Life Science.Part2.Looking Inside Cells

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  • 1. Cells and Heredity
    • “ Looking Inside of Cells”
  • 2.
    • PASS Strand: Structure and Function in Living Systems
    • Objectives:
    • Specialized structures perform specific functions at all levels of complexity (e.g., leaves on trees and wings on birds).
  • 3. Organelles
    • objects inside a cell, which carry out specific functions within the cell.
  • 4. Cell Wall
    • a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
    • Make of touch, yet flexible material called cellulose
    • Helps to protect and support the cell
    • Water and oxygen can pass through the cell wall
    • Ex. Screen on a window
  • 5. Cell Membrane
    • Located just inside the cell wall in plants .
    Animals, it is the outside boundary that separates cells from its environment.
  • 6. Nucleus
    • Acts as the “ brain” of the cell. It directs all the cell’s activities.
  • 7. Organelles in the Cytoplasm
    • Cytoplasm—                                                       
    • area between the cell membrane and nucleus.
    •                                                      
    • Gel-like fluid in which many organelles are found.
  • 8. Mitochondria
    • Rod shaped structures
    • The “powerhouse” of the cell
    • Produce most of the energy the cell needs to carry out its functions.
  • 9. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Maze of passageways
    • Carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.
  • 10. Ribosomes
    • Grain-like bodies attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum
    • Also found floating in the cytoplasm.
    • Factories to produce proteins.
  • 11. Golgi Bodies
    • Flattened collection of sacs and tubes
    • Cells “ mail room”
    • Receive proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and send them off to other parts of the cell.
  • 12. Chloroplasts
    • Large green structures floating in cytoplasm.
    • Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell.
    • Give plants green color.
  • 13. Vacuoles
    • Large, round, water-filled sac floating in the cytoplasm.
    • Storage area of the cell.
    • Plant cells (mostly) have 1 large vacuole.
    • Animal cells may or may not have one.
  • 14. Lysosomes
    • Small round structures that contain chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones.
    • Recycle old cell parts so they can be used again.
  • 15. Bacterial Cells
    • Smaller than plant or animal cells
    • Has a cell wall and cell membrane
    • Has no nucleus
    • Genetic material (looks like waded string) is found in cytoplasm
    • Contain ribosomes, but no other organelles
  • 16. Bacterial cells
  • 17.  
  • 18. Specialized Cells
    • Cells are suited to the functions they carry out.
    • Ex. Blood cells look different than nerve cells and have different jobs.
  • 19.  
  • 20. Lets review the differences between plant and animal cells
  • 21. Cell No 5 Song
    • (and there’s an easy way to remember it!)
  • 22. TEXTBOOK: Human Biology and Health “ How the Body is Organized”
  • 23.
    • PASS Strand: Structure and Function in Living Systems
    • Objectives:
    • Living systems are organized by levels of complexity , i.e. cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, organisms, and ecosystems.)
  • 24.
    • The levels of organization in the human body consist of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.
    • Organ systems together make organisms. Organisms create ecosystems.
  • 25. C E L L S
    • LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
    • Cells- -basic unit of structure and function in a living thing.
    • Unicellular—organism which only has one cell
    • Multicellular—complex organism made up of several cells
  • 26. Tissues
    • a group of similar cells that perform the same function. Perform a specific job .
  • 27.  
  • 28. Tissues
    • a.     Muscle tissue—cells can contract or shorten
    • b.     Nerve tissue—carries messages between brain and body
    • c.      Connective tissue—Support for body, connects all parts of body
    • d. Epithelial tissue—Covers the surfaces of your body, inside and out
  • 29. Organs
    • a structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue . Performs a specific job.
  • 30. Organs
    • Heart —is an organ. Function: pumps blood through your body. Is made up pf 4 kinds of tissue. Each helps with the overall job.
    • Kidneys -- two bean -shaped organs. Helps keep water volume in body constant. Helps remove wastes from body and helps regulate blood pressure
    • Skin —largest organ . Covers and protects body.
  • 31. Organ System
    • a group of organs that work together to perform a major function
  • 32.
    • Circulatory —carries materials to body cells, carries wastes away from body cells helps fight disease .
  • 33. Organ System
    • Digestive —takes food into the body, breaks food down , and absorbs the digestive materials
  • 34. Organ System
    • Immune —
    • Fights
    • disease
  • 35. Organ System
    • Muscular —Enables the body to move, moves food through the digestive system, keeps the heart beating
  • 36. Organ System
    • Nervous —detects and interprets information from the environment outside the body and from within the body, controls most body functions
  • 37. Organ System
    • Respiratory —Takes oxygen into the body and eliminates carbon dioxide
  • 38. Organ System
    • Skeletal — Supports the body, protects it, and works with muscles to allow movement, makes blood cells and stores some materials
  • 39.
    • Examples: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
    • 1. Bone cell — responsible for bone growth and repair.
    • 2. Bone tissue — consists of living cells that are separated from one another by a hard non-living material that gives bones their strength.
    • 3. Bone organ — Ex. Thigh bone or femur consists of different kinds of tissues. (also contains blood and nerve tissue)
    • 4. Organ system — Skeletal system. Made up of over 200 bones. Includes cartilage and ligaments.
  • 40.  
  • 41. Organism
    • Organ systems come together to produce a living creature . An individual form of life, such as a plant, animal, bacterium, protist, or fungus;
  • 42. Ecosystem
    • A community of plants, ___________, and microorganisms that are linked by energy and nutrient flows and that interact with each other and with the physical environment.
  • 43. Interdependence
    • depending on other things to get a job done. Working together.
  • 44. Osmosis
  • 45. Diffusion