<ul><li>How big? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cellsalive.com/howbig.htm   </li></ul>Cells Alive
Objectives: <ul><li>Microscopes are used correctly to observe living  cells. </li></ul>
Cells   <ul><li>basic units of  structure   and  function  in living things.   </li></ul><ul><li>(all  living  things are ...
Structure  vs.  Function <ul><li>What it  What it  does . </li></ul><ul><li>Appears to  look What it runs. </li></ul><ul><...
Structure vs. Function
Structure vs. Function
Structure and Function in people
Structure vs. Function Structure: Cells have different  structures  and are made differently Function: Because they do  di...
FIRST SIGHTINGS OF CELLS   <ul><li>Microscope —an instrument that makes small objects look larger.   </li></ul>
FIRST SIGHTINGS OF CELLS   <ul><li>The 1590 invention of microscope allowed people to look at very small objects. The micr...
<ul><li>                                                       </li></ul><ul><li>        Simple  microscope —contains one ...
Robert  Hooke   <ul><ul><li>One of the first people to observe cells. In 1663 Hooke observed a small piece of cork with a ...
Anton van Leeuwenhoek   <ul><li>a Dutch businessman and amateur scientists made his own lenses to construct a simple micro...
<ul><li>PASS Strand : Structure and Function in  Living  Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: (What we will be talking/ l...
THE CELL THEORY   <ul><li>Microscopes led to the discovery that all living things are made up of  cells . </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Schleiden (shly-dun)— scientists who discovered that  plants  are made up of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><ul><li>These discoveries led to the CELL THEORY. The  CELL THEORY  is a widely accepted  explanation  of the relation...
How A  Light  Microscope Works <ul><li>Microscopes use lenses to make smaller objects look  larger . Microscopes must incl...
Magnification —the ability to make things look larger than they are.  <ul><ul><ul><li>Lens—the lens or lenses in a light m...
Magnification
<ul><ul><ul><li>Compound microscopes—use  more  than one lens, so magnify more than simple microscopes.  </li></ul></ul></...
Resolution —is the ability to clearly distinguish the  individual parts  of an object. It helps the image look “sharper”, ...
ELECTRON  MICROSCOPES <ul><ul><li>Hooke, Leeuwenhoek and others all used light microscopes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>193...
 
Cells and Heredity <ul><li>“ Looking Inside of Cells” </li></ul>
<ul><li>PASS Strand: Structure and Function in  Living  Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Specialize...
Organelles   <ul><li>objects inside a cell, which carry out specific functions  within  the cell.   </li></ul>
Cell Wall   <ul><li>a rigid layer of  nonliving  material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms   </...
Cell Membrane   <ul><li>Located just inside the cell wall in  plants . </li></ul>Animals, it is the outside boundary that ...
Nucleus   <ul><li>Acts as the “ brain”  of the cell. It directs all the cell’s activities.   </li></ul>
Organelles in the Cytoplasm   <ul><li>Cytoplasm—                                                         </li></ul><ul><li...
Mitochondria   <ul><li>Rod  shaped structures </li></ul><ul><li>The “powerhouse” of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Produce mos...
Endoplasmic Reticulum   <ul><li>Maze of  passageways </li></ul><ul><li>Carry proteins and other materials from one part of...
Ribosomes   <ul><li>Grain-like  bodies  attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Also found ...
Golgi Bodies   <ul><li>Flattened collection of sacs and tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Cells “ mail room” </li></ul><ul><li>Recei...
Chloroplasts   <ul><li>Large green structures floating in cytoplasm.  </li></ul><ul><li>Capture energy from sunlight and u...
Vacuoles   <ul><li>Large, round,  water-filled  sac floating in the cytoplasm.  </li></ul><ul><li>Storage area of the cell...
Lysosomes   <ul><li>Small round structures that contain chemicals that  break down  large food particles into smaller ones...
Bacterial Cells   <ul><li>Smaller  than plant or animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Has a  cell wall  and cell membrane  </li>...
Bacterial  cells
 
Specialized Cells   <ul><li>Cells are suited to the functions they carry out.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Blood cells look diff...
 
Lets review the differences between plant and animal cells
Cell No 5 Song <ul><li>(and there’s an easy way to remember it!) </li></ul>
TEXTBOOK:  Human Biology and Health “ How the Body is Organized”
<ul><li>PASS Strand: Structure and  Function  in Living Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Living sys...
<ul><li>The levels of organization in the human body consist of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. </li></ul><ul><...
C E L L S <ul><li>LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>Cells- -basic unit of structure and function in a living thing....
Tissues   <ul><li>a group of similar  cells  that perform the same function. Perform a specific  job . </li></ul>
 
Tissues <ul><li>a.     Muscle tissue—cells can  contract  or shorten </li></ul><ul><li>b.     Nerve tissue—carries message...
Organs   <ul><li>a structure that is composed of different kinds of  tissue . Performs a specific job. </li></ul>
Organs   <ul><li>Heart —is an organ. Function: pumps  blood  through your body. Is made up pf 4 kinds of tissue. Each help...
Organ System   <ul><li>a group of  organs  that work together to perform a major function   </li></ul>
<ul><li>Circulatory —carries materials to body cells, carries wastes away from body cells helps fight  disease . </li></ul>
Organ System   <ul><li>Digestive —takes food into the body, breaks food  down , and absorbs the digestive materials   </li...
Organ System   <ul><li>Immune — </li></ul><ul><li>Fights  </li></ul><ul><li>disease   </li></ul>
Organ System   <ul><li>Muscular —Enables the body to move, moves food through the  digestive  system, keeps the heart beat...
Organ System   <ul><li>Nervous —detects and interprets information from the environment outside the body and from within t...
Organ System   <ul><li>Respiratory —Takes oxygen into the body and eliminates  carbon dioxide   </li></ul>
Organ System   <ul><li>Skeletal — Supports  the body, protects it, and works with muscles to allow movement, makes blood c...
<ul><li>Examples: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION   </li></ul><ul><li>1. Bone  cell — responsible for bone growth and repair. </li>...
 
Organism <ul><li>Organ systems come together to produce a  living creature .   An individual form of life, such as a plant...
Ecosystem   <ul><li>A community of plants, ___________, and microorganisms that are linked by energy and nutrient flows an...
Interdependence   <ul><li>depending on other things to get a job done. Working together.  </li></ul>
Osmosis
Diffusion
TEXTBOOK: HUMAN BIOLOGY AND HEATH “ Keeping the Body in Balance ”
<ul><li>PASS Strand: 4. Behavior and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives:   </li></ul><ul><li>B. Living organisms str...
Homeostasis <ul><li>the body’s tendency to maintain an internal balance. Process by which an organism’s internal environme...
Stress “threatening, challenging or disturbing events”   <ul><li>a.        More blood goes to brain </li></ul><ul><li>b.  ...
Being startled  “ fight or flight  “ <ul><li>Respiratory system provides more oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular and Skelet...
Water  Balance   <ul><li>Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Urination </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat </li></ul><ul><li>Tears   </li></ul>
4. Temperature  <ul><li>A.  Endothermic organisms —  an  </li></ul><ul><li>animal whose body controls and regulates its te...
Endothermic organisms <ul><li>Homeostasis —controls its own environment </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals and birds </li></ul><ul>...
Temperature  <ul><li>Ectothermic organisms — an animal whose body does not produce much internal heat. Its body temperatur...
Ectothermic organisms   <ul><li>Fishes, amphibians and reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>A turtle lies in the sun, its body tempe...
A  negative  feedback loop   <ul><li>works in the opposite direction from what it is trying to accomplish. An example of a...
<ul><li>As a person’s body gets too hot, (s)he begins to sweat in an attempt to lower the temperature. If someone’s body i...
Necessary Components of a Homeostatic System <ul><li>Receptor </li></ul><ul><li>Control Center </li></ul><ul><li>Effector ...
Homeostatic Mechanism <ul><li>Negative-Feedback Regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The homeostatic mechanism </li></ul></ul>...
Glucose Homeostasis  - cells release glucagon  stimulate glycogen breakdown and gluconeogenesis  - cells release  insuli...
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  • Components of a Homeostatic System To maintain homeostasis, a system must have three components: 1) a receptor, 2) a control center, and 3) an effector. All of these components do specific jobs that allow an organism to regulate its internal environment. A receptor detects external changes that could influence the internal environment. It then reports these changes to the control center, which, in turn, will activate an effector, whose function is to restore homeostasis. In the diagram above, the thermometer represents the receptor for this homeostatic system. It communicates with the thermostat (the control center) when there is a change in the external environment. The thermostat responds by directing the fan (the effector) to turn off or on. For example, if the thermometer informs the thermostat of a sudden increase in temperature, the thermostat will direct the fan to turn on to cool the area back to a comfortable temperature. The central nervous system and the endocrine system are the major control systems in the body. Each is able to respond to signals from receptors and activate effectors accordingly. References: Langley, L.L. (Ed.). (1973). Homeostasis: Origins of the Concept . Langley, National Library of Medicine. Stroudsburg, PA:Dowden Hutchinson, and Ross Inc. Sherwood, Lauralee. (1997). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems (3 rd ed.). West Publishing Co.
  • Homeostatic Mechanism The mechanism known as negative-feedback regulation maintains homeostasis. The “receptor, control center, effector” structure of a homeostatic system (described in the previous slide) enables negative-feedback regulation to occur. When a large external change is detected by the receptor, a signal is sent to, and is interpreted by the control center, resulting in a response by the effector to minimize the internal impact of the large external change. This is negative-feedback regulation. The original external change is counteracted internally so that the internal change is small or nonexistent. Positive-feedback regulation also is seen in biological systems, but it is not utilized for maintaining homeostasis. Rather, positive-feedback is used to augment a change within an organism. For example, during birth, the uterus contracts to expel the infant. Positive-feedback causes these contractions to continue until the birth is complete. So, whereas negative-feedback helps homeostatic systems to remain fairly constant by responding to changes in the external environment, positive-feedback promotes the change. References: Langley, L.L. (Ed.). (1973). Homeostasis: Origins of the Concept . Langley, National Library of Medicine. Stroudsburg, PA:Dowden Hutchinson, and Ross Inc. Sherwood, Lauralee. (1997). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems (3 rd ed.). West Publishing Co.
  • Glucose Homeostasis Here is a diagram of glucose homeostasis. When we eat food, our blood glucose concentration rises, which stimulates insulin secretion from  -cells and eventual glucose absorption by peripheral tissues. In between meals or in times of starvation, we are not taking in glucose and, therefore, experience a drop in blood glucose. During these times, the  -cells release glucagon, which stimulates the liver to make glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and thereby raise blood glucose to normal levels. References: Langley, L.L. (Ed.). (1973). Homeostasis: Origins of the Concept . Langley, National Library of Medicine. Stroudsburg, PA:Dowden Hutchinson, and Ross Inc. Sherwood, Lauralee. (1997). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems (3 rd ed.). West Publishing Co.
  • 2 Structure Function Living Systems

    1. 1. <ul><li>How big? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cellsalive.com/howbig.htm </li></ul>Cells Alive
    2. 2. Objectives: <ul><li>Microscopes are used correctly to observe living cells. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Cells <ul><li>basic units of structure and function in living things. </li></ul><ul><li>(all living things are made of cells) </li></ul><ul><li>1 cm of your skin’s surface contains 100,000 cells too tiny to see. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Structure vs. Function <ul><li>What it What it does . </li></ul><ul><li>Appears to look What it runs. </li></ul><ul><li>Like. How it is Why it is set up </li></ul><ul><li>Organized. The way it is. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Structure vs. Function
    6. 6. Structure vs. Function
    7. 7. Structure and Function in people
    8. 8. Structure vs. Function Structure: Cells have different structures and are made differently Function: Because they do different things!
    9. 9. FIRST SIGHTINGS OF CELLS <ul><li>Microscope —an instrument that makes small objects look larger. </li></ul>
    10. 10. FIRST SIGHTINGS OF CELLS <ul><li>The 1590 invention of microscope allowed people to look at very small objects. The microscope made it possible for people to discover and learn about cells. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>                                                       </li></ul><ul><li>       Simple microscope —contains one lens that helps to focus light                                                    </li></ul><ul><li>      Compound microscope —a light microscope that has more than one lens. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Robert Hooke <ul><ul><li>One of the first people to observe cells. In 1663 Hooke observed a small piece of cork with a compound microscope that he built. Cork is made from the bark of the cork oak tree, and is made up of cells that are no longer alive. He saw tiny “rectangular little rooms” that he called cells. He found that one centimeter of cork had over a thousand cells. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Anton van Leeuwenhoek <ul><li>a Dutch businessman and amateur scientists made his own lenses to construct a simple microscope. He looked at water from a pond and found many one-celled organisms which he called “animalcules” meaning small animals. Also looked at scrapings from teeth and was the first person to see the tiny single-celled organisms that are now called bacteria. Many people began to study cells after his findings. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>PASS Strand : Structure and Function in Living Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: (What we will be talking/ learning about) </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopes are Used correctly to observe living cells . </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the building blocks of all organisms (both plants and animals ). Local extension: The cell theory states: </li></ul><ul><li>All living things are made up of cells . </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all living things. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Living cells come only from other living cells. </li></ul>
    15. 15. THE CELL THEORY <ul><li>Microscopes led to the discovery that all living things are made up of cells . </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Schleiden (shly-dun)— scientists who discovered that plants are made up of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schwann —scientists who discovered that all animals are made up of cells. All living things are made up of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virchow —(fur koh) new cells are only formed from existing cells. All cells come from other cells. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><ul><li>These discoveries led to the CELL THEORY. The CELL THEORY is a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things It states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All living things are composed of cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All cells are produced from other cells . </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. How A Light Microscope Works <ul><li>Microscopes use lenses to make smaller objects look larger . Microscopes must include magnification and resolution. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Magnification —the ability to make things look larger than they are. <ul><ul><ul><li>Lens—the lens or lenses in a light microscope magnify an object by bending the light that passes through them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convex lens—curved lens. Center is thicker than edges. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Magnification
    21. 21. <ul><ul><ul><li>Compound microscopes—use more than one lens, so magnify more than simple microscopes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total magnification is equal to the magnifications of the two lenses multiplied together. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Resolution —is the ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object. It helps the image look “sharper”, “more clear” or “being able to see fine detail”
    23. 23. ELECTRON MICROSCOPES <ul><ul><li>Hooke, Leeuwenhoek and others all used light microscopes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1930s electron microscope was invented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a beam of electrons instead of light to examine a specimen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution is much better than light microscopes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to learn about the structure and function of cell </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Cells and Heredity <ul><li>“ Looking Inside of Cells” </li></ul>
    25. 26. <ul><li>PASS Strand: Structure and Function in Living Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized structures perform specific functions at all levels of complexity (e.g., leaves on trees and wings on birds). </li></ul>
    26. 27. Organelles <ul><li>objects inside a cell, which carry out specific functions within the cell. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Cell Wall <ul><li>a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Make of touch, yet flexible material called cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to protect and support the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Water and oxygen can pass through the cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Screen on a window </li></ul>
    28. 29. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Located just inside the cell wall in plants . </li></ul>Animals, it is the outside boundary that separates cells from its environment.
    29. 30. Nucleus <ul><li>Acts as the “ brain” of the cell. It directs all the cell’s activities. </li></ul>
    30. 31. Organelles in the Cytoplasm <ul><li>Cytoplasm—                                                        </li></ul><ul><li>area between the cell membrane and nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>                                                      </li></ul><ul><li>Gel-like fluid in which many organelles are found. </li></ul>
    31. 32. Mitochondria <ul><li>Rod shaped structures </li></ul><ul><li>The “powerhouse” of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Produce most of the energy the cell needs to carry out its functions. </li></ul>
    32. 33. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Maze of passageways </li></ul><ul><li>Carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another. </li></ul>
    33. 34. Ribosomes <ul><li>Grain-like bodies attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Also found floating in the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories to produce proteins. </li></ul>
    34. 35. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Flattened collection of sacs and tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Cells “ mail room” </li></ul><ul><li>Receive proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and send them off to other parts of the cell. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Large green structures floating in cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Give plants green color. </li></ul>
    36. 37. Vacuoles <ul><li>Large, round, water-filled sac floating in the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage area of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells (mostly) have 1 large vacuole. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells may or may not have one. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Lysosomes <ul><li>Small round structures that contain chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle old cell parts so they can be used again. </li></ul>
    38. 39. Bacterial Cells <ul><li>Smaller than plant or animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Has a cell wall and cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Has no nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic material (looks like waded string) is found in cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Contain ribosomes, but no other organelles </li></ul>
    39. 40. Bacterial cells
    40. 42. Specialized Cells <ul><li>Cells are suited to the functions they carry out. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Blood cells look different than nerve cells and have different jobs. </li></ul>
    41. 44. Lets review the differences between plant and animal cells
    42. 45. Cell No 5 Song <ul><li>(and there’s an easy way to remember it!) </li></ul>
    43. 46. TEXTBOOK: Human Biology and Health “ How the Body is Organized”
    44. 47. <ul><li>PASS Strand: Structure and Function in Living Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Living systems are organized by levels of complexity , i.e. cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, organisms, and ecosystems.) </li></ul>
    45. 48. <ul><li>The levels of organization in the human body consist of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems together make organisms. Organisms create ecosystems. </li></ul>
    46. 49. C E L L S <ul><li>LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>Cells- -basic unit of structure and function in a living thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular—organism which only has one cell </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular—complex organism made up of several cells </li></ul>
    47. 50. Tissues <ul><li>a group of similar cells that perform the same function. Perform a specific job . </li></ul>
    48. 52. Tissues <ul><li>a.     Muscle tissue—cells can contract or shorten </li></ul><ul><li>b.     Nerve tissue—carries messages between brain and body </li></ul><ul><li>c.      Connective tissue—Support for body, connects all parts of body </li></ul><ul><li>d. Epithelial tissue—Covers the surfaces of your body, inside and out </li></ul>
    49. 53. Organs <ul><li>a structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue . Performs a specific job. </li></ul>
    50. 54. Organs <ul><li>Heart —is an organ. Function: pumps blood through your body. Is made up pf 4 kinds of tissue. Each helps with the overall job. </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys -- two bean -shaped organs. Helps keep water volume in body constant. Helps remove wastes from body and helps regulate blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Skin —largest organ . Covers and protects body. </li></ul>
    51. 55. Organ System <ul><li>a group of organs that work together to perform a major function </li></ul>
    52. 56. <ul><li>Circulatory —carries materials to body cells, carries wastes away from body cells helps fight disease . </li></ul>
    53. 57. Organ System <ul><li>Digestive —takes food into the body, breaks food down , and absorbs the digestive materials </li></ul>
    54. 58. Organ System <ul><li>Immune — </li></ul><ul><li>Fights </li></ul><ul><li>disease </li></ul>
    55. 59. Organ System <ul><li>Muscular —Enables the body to move, moves food through the digestive system, keeps the heart beating </li></ul>
    56. 60. Organ System <ul><li>Nervous —detects and interprets information from the environment outside the body and from within the body, controls most body functions </li></ul>
    57. 61. Organ System <ul><li>Respiratory —Takes oxygen into the body and eliminates carbon dioxide </li></ul>
    58. 62. Organ System <ul><li>Skeletal — Supports the body, protects it, and works with muscles to allow movement, makes blood cells and stores some materials </li></ul>
    59. 63. <ul><li>Examples: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>1. Bone cell — responsible for bone growth and repair. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Bone tissue — consists of living cells that are separated from one another by a hard non-living material that gives bones their strength. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bone organ — Ex. Thigh bone or femur consists of different kinds of tissues. (also contains blood and nerve tissue) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Organ system — Skeletal system. Made up of over 200 bones. Includes cartilage and ligaments. </li></ul>
    60. 65. Organism <ul><li>Organ systems come together to produce a living creature . An individual form of life, such as a plant, animal, bacterium, protist, or fungus; </li></ul>
    61. 66. Ecosystem <ul><li>A community of plants, ___________, and microorganisms that are linked by energy and nutrient flows and that interact with each other and with the physical environment. </li></ul>
    62. 67. Interdependence <ul><li>depending on other things to get a job done. Working together. </li></ul>
    63. 68. Osmosis
    64. 69. Diffusion
    65. 70. TEXTBOOK: HUMAN BIOLOGY AND HEATH “ Keeping the Body in Balance ”
    66. 71. <ul><li>PASS Strand: 4. Behavior and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>B. Living organisms strive to maintain a constant internal environment (i.e., temperature regulation). Local extension: Stable internal conditions are related through homeostasis. </li></ul>
    67. 72. Homeostasis <ul><li>the body’s tendency to maintain an internal balance. Process by which an organism’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of the changes to the external environment. </li></ul>
    68. 73. Stress “threatening, challenging or disturbing events” <ul><li>a.       More blood goes to brain </li></ul><ul><li>b.       Hearing ability increases </li></ul><ul><li>c.       Sweating increases </li></ul><ul><li>d.       Muscles tense </li></ul><ul><li>e.       Pupils widen to take in </li></ul><ul><li>more light </li></ul><ul><li>f.         Heart rate increases </li></ul><ul><li>g.       Digestive system slows </li></ul>
    69. 74. Being startled “ fight or flight “ <ul><li>Respiratory system provides more oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular and Skeletal system are ready for fight or flight </li></ul>
    70. 75. Water Balance <ul><li>Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Urination </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat </li></ul><ul><li>Tears </li></ul>
    71. 76. 4. Temperature <ul><li>A. Endothermic organisms — an </li></ul><ul><li>animal whose body controls and regulates its temperature by controlling the internal heat it produces. Temperature does not change much </li></ul>
    72. 77. Endothermic organisms <ul><li>Homeostasis —controls its own environment </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals and birds </li></ul><ul><li>It is hot outside, your temperature is about 98.6 F </li></ul><ul><li>It is snowing outside, your temperature is about 98.6 F </li></ul>
    73. 78. Temperature <ul><li>Ectothermic organisms — an animal whose body does not produce much internal heat. Its body temperature changes depending on the temperature of its environment. </li></ul>
    74. 79. Ectothermic organisms <ul><li>Fishes, amphibians and reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>A turtle lies in the sun, its body temperature rises </li></ul><ul><li>A turtle lies in the snow, its body temperature lessens </li></ul>
    75. 80. A negative feedback loop <ul><li>works in the opposite direction from what it is trying to accomplish. An example of a negative feedback loop involved in homeostasis is maintenance of body temperature. </li></ul>
    76. 81. <ul><li>As a person’s body gets too hot, (s)he begins to sweat in an attempt to lower the temperature. If someone’s body is too cool,(s)he will begin to shiver in an attempt to increase the temperature. Example: Air conditioning </li></ul>
    77. 82. Necessary Components of a Homeostatic System <ul><li>Receptor </li></ul><ul><li>Control Center </li></ul><ul><li>Effector </li></ul>70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92
    78. 83. Homeostatic Mechanism <ul><li>Negative-Feedback Regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The homeostatic mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive-Feedback Regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birthing contractions </li></ul></ul>70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92
    79. 84. Glucose Homeostasis  - cells release glucagon stimulate glycogen breakdown and gluconeogenesis  - cells release insulin stimulate glucose uptake by peripheral tissues Lower Blood Glucose Higher Blood Glucose Food Between meals

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