Suplamental Student Notes

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Suplamental Student Notes

  1. 1. Biomes • Aquatic consists of two basic regions • _______ and __________ • ______ is the common link among the five biomes. • Makes up the ______ part of the biosphere. • Covers nearly ____ of the Earth’s surface. • Desert = Four basic types • ____ and ____, _________, Coastal, and _____ • Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth’s surface and occur where rainfall is less than _____/year • There are ________________ in deserts because most are not capable of storing sufficient water. • Forest = Three major types of forests, classed according to_______: • Tropical, Temperate, and Boreal forests (taiga) • Today, forests occupy approximately ____ of Earth’s land area. • Tropical forests= Greatest _________ of species • Temperate Forests= Well-defined ________. • Boreal forests, or taiga= ________ terrestrial biome. • Grassland = Two main divisions of grasslands: • Tropical grasslands, called _______, and ________ grasslands • Grasslands are characterized as lands dominated by ________ rather than large shrubs or trees. • Savanna is grassland with ____________individual trees. • Temperate grasslands are characterized as having grasses as the dominant vegetation. Trees and large shrubs are _______ • Tundra = Two types: • _______ tundra and _______ tundra • Extremely ____ climate • _____ biotic diversity
  2. 2. Name___________________________ How does the atmosphere affect weather? • The atmosphere is a mixture of ______ that surrounds the Earth • Has ____different layers; each has different _________ • Air __________and ______change with altitude • Weather occurs in the layer closest to Earth (__________) Air Masses • body of air with a certain ________ and _______ level Fronts • Places where air masses _____ • 4 Types: _____Cold, Occluded, _________ • Each kind can bring ______kinds of weather
  3. 3. Relative Humidity  Measure of the amount of ______in the air compared to what the air could hold  How “full” of water the air is  Expressed as ___  100% relative humidity = _________air Controlled by temperature 1. ____ air holds more moisture than cool air (more space for water vapor between air molecules) 2. As air warms, relative humidity ________ 3. As air cools, relative humidity _______ Dew Point  =Temperature at which the air is _______ (100% relative humidity) Several events can occur when the dew point temp. is reached: 1. If dew point temp is above freezing: a. water vapor condenses as ______ b. dew will form on surfaces c. cloud droplets will form in air 2. If dew point temp. is below freezing: a. water vapor condenses as a _____ b. frost on surfaces c. snow (or hail) in the air Rainbows  Caused by ________ on raindrops  White light (all colors) is refracted (bent) into colors as it enters and exits the drop  To see a rainbow you must have the sun ______ you and raindrops in the air
  4. 4. Name_______________________ Thunderstorms: Requires a mature __________ cloud Signs a. Sudden reversal of wind direction b. Noticeable _______in wind speed c. Sudden drop in temperature Possible weather: a. heavy ______(flash floods) b. lightning (forest fires) c. _________(frightens animals) d. hail (crop damage) e. tornadoes f. strong, gusty winds Lightning Storm: • Lightning stroke: flow of ______ thru air (a poor conductor) from the – to the + • Lightning can flow from cloud to ground, cloud to_____, and from ground to cloud • Bright light is caused by ______ air molecules heated by the current • Lightning follows the path of least _______(easiest way to positive) • Lightning rod offers lightning an_____, safe path to the ground (+) Thunder is the shock wave caused by the explosive expansion of heated air • Sound travels @ about _____ ft/sec in air • 5,280 ft in one mile • Distance from you to lightning = number of _____between seeing the flash and hearing the thunder________. (5,280 ft / 1100 ft/sec = 5 seconds)
  5. 5. Tornado: • Tornadoes that form over water are called “__________” • Typical tornado will: 1. Occur between ____pm 2. Travel _____ 3. Be 300-400 m wide 4. Travel 25-40 mi/hour 5. Have wind speeds up to ____ mi/hr 6. Produce extremely low pressure 7. Be ______due to debris picked up Tropical Cyclone • Also Known As: 1. Atlantic: ________ 2. SE Asia, Japan: ________ 3. Australia: willy-willy 4. Indian Ocean: cyclone • Rated by wind ________(category 1 to 5) • Starts and grows over ______ocean water • Composed of bands of thunderstorms spiraling counterclockwise around a low pressure center • Several ________miles wide • Last many _____(even weeks) • Winds from ______ mi/hr • Contains an “eye” • Small region of low pressure • Surrounded by highest winds • Calm, peaceful, sunny weather • Last for about 1 hour as hurricane passes by

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