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Earth Science. Geopshere ppt Earth Science. Geopshere ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Four Systems of Our Earth
  • 6 th Sense Thursday February 12th
    • Q: Where do rocks come from?
  • Composition of Earth
    • Earth Has 4 main systems that interact:
    Earth’s systems Atmosphere Hydrosphere Biosphere Geosphere water life land/rock Air/gases
  • Composition of Earth
    • Earth Has 4 main systems that interact:
      • The Atmosphere
      • The Hydrosphere
      • The Biosphere
      • The Geosphere
        • The solid earth (rock)
        • Continental earth, and solid earth (continental crust) under water and the oceans (oceanic crust)
  • What are rocks made of? minerals
  • Minerals are not made by people; they are … … naturally occurring substances.
  • Name four properties (or clues) that scientists use to identify minerals. Color, luster, streak, and hardness
  • Property of mineral: color
    • The color of a rock can be a clue to what it is made up of. Sometimes the color can help you figure out what it is, other times it can fool you.
    • Copper is reddish
    • Sulfer is yellowish
  • Sometimes the color can help you figure out what it is, other times it can fool you.
    • WHICH ONE IS GOLD? WHICH ONE IS PYRITE, OR BETTER KNOWN AS FOOLS GOLD.
  • Did you guess? As you can see…
    • Color may be misleading.
    • GOLD FOOLS GOLD
  • Which property means the way the light bounces off the mineral? luster
  • What words can be used to describe a mineral’s luster? Glassy, dull, shiny, greasy
  •  
  •  
  • Property of mineral: streak
    • Streak is the color of the powdered mineral
  • Property of mineral: hardness
    • How tightly the atoms are bonded together in the rock…. How HARD or soft is the mineral?
  • What are three testers that can be used to determine a mineral’s hardness? fingernail, penny, nail
  • TYPES OF ROCKS Classified by how they Are formed. IGNEOUS ROCKS (melted rock from inside The Earth cools) SEDIMENTARY (sediment collects in Layers that form rocks) METAMORPHIC (rocks form from Pressure and temp) EXTRUSIVE Melted rock cools Melted rock that reaches The surface is called lava. INTRUSIVE Magma forced up but Doesn’t reach surface Magma—melted rock that Doesn’t reach the earth.
  • Igneous Rocks
  • Igneous Rocks
    • Any rock that forms from magma or lava
  • MAGMA -- LAVA —reaches Earth’s surface Never reaches Earth’s surface
  • Origin of Igneous
    • Classified according to where they are found.
    • Extrusive rock — formed from lava that erupted onto the Earth’s surface. Fine grained. (ex. Basalt)
    • Intrusive rock — formed when magma hardens beneath the Earth’s surface. Coarse grained. (ex. Granite)
  • EXTRUSIVE ROCKS (lava)
    • Extrusive Rocks Form 2 ways
      • Volcanoes erupt and shoot out lava and ash.
      • Large cracks in Earth’s crust ( fissures ), can open up. Lava oozes out onto ground or into water.
  • Sedimentary Rocks
  • Sediments form Rock
    • Form from particles deposited by water and wind.
    • Sediment —small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things.
    • Water, wind, and ice can carry sediment and deposit it in layers.
  • Examples of Sediment
    • Mud
    • Pebbles
    • Shells
    • Bones
    • Sand grains
    • Leaves stems
    • Living remains
    • Over time, any remains from living may slowly harden and change into fossils trapped in the rock.
  • Sedimentary rocks form in 3 ways:
    • Detrital Rocks
    Made up of grains of minerals or other rocks. The weight of the sediments squeezes them into layers.
  • Sedimentary rocks form in 3 ways:
    • Organic rocks — formed from fossils (the hard parts of dead organisms like bones/ shells
  • Sedimentary rocks form in 3 ways:
    • Chemical Rocks
    Seawater filled with minerals evaporates. As water evaporates, layers of minerals are left behind.
  • Types of Sedimentary Rock
    • Clastic (Detrital Rocks)
    • Forms when rock fragments are squeezed together. (ex. Sandstone)
    • Organic Rocks
    • Forms where remains from plants/ animals are deposited. (ex. Coal and limestone)
    • Chemical Rocks
    • Forms when minerals that are dissolved in a solution crystallize.
  •  
  • The breaking down and wearing away of rocks is called… weathering.
  • The movement of sediments from one place to another is called… erosion.
  • Erosion
    • Destructive forces break up and wear away present rock.
      • Heat, cold, rain, waves, grinding ice
      • Running water or wind loosen and carry away the fragments of rock.
  • Deposition
    • The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind carrying it.
    • The eroding water or wind slows and deposits the sediment.
      • If carried by water, rock fragments and other materials sink to the bottom of a lake or ocean.
    http:// www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0604/es0604page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization
  • Compaction
    • Its been moved away and now dropped.
    • Heavy thick layers of sediment build up
    • The weight presses down on the layers
    • Compaction—process that presses sediments together.
    • Each year, new sediments fall creating new layers.
    • The layers are often visible
  • Cementation
    • The process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together.
    • Where loose sediments become solid sedimentary rock
      • Minerals dissolve in water and then seep into spaces between sediment.
  • Review: Processes that change sediment into sedimentary rock
    • Erosion
    • Deposition
    • Compaction
    • Cementation
    http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0602/flash/es0602_p02_rockcycle.swf
  • Metamorphic Rocks
  • Metamorphic Rocks
    • Heat and pressure deep in the Earth can change any rock into a metamorphic rock.
      • Heat from mantle
      • Pressure due to depth. Minerals can change into other minerals.
  • Classifying Metamorphic Rocks
    • Arranged by the grains that make up the rocks.
    • Foliated —grains arranged in parallel layers/ bands (slate, schist, gneiss)
    • Nonfoliated —Mineral grains are arranged randomly (marble and quartzite )
  • The Rock Cycle
  • Rock Cycle
    • A series of processes on Earth’s surface and inside the planet that slowly change rocks from one kind into another.
    • Earths constructive and destructive forces (and plate tectonics) move rocks through the rock cycle.
    • Quiz: http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/diagram2.html
    • http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/diagram.html
    • http://www.cdli.ca/CITE/rocks_general.htm
  •  
    • Rock Cycle Song (Sing to the tune of "Row, Row, Row Your Boat")
    • SEDIMENTARY rock Has been formed in layers Often found near water sources With fossils from decayers
    • Then there's IGNEOUS rock Here since Earth was born Molten Lava, cooled and hardened That's how it is formed
    • These two types of rocks Can also be transformed With pressure, heat and chemicals METAMORPHIC they'll become.
    Memorize this!!!
  • Bibliography
    • http://www.emints.org/ethemes/resources/S00000504.shtml
    • http://www.emints.org/ethemes/resources/S00000299.shtml
    • http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/visualization/collections/erosion_deposition.html
    • http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~rhmiller/sedimentaryrocks/SedimentaryRocks.htm
  • REVIEW POINT Major Concepts
    • Identify and describe the 4 major systems that interact on Earth.
    • Explain how water might be involved in all 4 systems.
    • Explain how the Sun is important to life on Earth