Management“Leaders aren’t born they are made…and they are made just like anything else, through hard work.”Coach Vince LombardiThe reality of the modernworkplace is that it isunpredictable and it iscomplex.J.R.D.TATA
The most essential elementof success in high riskwork environments iscompetent and confidentleadership
Supervision – Management – Leadership Are they the same? Are they different?
What is leadership?Leading people Influencing people Commanding people Guiding people
The Nuts and BoltsValues and Principles “Not everything that is countable counts, and not everything that counts is countable” Albert Einstein
The Nuts and BoltsValues and Principles Lead By Example :- A way to recognize field level leaders who model the values and principles .
The Nuts and Bolts Follower concepts • Situation awareness • Stress and attitude barriers Leader of People concepts • Decision-making and communication • Teambuilding Leader of Leaders concepts • Managing group dynamics • Detecting operational error Leader of Organizations concepts • Imparting command presence and intent • Integration into team decision process
Leadership Principles Know your job: People will follow a competent person. Know what you do not know and take corrective action. Know yourself: Effective leaders know their strengths and weaknesses, and must recognize personal capabilities and limitations. Set the example: Must set the standard for positive conduct and appearance both on and off duty.
Leadership Principles Care for people: If people believe they are cared for, the leader is in a position to earn their confidence, respect and loyalty. Communicate: Up, down and across. Educate: People should be properly trained to do their jobs. Equip: Ensure team is equipped properly.
Leadership Principles Motivate: Greatest challenge is motivating people to achieve high standards--motivation is the force behind effective leaders. Goal: Leaders must provide an environment that fosters and rewards self-motivation. Accept your responsibility: Leaders are responsible for performing the unit’s mission--if the unit fails, the leader is accountable for the consequences. Leaders must have the authority to match their responsibility.
Leadership Principles Develop teamwork: Leaders must mold a collection of individual performers into a cohesive team which works together to accomplish the mission. Teamwork results when people are willing to put the mission before all else.
Four Realities of Managing Today The only certainty today is change. Speed, teamwork, and flexibility are the orders of the day. Managers at all levels need to stay close to the customer. Without continuous improvement and lifelong learning, there can be no true economic progress.
Working with and Through Others Management is a social process in which managers get things done by working with and through others. Shortcomings of “derailed” managers Problems with interpersonal relationships Failure to meet business objectives Failure to build and lead a team Inability to change and adapt during a transition
Balancing Effectiveness and Efficiency Effectiveness Efficiency Entails promptly Entails balancing the achieving a amount of resources stated used to achieve an organizational objective against objective what was actually Managers are accomplished held responsible Managers must not for attaining waste scarce and objectives. costly resources.
Some Managerial Facts of Life (with No Sugar Coating) What Managers Lose the Right to Do Lose their temper Be one of the gang Bring personal problems to work Vent frustrations and express opinions at work Resist change Pass the buck on tough assignments Get even with adversaries Play favorites
Some Managerial Facts of Life (with No Sugar Coating) What Managers Lose the Right to Do (cont’d) Put self-interests first Ask others to do what they wouldn’t do Expect to be immediately recognized and rewarded for doing a good job
Learning to Manage How Do Managers Learn to Manage? By attending the school of “hard-knocks” Making a big mistake Being overstretched by a difficult assignment Feeling threatened Being stuck in an impasse or dilemma Suffering an injustice at work Losing out to someone else Being personally attacked
The Honeymoon Study:How Managers Learn to Manage
Setting priorities:The steps in a process
Time Management Requires a shift from being busy to getting things done Pareto principle = 80% of unfocused effort results in 20% of the results or 20% of focused efforts results in 80% of the outcomes
Why Team? •The power of team is greater than the individual •Good team work will produce synergy
What is a good team? •Good teams define the problem before jumping to solutions •Good teams have some type of structure with defined roles •Good teams encourage new ideas and allow issue related conflict
Ten Characteristics of a Team Members understand why the team exists. Members must know what needs to be done next. Members know their individual roles. Authority and decision-making lines are clear and understood. Conflict is managed carefully. Dealt with openly with an attitude toward a team member’s personal growth.
Ten Characteristics of a Team Members feel their unique personalities are appreciated and well utilized. Group norms for working together are set and seen as standards for every one in the groups. Members find team meetings efficient and productive and look forward to this time together. Members know clearly when the team has met with success and share in this equally and proudly. Opportunities for feedback and updating skills are provided and taken advantage of by team members.
Guidelines for Effective Team Membership Contribute ideas and solutions Recognize and respect differences in others Value the ideas and contributions of others (Make it a joy to meet and solve issues). Listen and share information (The more each members knows, the better chance of a solution). Ask questions and get clarification (If you don’t understand, find out why. Remember the King who had no clothes. Better to discover a problem before you begin the make 1,000,000 copies).
More Guidelines for Effective Team Membership Participate fully and keep your commitments Be flexible and respect the partnership created by a team -- strive for the "win- win" (Teams will support a solution if they are part of the solution. Value the difference in members). Have fun and care about the team and the outcomes. (Celebrate success).
Characteristics of a High-Performance Team Participative leadership - creating interdependence by empowering, freeing up and serving others. Shared responsibility - establishing an environment in which all team members feel responsibility as the manager for the performance team. Aligned on purpose - having a sense of common purpose about why the team exists and the function it serves. High communication - creating a climate of trust and open, honest communication.
More Characteristics of a High- Performance Team Future focused - seeing change as an opportunity for growth. Focused on task - keeping meetings and interactions focused on results. Creative talents - applying individual talents and creativity. Rapid response - identifying and acting on opportunities.
Characteristics of a Good Team Everyone participates actively and positively in meetings and projects. Everyone understands team goals. Individual members have thought hard about creative solutions to the problem. Members are carefully listened to and receive thoughtful feedback. Everyone takes initiative to get things done.
Characteristics of a Good Team Each team mate trusts the judgment of the others. The team is willing to take risks. Everyone is supportive of the project and of others. There is plenty of communication between team members. Team decisions are made using organized, logical methods.
Characteristics of a Good Team Everyone participates actively and positively in meetings and projects. Full team acceptance is expected as decisions are made. Dissenting opinions are recorded, and may be revisited if future situations dictate. Team goals are given realistic time frames. Everyone is focused on the ultimate goal of the project, while also digging into the underlying details.
Secrets Of Successful Teams COMMUNICATION EXCELLENCE FOLLOWERSHIP UNDERSTANDING RULES STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES FUN COMMON GOAL AND VISION APPRECIATION
“Successful Teams” Checklist Evaluation Is there communication between coach and players and from player to player? Is your team committed to excellence? Do those on the team know what it means to follow? Does everyone on my team know their specific role? Do the individuals on our team regularly operate out of their strengths as opposed to their weaknesses? Does our team take a break from time to time to just have fun together? Do we understand our common goals and vision? Can we all state it (them)? Is there a sense of and communication of genuine appreciation among my team?
Final Thoughts… Remember, there is no I in TEAM Peter Drucker said, “The leaders who work most effectively, it seems to me, never say "I." And thats not because they have trained themselves not to say "I." They dont think "I." They think "we"; they think "team." They understand their job to be to make the team function. They accept responsibility and dont sidestep it, but "we" gets the credit. This is what creates trust, what enables you to get the task done.”
Stages in Team Building Forming Storming Norming Performing
Leadership Traits Intelligence Personality More intelligent Verbal facility than non- Honesty leaders Initiative Scholarship Aggressive Knowledge Self-confident Being able to Ambitious get things done Originality Physical Sociability Doesn’t see to Adaptability be correlated
Leadership Styles Delegating Selling Low relationship/ High task/high low task relationship Responsibility Explain decisions Willing employees Willing but unable Participating Telling High relationship/ High Task/Low low task relationship Facilitate Provide instruction decisions Closely supervise Able but unwilling
New Leaders Take Note General Advice Challenges Take advantage of Need the transition knowledge period quickly Get advice and Establish new counsel relationships Show empathy to Expectations predecessor Personal Learn leadership equilibrium
New Leader Traps Not learning Captured by quickly wrong people Isolation Successor Know-it-all syndrome Keeping existing team Taking on too much
Core Tasks Create Momentum Master technologies of learning, visioning, and coalition building Manage oneself
Master The Art & Science Learn from internal and external sources Visioning - develop strategy Push vs. pull tools What values does the strategy embrace? What behaviors are needed? Communicate the vision Simple text - Best channels Clear meaning - Do it yourself!
Manage Oneself Be self-aware Types of help Define your Technical leadership style Political Get advice and Personal counsel Advisor traits Advice is from Competent expert to Trustworthy leader Enhance your status Counsel is insight
Leadership Styles Definition Dimension Definitions Leadership Task-motivated leaders styles are -Concerned primarily with reaching a goal described as: Relationship-motivated Task motivated leaders - Concerned with Relationship developing close motivated interpersonal relationships Leader Style Measurement Scale Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale High = Relationship-motivated leader Low = Task-motivated leader
Path-Goal Theory Approach Focus Overall Scope Path-goal theory is a Path-goal theory complex but also provides a set of pragmatic approach assumptions about how different leadership styles will interact with Leaders should choose a leadership subordinate style that best fits characteristics and the the needs of work situation to affect subordinates and employee motivation their work
Phases in Leadership Making Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995) Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Stranger Acquaintance Partner Roles Scripted Tested NegotiatedInfluences One Way Mixed ReciprocalExchanges Low Quality Medium Quality High QualityInterests Self Self / Other Group TIME
Transformational Leadership Factors:-The 4 “I”s Idealized Influence Describes leaders who act as strong role models for followers Inspirational Motivation Leaders who communicate high expectations to followers, inspiring them through motivation to commitment and engagement in the shared vision of the organization Intellectual StimulationStimulates followers to be creative and innovative; challengestheir own beliefs and values and those of leader and organization Individualized ConsiderationLeaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefullyto the needs of followers
Leadership v/s. Management Working on the system Working in the system Create opportunities React Seek opportunities Control risks Change organizational rules Enforce organizational rules Provide a vision to believe in Seek and then follow direction and strategic alignment Motivate people by satisfying Control people by pushing basic human needs them in the right direction Inspire achievement and Coordinate effort energize people Provide instructions Coach followers, create self- leaders and empower them
Leadership ManagementAgenda Establishing Direction Planning/Budgeting Develop future vision Develop detailed steps/ timetables for results Develop change strategies to achieve vision Allocate necessary resources Aligning People Organizing/StaffingNetworkDevelopment Communicate directly by words Develop necessary planning,for Agenda & deeds to those whose staffing, delegation structures cooperation neededAchievement Provide policies/procedures for Influence creation of guidance and methods/systems for coalition/teams that understand monitoring & accept vision and strategies Control/Problem Solving Motivating/inspiring Monitor results vs. plan in detailExecution Energy to overcome barriers (ex. Identify results/plan deviations and Political resource, bureaucratic) plan and organize to correct to change by satisfying basic needs Tends to Produce Tends to ProduceOutcomes Change often dramatic Order/predictability Provides potential for very useful Key results expected by stakeholders change (ex. New products)
The manager…; The leader… The manager administers; the leader innovates. The manager maintains; the leader develops. The manager accepts reality; the leader investigates it. The manager focuses on systems and structures; the leader focuses on people. The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust. The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective. The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why. The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader has his or her eye on the horizon. The manager imitates; the leader originates. The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it. The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person.
Managers Versus Leaders –a 3rd person’s view Managers Leaders Are appointed to Are appointed or their position. emerge from within a work group. Can influence people only to the Can influence other extent of the formal people and have authority of their managerial position. authority. Do not necessarily Do not necessarily have the skills and have the skills and capabilities to be capabilities to be leaders. managers.Leadership is the process of influencing a group toward the achievement of goals.
Elements of Transformational Leadership Creating Communicating a Strategic the Vision Vision Transformational Leadership Building Modeling Commitment the Vision
Transformational Leaders… Do not accept the status quo Create a graphic and compelling vision of the future Act as role models Are often referred to as “tough” Energise and inspire others Are said to be “charismatic” Are very instrumental in times of turbulence / crises Provide sense of individual consideration Provide stimulation (intellectual and emotional)
Level 5 Leadership Hierarchy Level 5: Executive builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will Level 4: Effective Leader catalyses commitment to vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision, stimulating higher performance standards Level 3: Competent Manager organises people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives Level 2: Contributing Team Member contributes individual capabilities to the achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others in a group setting Level 1: Highly Capable Individual makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills and good work habits
Leadership Styles at a Glance
Leadership Styles at a Glance (cont’d)
Leadership Styles at a Glance (cont’d)
Job , Role & Responsibility of a ManagerJOB:-System Implementation & System Enforcement.ROLE :- Develop People , Product & Market . Modulateteam’s behavior – - Make them more predictable.RESPONSIBILITY :-a) Deliver Results on consistent basis.b) Improve productivity & market share .c) Lead & guide the team(You are on the job trainer).d) Minimizing losses/wastage & increasing profits .e) Ensure proper discipline & system is maintained.f) Data/Reports analysis & give feedback .g) Filling up vacancy with A Class people .h) Team is no accident , it’s by product of Good Leadership.
AIM,PURPOSE,GOALS & EXPECTATIONSAIM :- To Deliver Results .PURPOSE :- Making People Effective .GOALS :- Responsible for Leading & TeamBuilding . Reducing Attrition Rate .EXPECTATIONS :-Strong commercial acumen .Analytical Skills . Developing & expanding thedistribution-channel to enhance product reach &business targets .Produce more and more managers and leaders.
Skills• Strategic Science, pharmacy or• Commercial focus life sciences background• Customer focus Team player• Attention to detail• Writing skills Communication skills• Presentation skills Training skills
A manager is a person in an organization who directly supports and helps activate the work efforts and performance accomplishments of others. The people who managers help are the ones whose tasks represent the real work of the organization.
Levels of management Top managers — responsible for performance of an organization as a whole or for one of its larger parts. Middle managers — in charge of relatively large departments or divisions. Team leaders or supervisors — in charge of a small work group of non-managerial workers.
Responsibilities of team leaders: Plan meetings and work schedules. Clarify goals and tasks, and gather ideas for improvement. Appraise performance and counsel team members. Recommend pay raises and new assignments. Recruit, develop, and train team members.
Responsibilities of team leaders (cont.):- Encourage high performance and teamwork. Inform team members about organizational goals and expectations. Inform higher levels of work unit needs and accomplishments. Coordinate with others teams and support the rest of the organization.
Effective & Successful Managers Successful managers – defined operationally in terms of the speed of their performance within the organisation Effective managers – defined in terms of the quantity & quality of standards of performance & the satisfaction & commitment of subordinates
The golden rule management philosophy Trust people fairly but according to merit Make others feel important Motivate people by praise Encourage feedback Sandwich every bit of criticism between two layers of heavy praise Have an open-door philosophy Help other people get what they want Never hide behind policy or pomposity
The effective management of people
High performing managers … Are well informed of their team’s needs. Work alongside those they supervise. Provide advice and develop support for their team. Help their people perform to the best of their abilities.
The organization viewed as an upside-down pyramid.
Four functions of management.
Mint bergs 10 Managerial Roles.
OldManager New Manager Thinks of self Thinks of self as as manager or sponsor, team boss leader, or internal consultant Follows chain of command Deals with anyone necessary to get job Works within a done set organizational Changes structure organizational structure in response to market change
Old Manager New Manager Invites others to Makes most join in decision decisions alone making Hoards information Shares information Tries to master broad Tries to master one array of major discipline disciplines Demands long Demands results hours
Assessing a manager’s effectiveness Meeting important The strength of motivation & the morale deadlines of staff Accuracy of work The success of their Level of complaints training & development Adherence to quality The creation of an standards organisational environment in which Productivity staff work willingly & effectively Adhering to set budgets
Essential managerial skills Skill — the ability to translate knowledge into action that results in desired performance. Technical skill — the ability to apply a special proficiency or expertise to perform particular tasks. Human skill — the ability to work well in cooperation with others. Conceptual skill — the ability to think critically and analytically to solve complex problems.
Katz’s Essential Managerial Skills.
Managerial Skills A manager’s specialized areasTechnical of knowledge and expertise, andSkills the ability to apply that knowledge A manager’s interpersonal skillsHuman Relations used to accomplish goals throughSkills the use of human resources A manager’s ability to view theConceptual organization as a whole, understandSkills the interdependencies, and its relation to external environment
The Importance of Managerial Skills Conceptual Skills Human Skills Technical SkillsTop ManagementMiddleManagementSupervisoryManagementVery important Not as important
Managerial competency … A skill-based capability that contributes to high performance in a management job. Managerial competencies are implicit in: Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Informational, interpersonal, and decisional roles. Agenda setting and networking.
Competencies for managerial success: Communication Teamwork Self-management Leadership Critical thinking Professionalism
Managerial RolesInformational RolesMonitor Gathers information relevant to organizationDisseminator Provides information where it is neededSpokesperson Transmits information to people outside the organizationInterpersonal RolesFigurehead Represents the company in a symbolic wayLeader Guides and motivates employees to achieve goalsLiaison Acts as a go-between among individuals, inside and outsideDecisional RolesEntrepreneur Searches out new opportunities and initiates changeDisturbance Handler Handles unexpected events and crisesResource Allocator Designates use of organizational resourcesNegotiator Represents the company at negotiating processes
The Managerial Process An g/ Pr tic in ob ip w g ie in le at ev ng R a m in s g Ch Managerial Process Gu Cycle ti ng Pe idi a rs ng in es on rd rc ne oo ou C es l R1 90
Leadership The process of guiding and motivating others toward theLeadership achievement of organizational goals.
Leadership Styles of Managers Amount of authority held by the leader Free-ReinAutocratic Style Participative Style (Laissez-Faire) Style Amount of authority held by group members
Leadership Style The most effective leadership style depends on:- Characteristics of the subordinates Complexity of the task Source of the leader’s power Stability of the environment
The Control Process 5. 1. Use information Set to set up future performance performance standards standards and goals 4. 2. Take Measure corrective performance action 3. Compare actual performance to established standards5 94
The Rational Model 1. Define and diagnose the problem 2. Set goals 7. Follow up and control 3. Search for External and alternative solutions internal6. Implement thesolution selected Environ. forces 5. Choose 4. Compare and among evaluate solution alternative solutions
Importance of Control Process1. Helps manager determine planning , organizing & leading .2. Directs employees behavior towards achieving organizational goals.3. Provides a mean of co-ordinating employees activity & integrating resources .
The Decision-Making Process 1. Define the problem 2. Identify possible solutions 3. Select one or more alternatives 4. Put the plan into action 5. Follow up to see if problem is solved
Decision TypesEffective managers make various kindsof decisions. In general, these decisionsare either Programmed decisions Non-programmed decisions
Programmed Decisions A decision that is repetitive and routine A definite method for its solution can be established Does not have to be treated a new each time it occurs Procedures are often already laid out Examples: pricing standard customer orders, determining billing dates, recording office supplies etc.
Non-programmed Decisions A decision that is novel (new or unique) or Ill structured No established methods exist, because it has never occurred before or because It is too complex
Non-programmed DecisionsOrganizational Nature of Nature of Levels Problems Decision-making
Non-programmed Decisions Are “tough” decisions that involve risk and uncertainty and call for entrepreneurial abilities Such decisions draw heavily on the analytical abilities of the manager Examples: Moving into a new market, investing in a new unproven technology, changing strategic direction
Time is a Valuable Resource, AMost Precious Commodity Every human on earth – Bill Gates, Barak Obama, and you – all have the same amount of time: 60 seconds in a minute 60 minutes in an hour 24 hours in a day Time cannot be saved or stored. It is not how much we have, but rather the way we use it. The bottom line is how well we use it.
The Heart of Time Management isManagement of Yourself. Time management is more than just managing our time; it is managing ourselves in relation to time. It is setting priorities and taking charge of your situation and time utilization. It means changing those habits or activities that cause us to waste time. It is being willing to experiment with different methods and ideas to enable you to find the best way to make maximum use of time.
Time Management is the Act ofControlling Events. Essentially everything we do requires time. Some events/activities are externally controlled: meetings, family obligations, work duties. Other activities are internally controlled: chatting on the phone, commitment to a club or project, or just “messing around.”
Good Time Management is: Setting smart goals that can be realistically accomplished. Establishing priorities. Assuming full responsibility for your use or abuse of the valuable resource known as time.
Challenges of Managing Time Do Not Create Impossible Situations: Attempting to work a full 40-hour week and taking a full academic load. Review your outside obligations. Examine each of these realistically as you prepare for each semester’s schedule.
Challenges of Managing Time Define your priorities All successful time management begins with planning. Use a weekly calendar and a daily “To Do” list. Write down all of the things you want to accomplish today, including personal activities such as phone calls and shopping. This list is a reminder. Use it to set daily priorities – what must be done today? What can wait? Write a new list each morning. Use it to visualize what you must do in that new day, providing focus for your day’s activities.
Challenges of Managing Time Avoid distractions and lack of focus Identify areas of wasteful use of time. Do you put off doing important tasks? If you do-That is called procrastination.
Challenges of Managing Time Are you overwhelmed by the current crisis of imminent deadline?3. Crisis management, or lack of, leaves no time for routine matters or enjoyment of the simpler things in life.
Challenges of Managing Time Are you plagued by lack of concentration and focus? This constant floundering could be offset by creating daily “To Do” lists and lists of weekly, monthly and long-term goals.
Challenges of Managing Time What about emotional blocks that interfere with academic success? These include boredom, daydreaming, stress, guilt, anger and frustration. These emotions can all reduce concentration in the classroom.
Assume Full Responsibility forManaging your Time Avoid a noisy or disruptive atmosphere when you study. Discipline yourself to limit “time monsters” like the telephone or the T.V. Establish priorities and do not let others distract you from completing your tasks. Sometimes you have to tell family and friends “no.” Keep your “To Do” list handy, and stick to it!
Time Management Please keep in mind that practice makes perfect. Try to make these time management tips part of your everyday habits.
DOCTOR CONVERSION Human Beings are change resistant . Identify Dr’s need ….. (Emotional/Materialistic.) Customer trust is not an option … it is an matter of survival. Trust can’t be copied, duplicated or taken away by competitors . Build trust through :- a) Consistency, b) Need Satisfaction, c) Effective Communication, d) Reliability .
DOCTOR CONVERSION (Contd.) Walk the Talk (Match your behavior & words). Sell yourself first . Don’t be product centric. Ascertain his need . Be honest , humble & sincere . Be upfront-even if the answer is negative . Adhere to your commitment . Accept onus & responsibility . Be there with customer in “crisis” . Get approval from influencers- increase reliability . Keep adding value to yourself (develop your knowledge & skills).
DOCTOR CONVERSION (Contd.) The phases of Dr. Conversion are as follows :- SUSPECT PROSPECT CUSTOMER CLIENT SUPPORTER ADVOCATE PARTNER. Your job is maintaining the customer loyal ; and, at a level “beyond the reach of your competitors”. Strike a balance between conversion v/s retention.
“ The woods are lovely, dark and deep . But I have promises to keep, and miles to go before I sleep. ” - Robert Frost