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India`s hydropower potential

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Present globalised and consumerised world need sustainable development mechanism for the better tomorrow, without sustainable development we can`t stand here. Every part of the life need …

Present globalised and consumerised world need sustainable development mechanism for the better tomorrow, without sustainable development we can`t stand here. Every part of the life need sustainability. For the energy sustainability SHPs are the good and viable option for better tomorrow. This Small Hydro Projects can make a big difference in many lives

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  • 1. Amalkrishna.K.LDisaster Management DivisionKrishna.ses1121@gmail.com
  • 2. Introduction Present globalised and consumerisedworld need sustainable developmentmechanism for the better tomorrow, withoutsustainable development we can`t stand here.Every part of the life need sustainability. Forthe energy sustainability SHPs are the goodand viable option for better tomorrow. ThisSmall Hydro Projects can make a bigdifference in many lives
  • 3. Energy…Energy plays a pervasive andcritically important role in thesocio-economy and development of a country.• The Sun provides energy that can be captured in the form of solar power,wind power and hydro-power.• However, there is a need for more R&D for development of efficient technologies, and the public awareness of the use of renewable energy resources.
  • 4. Energy policy of India• Today, India has one of the highest potentials for the effective use of renewable energy. India is the world’s fifth largest producer of wind power after Denmark, Germany, Spain, and the USA.• The country has an estimated small-hydro power potential of about 15000 MW.
  • 5. Now our installed capacity is about1,45000MW. According to the 11th plan we haveto increase our energy capacity to 22,0000MW.By 2010. But current situation shows we are nowhere near the target. If the situation continuouswe will not become developed nation…
  • 6. How we can achieve this? 1.Bio-Fuels 2.Wind power 3.Oil 4.Nuclear power 5.Solar Energy…
  • 7. Here we can see the importance of
  • 8. What is a DAM…? Water is the vital resource to support all forms of life on the earth. Throughout the history of the world, dams and reservoirs have been used successfully in collecting ,storing and managing waterneeded to sustain civilization.
  • 9. Is it DAM is harmful to human andenvironment ?While dams provide benefits to our society, their impacts on the surrounding also to be address… · Resettlement and relocation · Socioeconomic impacts · Environmental concerns · Sedimentation issues · Safety aspects However, these concerns and impacts can be reduced or eliminated by careful planning, and the incorporation of a variety of mitigation measures.
  • 10. Significant issues…! There are three interconnected specific issues that have had particular significance in dam projects, and which need to be dealt with differently in future developments. They are resettlement of displaced people and related socio-economic issues; changes to existing fisheries and local resource uses; and effects on ecosystems.
  • 11. • To ensure the continued and dependable delivery of benefits from a dam, the owner must have a comprehensive plan for operation, maintenance and rehabilitation. As dams become older, safe performance becomes a concern. This requires more attention in the form of inspections, evaluations, modifications and upgrading of the older dams so they meet current technology, statutes and regulations
  • 12. Dam safety activities include monitoring structuralperformance, developing emergency actionplans, training of dam operators, exercises involvingthe local officials and population and implementingrisk reduction actions.Learning the lessons from previous dam projects ismandatory before similarnew initiatives areundertaken…
  • 13. ‘DAM and development…”Our vision and mission• Vision The development and management of water and energy resources address the full range of options and are attained through institutionalized participatory and transparent decision-making processes to achieve sustainable outcomes that benefit all.• Mission Promote improved decision-making, planning and management of dams and their alternatives ,core values and strategic priorities and other relevant reference materials through promoting multi stakeholder dialogue at national, regional and global levels and producing non- prescriptive tools to help decision-makers.
  • 14. Why DAMs are important ?• To generate electricity for domestic and industrial uses, and/or for export to obtain income from foreign sources.• To store water for irrigation of farmland to improve crop yields and increase the security of food supply.• To hold back water during times of high river flow to prevent flooding downstream and for release during low-flow periods.
  • 15. Importance…• Rural electrification and development Job creation during dam construction and in subsequent industrial and community development• Expansion of social services and improved infrastructure in the region served by the dam, for example schools, hospitals, roads• Fishing• Recreational potential of reservoirs.
  • 16. • Large hydroelectric dams are among the most controversial of all types of development projects. They have been the focus of much criticism of the World Bank and other international financing agencies.• 500–megawatt Pehuenche Hydroelectric Project in Chile flooded only about 400 hectares of land. By contrast, the Brokopondo Dam in Suriname inundated about 160,000 hectares of biologically valuable tropical rainforest and is known for serious water quality and aquatic weed problems, while providing relatively little electric generating capacity (only 30 MW).
  • 17. SOLUTIONS…• Early in a project, at the concept stage, before site selection or engineering plans have been determined, governments, dam proponents, and planners need to actively involve all constituents whose lives and rights may be significantly affected by the proposed dam development.• Stakeholders who may bear the risks of a development are entitled to be consulted on whether and how the project should proceed.
  • 18. SOLUTIONS…• In this way, ideas that are flawed can be eliminated beforecommitments are made,and the best option can be negotiated with justice and fairness for thosewho will bear many of the risks and costs.• Learning the lessons from previous dam projects is mandatory before similar new initiatives are undertaken.
  • 19. Sustainable Development…! .
  • 20. • India`s sustainable work towards reducing greenhouse gases will ensure that the country`s per capita emission GHGs will continue to be low until 2030-31 and it is estimated that the per capita emission in 2031st will be lower than per capital global emission of GHG in 2005.
  • 21. Sustainable development in Indiaencompasses a variety of developmentschemes in social, cleantech an humanresource segment.The global trend towards sustainabledevelopment thrust upon cleantech-cleanenergy ,clean water and sustainableagriculture. Which we can achieve throughSHP project especially in Indian context.
  • 22. The hope of future SHP is the development of hydroelectric power on the scaleserving a small community or industry with less coast andminimum impact. The definition of SHP varies but generating capacity is up to10MW-30MW. The small hydro can be sub divided in to mini hydro and microhydroMini -1000KWMicro-100KW
  • 23. Benefits from Hydropower • Hydro power is a clean, domestic and renewable source of energy. • It does not produce greenhouse gases or other air pollution. • Hydropower leaves no waste. • One time capitalization is required for set up of a Hydro Power station. • Like other fuel energy like fossil fuel, Water is not destroyed during the production of electricity – it can be reused for other purposes.
  • 24. India`s Hydropower Potential
  • 25. Cost factor in Hydropower
  • 26. Hydro power is the largest renewable energysource being used for the generation ofelectricity. In India, hydro power projects with asustain capacity of up to 25MW each fall underthe category of Small Hydro Power(SHP)India has estimated SHP potential of about15,000MW, of which about 11% has been tappedso far. The aim is to install 2% additional powergeneration capacity from SHP during the 11thplan periods.
  • 27. ClassificationsClassifications of Micro, Mini & SHP in India• Upto 100KW – Micro Hydro Power• 101Kw to 2000Kw – Mini Hydro Power• 2001Kw to 25000Kw – Small Hydro Power
  • 28. SHP Potential of India• Potential - 15,000MW.• Identified Potential - 11,356MW (4554 sites).• Installed Capacity - 1975MW (602 projects).• Under Implementation - 649MW (219 projects)
  • 29. STATE WISE IDENTIFIED SMALL HYDREL SITES AND POTENTIAL UP TO 25 MW CAPACITY (as on 31.3.2009 ) S.No Name of State IDENTIFIED NUMBER Total Capacity OF SITES (in MW) 1 Andhra Pradesh 489 552.29 2 Arunachal Pradesh 566 1333.04 3 Assam 60 213.84 4 Bihar 94 213.75 5 Chhatisgarh 164 706.62 6 Goa 9 9.10 7 Gujarat 292 196.97 8 Haryana 33 110.05 9 Himachal Pradesh 547 2268.41 10 Jammu & Kashmir 246 1411.72 11 Jharkhand 103 208.95 12 Karnataka 128 643.16 13 Kerala 247 708.10 14 Madhya Pradesh 99 400.58
  • 30. 15 Maharashtra 253 762.5816 Manipur 113 109.1017 Meghalaya 102 229.8118 Mizoram 75 166.9419 Nagaland 99 196.9820 Orissa 222 295.4721 Punjab 234 390.0222 Rajasthan 67 63.1723 Sikkim 91 265.5424 Tamil Nadu 176 499.3125 Tripura 13 46.8626 Uttar Pradesh 220 292.1627 Uttaranchal 458 1609.2528 West Bengal 203 393.7929 A&N Island 12 7.91 TOTAL 5,415 14,305.47 mnre.gov.in/prog-smallhydro.htm
  • 31. •The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES)supports•SHP project development throughout the country. Sofar, 523 SHP projects with an aggregate installed capacityof 1705 MW have been installed. Besides these, 205 SHPprojects with an aggregate capacity of 479 MW are underimplementation.•With a capacity addition, on an average, of 100 MW peryear and gradual decrease in gestation periods and capitalcosts, the SHP sector is becoming increasingly competitivewith other alternatives.
  • 32. • Fifteen states have announced policies to attract private sector entrepreneurs to set up SHP projects. The state electricity regulatory commissions are now determining tariffs by taking into account the submissions of all stakeholders including the developers and the MNES.• For commercial projects, these states have offered sites with a total potential of over2300 MW.• A number of leading financial institutions and banks – including Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA), Power Finance Corporation, Rural Electrification Corporation, IDBI,IL&FC, and commercial banks – have started financing SHP projects.
  • 33. Recent trends• More emphasis on Irrigation canal based small hydro projects (Orissa, A.P)• Investment seen from private sector in grid connected run off river projects ( Uttaranchal, H.P)• More no of stand alone systems for rural electrification being implemented
  • 34. Recent trends…• Improvements in Turbine designs for all small hydro technologies• Packaged plant developmentsSource: MNES, AHEC, Roorkee
  • 35. • Design of Pico turbines (500W range)• Design of battery chargers from small hydro power• Increase in efficiency Electronic Load Controller for micro hydro• Cost reductions in E&M• Usage of composites for components• Use of COANDA system to improve overall small hydro system efficiency Source: AHEC Roorkee
  • 36. Hydropower is the leading source ofrenewable energy. It provides more than 97%of all electricity generated by renewablesources. Other sources includingsolar, geothermal, wind and biomass accountfor less than 3% of renewable electricityproduction.
  • 37. It is the time to re-think how to manage freshwater resources is one of the greatest challenges facing the world in the new century. Shape the future projects to the sustainable development
  • 38. Dams are one of the greatest inventions ofmankind. It wont be wrong to say that manyof the countries economies and sustainabilitydepends on the dams in those countries.Dams are very important as they not only area source of water but also save people fromflooding and the most important thing is thatthey provide us with a very cheap source ofproducing energy…
  • 39. References• K.R.Saxena, V.M.Sharma, 2005, Dams Incidents and Accidents,Tylor and Francis publications,190-209.• CHRONICLE,ISBN NO-0971-4073 VOL XX NO.9,may 2010,134-144• www.riverkeepers.org• Benefits and concerns about Dams,International commission on Large Dams.• http;//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_policy_of_India• http;//Indianews.com/2006-06/10698-kalam—attend-jatropa-plants- conservation.htm.Retrived 2006-07-08
  • 40. When 85 millions of electricity consumers switchoff a 60 watts bulb in peak load time , then we cansave 360 mega watts of electricity. if a 450 megawatts of electricity is produced then only consumerget 350 mega watts electricity , cost of productionof 1 mega electric watts is nearly in 8 Crore Indianrupees . So if you switch of one bulb in peak timeyou can save a 3600 Crore rupees