Intro genetics variations


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Intro genetics variations

  1. 1. Bio. Sci. Dept.
  2. 2. What is Genetics? From Greek word: Genetikos= generative Gen=to produce, = to become, = to grow into something
  3. 3. What is Genetics? • Explains one’s origin or ancestry • “HOW ONE BECOMES WHAT HE IS LIKE” • Individuals of the same species may have characteristics common to all of them (Species characteristics=denote common origin), and yet they may differ from one another (Individual characteristics)
  4. 4. Variations The basic quality of living organisms It denotes species characteristics Provides individual characteristics Provides the raw materials for adaptation
  5. 5. Some terms that can be associated to VARIATIONS PHENOTYPE – various observable features by which we recognize the organism GENOTYPE – unobservable features- hidden traits of an organism PHENOCOPIES – environmental alterations of phenotype Ex. Straightening of curly hair
  6. 6. TYPES OF VARIATIONS 1. MORPHOLOGICAL or STRUCTURAL A. Physical traits or gross anatomical feature •shape of the face, ears, eyes •color of the eyes, hair,
  7. 7. TYPES OF VARIATIONS B. Cellular, Subcellular and Molecular Characteristics • Kind of hemoglobin in the RBC • Kind of glycoproteins on the cell membrane • Kind of DNA
  8. 8. TYPES OF VARIATIONS 2. PHYSIOLOGICAL or FUNCTIONAL 1. biochemical and biophysical processes - inability to absorb glucose - inability to distinguish colors - failure to perform photosynthesis - inability to synthesize certain amino acid
  9. 9. TYPES OF VARIATIONS 3. BEHAVIORAL - Combined structural and physiological characteristics - Pattern of reactions to its environment Ex. IQ, Mental retardation Tolerance level
  10. 10. TYPES OF VARIATIONS 4. SEXUAL - The most important phenotypic characteristics of an organism - Capacity for reproduction together with the features associated with it
  11. 11. TYPES OF VARIATIONS Sexual Variations are classified as A. Primary Sexual Traits – differences in external genitalia and gonads B. Secondary Sexual Traits – non- sexual but related to mating and rearing of youngs -developed breast in human female -smaller body of male frogs
  12. 12. VARIATIONS can be described as: A. CONTINUOUS VARIATION: - when the characteristic varies in small amounts between individuals - height - weight
  13. 13. VARIATIONS B. DISCONTINUOUS VARIATION - one of several discrete alternatives Ex. Tongue-rolling Sex
  14. 14. Variations in Man
  15. 15. Variations in Man
  16. 16. Variations in Animal
  17. 17. Variations in Animals
  18. 18. Variations in Plants
  19. 19. Variations in Plants
  20. 20. CAUSES OF VARIATION Genes (Inherited) - sex determination - mental retardation - infant deformities Environment (Acquired) - physical deformities - obesity
  21. 21. Fields of Genetics 1. TRANSMISSION GENETICS / CLASSICAL GENETICS – deals with heredity and variation Methods: • Planned Experimental/Cross Breeding • Pedigree Analysis
  22. 22. Mendel’s Experiments Mendel chose true-breeding/pure breeding (between homozygous) garden peas for his experiments Mendel first worked with single-character crosses (Monohybrid cross).
  23. 23. Fig. 14-2a Stamens Carpel Parental generation (P) TECHNIQUE 1 2 3 4
  24. 24. Fig. 14-2b First filial gener- ation offspring (F1) RESULTS 5
  25. 25. Pea Characters
  26. 26. A Pedigree
  27. 27. Fields of Genetics 2. CYTOGENETICS - study the genes in the cell particularly in the chromosome - provide the chromosomal basis of sex determination - explain the distribution of boys and girls in the family
  28. 28. Cytogenetics
  29. 29. Fields of Genetics 3. MOLECULAR GENETICS - investigate in detail the nature of genetic material, it’s structure, mode of replication and how it acts to produce the phenotype DNA – genetic material
  30. 30. Molecular Genetics
  31. 31. Fields of Genetics 4. POPULATION GENETICS - genetic structure of a population - patterns of genetic variation in populations - changes in genetic structure through time
  32. 32. 200 white 500 pink 300 red • genotype frequencies • allele frequencies 200/1000 = 0.2 rr 500/1000 = 0.5 Rr 300/1000 = 0.3 RR total = 1000 flowers genotype frequencies: Describing genetic structure
  33. 33. Population Genetics
  34. 34. Fields of Genetics 5. APPLIED GENETICS – practical applications of Genetics A. Animal husbandry & plant breeding - to produce high yielding varieties of food crops like disease-resistant plants and varieties of cows and pigs
  35. 35. Applied Genetics B. Epidemiological Genetics – for better therapy, management and prevention of recurrence of inherited disease C. Eugenics – choice of partners for marriage and have an estimate of the likelihood of appearance of desirable trait
  36. 36. Applied Genetics D. Medicolegal Genetics – to solve legal problems like dispute in paternity and exchange of babies in the hospital nursery E. Genetic Counseling – for deciding abortion and planning responsible parenthood through amniocentesis
  37. 37. Human Genome Project
  38. 38. So what if there would be a database for the Human Genome?!?
  39. 39. Amelogenesis imperfecta This condition causes teeth to be unusually small, discolored, pitted or grooved, and prone to rapid wear and breakage CAUSE: Mutation in the AMELX, ENAM, and MMP20 genes TREATMENT: Crowning for the soft enamel In case of worse scenario, teeth may have to be extracted and implants or dentures are required
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