. Symptomatic ulcers.II. By passing of disease: 1. Acute (first exposed ulcer). 2. Chronic: a) with the rare exacerbation; b) with the annual exacerbation; c) with the frequent exacerbation (2 times per a year and more frequent).
CLASSIFICATIONIII. By the stages of disease: 1. Exacerbation. 2. Scarring: a) stage of “red” scar; b) stage of “white” scar. 3. Remission.IV. By localization: 1. Ulcers of bulb of duodenum. 2. Low postbulbar ulcers. 3. Combined ulcers of duodenum and stomach.
CLASSIFICATIONV. By sizes: 1. Small ulcers up to 0,5 cm. 2. Middle — up 1,5 cm. 3. Large — up to 3 cm; 4. Giant ulcers over 3 cm.VI. By the presence of complications: 1. Bleeding. 2. Perforation. 3. Penetration. 4. Organic stenosis. 5. Periduodenitis. 6. Malignization.
DIAGNOSIS PROGRAM• 1. Anamnesis and physical examination.• 2. Endoscopy.• 3. X-Ray examination of stomach and duodenum.• 4. General and biochemical blood analysis.• 5. Coagulogram.
CONSERVATIVE THERAPYa) Omeprazole 20 mg 2 time per day or Н2- blocker histamine receptor (ranitidine) — 150 mg in the evening, famotidine — 40 mg at night, roxatidine — 150 mg in the eveningb) antiacid drugs — (almagel, maalox or gaviscon —1 dessert-spoon in a 1 hour after food intake);c) reparative drugs (dalargin, solcoseryl, actovegin) — for 2 ml 1–2 times per daysd) antimicrobial drugs (clarytromicine 500 mg twice daily, de-nol, metronidazole)
INDICATIONS TO THE ELECTIVE OPERATION• 1. Passing of duodenal ulcer with the frequent relapses which could not treated conservatively.• 2. Repeated ulcerous bleeding.• 3. Stenosis of outcome part of stomach.• 4. Chronic penetration ulcers with the pain syndrome.• 5. Suspicion for malignization ulcers.
METHODS OF SURGICAL TREATMENT• organ-saving operations;• organ-sparing operations;• resection.
TRUNK VAGOTOMY (TrV) 2 4
3SELECTIVE VAGOTOMY (SV)
SELECTIVE PROXIMAL VAGOTOMY (SPV)
SELECTIVE PROXIMAL VAGOTOMY (SPV)
GASTRODUODENOSTOMY BY JABOULAY
ULCEROUS STENOSIS CLASSIFICATIONA I — compensated; II — subcompensated; III — decompensated.B I — stenosis of goalkeeper; II — stenosis of bulb of duodenum; III — postbulbar duodenal stenosis.
DIAGNOSIS PROGRAM• 1. Complaints of patient and anamnesis of disease.• 3. Sounding of stomach and examination of gastric content.• 4. Fibergastroduodenoscopy, biopsy.• 5. Intragastric рН-metry.• 6. Study of motility of stomach.• 7. Roentgenologic examination of stomach and duodenum (structural features, passage).• 8. Sonography.
PERFORATED GASTRODUODENAL ULCERS CLASSIFICATION1. After etiology:• ulcerous;• unulcerous.2. After localization:• gastric (small curvature, cardial, antral, prepyloric, pyloric) ulcer, front and back walls;• ulcers of duodenum (front and back walls).3. After passing:• perforated in an abdominal cavity;• covered perforations;• atypical perforations.
DIAGNOSIS PROGRAM• 1. Anamnesis and physical examination.• 2. Global analysis of blood and urine, biochemical blood test,• coagulogram.• 3. X-Ray examination of abdominal cavity organs for presence of free gas (pneumoperitoneum).• 4. Pneumogastrography, contrasting pneumogastrography.• 5. Fiber-gastroduodenoscopy.• 6. Sonography of abdominal cavity organs.
Bleeding gastroduodenal ulcers CLASSIFICATION• I degree is easy — observed at the loss to 20 % volume of circulatory blood (at a patient with weight of body 70 kg it is up to 1000 ml);• II degree — middle weight is loss from 20 to 30 % volume of circulatory blood (1000– 1500 ml);• The III degree is heavy — is observed at loss of blood more than 30 % volume of circulatory blood (1500–2500 ml).
DIAGNOSIS PROGRAM• Anamnesis and physical examination.• Finger examination of rectum.• Gastroduodenoscopy.• Global analysis of blood.• Coagulogram.• 7. Biochemical blood test.• X-Ray examination of gastrointestinal tract.• Electrocardiography.