Earth Science. Biosphere student notes

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  • 1. Name: ______________________________ PASS OBJECTIVE 5. Earth/ Space Science Notes Objective 1: Earth has four main systems that interact: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere, and the geosphere. Composition of the Earth Earth has four main systems that interact Earth’s systems Atmosphere Hydrosphere Biosphere Geosphere air water Rocks/land __________ 1. The Biosphere includes • _______ on Earth • Sea life, plants, flying creatures, humans • Encompasses hydrosphere, upper geosphere, and lower ___________________. 2. The relationship between an organism and its environment is the study of _________________. • Biotic Factors—____________ components in the biosphere o Biotic, meaning of or related to life, are living factors. Plants, ____________, fungi, protist and bacteria are all biotic or living factors. • ____________ Factors—nonliving components in the biosphere o Environmental factors such habitat (pond, lake, ocean, desert, mountain) or ___________such as temperature, cloud cover, rain, snow, hurricanes, etc. are abiotic factors. o Water is the universal solvent and the basis of all ____________on our Planet. The hydrosphere is important to the Biosphere! o The Sun provides the light and heat necessary to maintain life on Earth and is the ultimate source of _________________. • Biotic and abiotic factors combine to create a system or more precisely, an _________________ 3. An ecosystem is a community of living and nonliving things. o Pond Ecosystem o Abiotic Factors _____________________________________________ o Biotic Factors ______________________________________________ o Ocean Ecosystem o Abiotic Factors _____________________________________________ o Biotic Factors ______________________________________________ o Grassland Ecosystem o Abiotic Factors _____________________________________________ o Biotic Factors ______________________________________________ • How do humans alter ecosystems without noticing? __________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Biosphere Notes pg.1
  • 2. 4. Food _______________ • Shows how each living thing gets its __________. • Some animals eat plants and some animals eat other animals. • For example, a simple food chain links the trees, the giraffes and the lions. Each link in this chain is food for the next link. A food chain always starts with plant life and ends with an ______________. • An à is added and means “______________________”; also shows the flow of ______________ (the giraffe gets his energy from the leaves) • Now we have made a simple food chain. • Plants are called ________________ or autotrophs because they are able to use light energy to make their own food. • Animals cannot make their own _____________ so they must eat plants and/or other animals. They are called consumers or heterotrophs. There are three groups of consumers. 1. _____________________ are animals that only eat plants or plant products (seeds). They are also called primary consumers • Carnivores are animals that eat other animals. There are 2 kinds of carnivores 2. _____________________ Consumers are carnivores that eat herbivores 3. _____________________ consumers are carnivores that eat other carnivores MAKE YOUR OWN FOODCHAIN Producer/ Herbivore/ Carnivore (eats herb) Carnivore (eats carn) Autotroph Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer Tertiary Consumer Makes own food  Animals and people who eat BOTH animals and plants are called ______________________  Then there are _________________ (bacteria, worms, and fungi) which feed on decaying matter.  These decomposers speed up the decaying process that releases mineral salts back into the food chain for absorption by plants as nutrients. Biosphere Notes pg.2
  • 3.  Why are there more plants than herbivores? ________________________________________ ________________________________________ The food ________________________________________ chain ________________________________________ is a cycle  Energy and mass is transferred from one level of the food chain to the next with an efficiency of about __________%.  Most food chains have no more than four or five links  There cannot be too many links in a single food chain because the animals at the end of the chain would not get enough food (and hence energy) to stay alive.  Most animals are part of more than one food chain and eat more than one kind of food in order to meet their food and energy requirements. These interconnected food chains form a food web.  Note that the arrows are drawn from food source to food consumers .  Substitute the arrows with the words "eaten by"  The arrows also show the way energy is moving. FOOD CHAIN FOOD WEB HOW ARE FOOD CHAINS AND WEBS DIFFERENT? __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Biosphere Notes pg.3
  • 4. Recap  The sun is the source of energy  Water is the source of life on earth  Water is in the hydrosphere, geosphere and atmosphere, and biosphere.  The living things in the biosphere are dependent on many nonliving things. (abiotic and biotic)  There are food chains and webs that show what animals eat. The higher up on the food chain, the less predators they have.  Who receives the most of the sun’s energy and how energy moves and is converted through the food chain. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________  How are the systems connected (atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Create Your Own Food Web in the Space Below. 1. Start with a simple Food Chain: Think about what you eat, what it eats, and even what that eats. May be easier to start with the plants and work up. 2. To make a Food Web: add more things that you eat, and things that it eats. See if any arrows go to the same consumer. 3. Remember an arrow means “is eaten by” and flows the same way energy does. Biosphere Notes pg.4