Overview of the Dental Procedures

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  • 1. Overview of the Dental Procedures
  • 2. I. System of tooth identification Tooth Numbering Systems have been developed in order to have a standard way of referring to particular teeth (there are more than 32 different system
  • 3. Most commonly numbering system used today
  • 4. Universal Numbering System • the has been adopted by the American Dental Association and is in use by most general dentists today • Continuous number from 1-32 • Starts from 1 assigned to upper right 3rd molar of the patient, moves to the left and downwards to the lower left, • Ends on the lower left 3rd molar
  • 5. Palmer Notation Method • used by some orthodontists, pedodontists (child dental specialist), and oral surgeons (originally called the Zsigmondy system after an Austrian dentist of that name who developed the idea in 1861). • Uses the numbers 1-8 • Uses grid to indicate the position of the tooth UR UL LR LL
  • 6. Internationally the Two-digit FDI World Dental Federation Notation • is widely used. • Uses the first numbers 1, 2, 3,4 to indicate the position in the arch • Second number to indicate the tooth number 11, 1 means upper right of the patient, 1 means central incisor
  • 7. Permanent teeth Universal Numbering System upper right upper left 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 lower right lower left Palmer notation 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 _______________________________________________ 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • 8. FDI Two-Digit Notation upper right upper left 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 lower right lower left
  • 9. II. Anesthesia in Dentistry Local anesthetic refers to the injection given in the mouth by a dentist to numb the area before undergoing a dental procedure
  • 10. II. Techniques of Dental Local Anesthesia There are three different techniques used in dental anesthesia: 1. Local infiltration technique- small nerve endings in the area of the dental treatment are flooded with local anesthetic solution, preventing them from becoming stimulated and creating an impulse.
  • 11. 2. Nerve block anesthesia (conduction anesthesia), the local anesthetic solution is deposed within close proximity to a main nerve trunk, and thus preventing afferent impulses from traveling centrally beyond that point. Nerve block technique is • required for anesthesia of mandibular molars and premolars because anesthetic solution is not able to penetrate the compact vestibular bone
  • 12. 3. Periodontal Ligament (PDL) technique ( Intraligamentary injection) local anesthetic solution is injected into the periodontal space. • PDL technique is useful for anesthesia of mandibular molars as an alternative to the nerve block technique. • injection is painless and the anesthetic effect is limited to the pulp and perioodontal nerve of the tooth anesthesized. •
  • 13. III. Infection Control Infection Control is a set of recommended safety precautions that the clinicians will implement to protect them as well as their patients from cross infection.
  • 14. Clinical Protective Attire and Barrier Techniques • Eyewear or chin-length shield mask • Disposable surgical mask • White Laboratory gown and cap • Gloves
  • 15. Sterilization or disinfection of instruments using the dryheat and autoclave sterilizers
  • 16. IV. Clinical Attire and Decorum Conduct inside the infirmary
  • 17. The following must be observed inside the infirmary: • Silence and order should be maintained when entering and leaving the infirmary during regular clinic hours. • The Clinician should wait for the Clinical Instructor before the start of any treatment procedure. • No Clinician is allowed to enter or stay in the infirmary without any patient or case/s to be performed. • During examination week, the clinician must present his examination permit prior to working in the clinic.
  • 18. Prescribed uniforms for clinicians The prescribed uniforms for male and female clinicians are as follows: 1. Plain white pants and plain white V- necked shirt/ blouse. 2. Only white leather shoes are allowed. 3. Socks/stockings must always be worn 4. College T-shirt is strictly prohibited in the infirmary
  • 19. V. Clinical Procedures 1. Oral Diagnosis is the identification of oral disease or condition 2. Dental Extraction is the removal of a tooth from the mouth.
  • 20. 3. Prosthontic Treatment (dental prosthetics) involves the replacement of missing teeth and other oral structures. Crowns (caps) — artificial coverings of the tooth made from a variety of biocompatible materials, The underlying tooth must be reshaped to accommodate these fixed restorations Veneers — artificial coverings similar to above, except that they only cover the forward (labial or buccal) surface of the tooth. Usually for aesthetic purposes only.
  • 21. Bridges — a fixed prothesis in which two or more crowns are connected together, which replace a missing tooth or teeth through a bridge. Typically used after an extraction. Dentures (false teeth) — a partial or complete set of dentition which either attach to neighboring teeth by use of metal or plastic grasps or to the gingival or palatial surface by use of adhesive.
  • 22. 4. Endodontic Treatment which involves the pulp or root of the tooth 5. Periodontic Treatment which involves the treatment of the gums and the its supporting structures of the teeth.
  • 23. 6. Restorative Treatment which involves the restoration of carious teeth to its former size, shape and function. The common types of restorations are: amalgam, composite, and glass ionomer
  • 24. Types of Restorative Filling Materials 1. Amalgam Restoration. A filling made up of alloy by mixing mercury with a silver-tin to produce a dental amalgam alloy.
  • 25. 2. Composite Restoration. A white filling made up of silica glass particles within an acrylic monomer polymerized during application.
  • 26. 3. Glass Ionomer Restoration. A white filling that consists of polymer matrices surrounded by glass-reinforcing filler particles.
  • 27. Lect nd s ur e e