Sexual and morphological variations in d.melanogaster

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER
  • 2. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Diptera Family: Drosophilidae  Genus: Drosophila  Species: D. melanogaster Meigen 1830 DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER
  • 3.  use of D. melanogaster was developed by Thomas Hunt Morgan (1910) crossing-over  Genes are linked in a linear array along chromosomes and the probability of recombination occurring between any two genes is related to the distance that separates them DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER
  • 4.  Alfred A. Sturtevant  frequency of recombination between two linked genes can be used to estimate the distance between them  trihybrid cross to show that distances are additive and can be used to construct a map to describe the order and placement of genes along a chromosome DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER
  • 5.  simple culture requirements  short generation time  copious offspring  well-defined genetics AS A MODEL ORGANISM
  • 6. LIFE CYCLE
  • 7. LIFE CYCLE
  • 8. DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER EYE COLOR
  • 9. pteridine ommochrome DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER EYE COLOR
  • 10.  Etherize the jar (sideways)  exposure time 3-5min  Keep the jar sideways to prevent flies from landing in the medium  !! FLIES CAN BE OVER ANESTHESIZED RESULTING TO STERILITY OR DEATH !! Do not over expose  Flies remain unconscious at least 20 minutes HANDLING FLIES
  • 11.  examine various phenotypes or determine the sex of an individual fly. To accurately score flies for phenotype differences that are difficult to distinguish, it is easiest to make direct comparisons by having a wild type fly and the mutant strain both in the field of view SCORING PHENOTYPES
  • 12. ♀  larger  tip of abdomen is pointed and elongated ♂  tip is rounded  darker abdomen  presence of sex combs DETERMINING SEX OF ADULT FLIES
  • 13. DETERMINING SEX OF ADULT FLIES
  • 14. DETERMINING SEX OF ADULT FLIES
  • 15. SEXUAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS