Dental Office


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Dental Office

  1. 1. THE DENTAL OFFICE A sheltered system that requires architectural considerations, mechanical facilities, pharmaceutical supplies, industrial devices and business where a dentist performs and carry out his duty - ideal office is located in a quiet neighborhood or in a quiet commercial building • • • • Important things to consider: accessibility of transportation ventilation light/good water system absence of pollution
  2. 2. Urban Practice
  3. 3. Rural Practice
  5. 5. 1. Fundamental Compartments – parts of the dental office that are essential for the practice of dentistry a. Reception Room or Waiting room b. Operating Room or Clinic c. Laboratory room d. Lavatory Facilities / Comfort Room e. Infirmary Aids for emergency cases
  6. 6. 2. Optional Compartments a. Business and secretary’s office b.Rest or recovery room c. Dark room – for developing radiographs d. Store room
  7. 7. The Reception Room or Waiting Room Desirable but optional features: 1. receptionist 2. reading materials of general interest 3. basic items in a homey living room 4. correct interior decoration like educational work of art
  8. 8. The operating room / clinic Stationary Equipment 1. Dental Chair 2. Dental Unit • usually comes as one set of stationary equipment, manufactured to suit either a right or left-handed operators • installed in the clinic more or less at permanent places
  9. 9. Dental Chair a. Portable dental chair - also called field chair - used for a makeshift place - for mobile clinic -parts are easy removable or detachable and made convenient for packing and transporting
  10. 10. b. Non-portable or stationary dental chair -characterized by a wide base and is too heavy -designed to conform with the approximate contour of the patient’s anatomy -usually upholstered for utmost comfort of patients
  11. 11. Cart Type Delivery System
  12. 12. Three types according to function: a. standard or all-purpose chair b. exodontist’s chair c. child’s chair
  13. 13. The Dental Unit 1. Cuspidor or spittoon – a bowl-like receptacle for the reception of saliva, fluids and debris coming from the mouth of the patient, usually provided with water pipes to cleanse the bowl to push them toward the drain. 2. Saliva ejector – a metal / plastic holed mouthpiece which helps in keeping the mouth and the field of operation free from the interference of saliva.
  14. 14. 3. Tumbler holder – holds the glass / tumbler used by the patient, generally provided with a faucet that automatically fills the tumbler with tap water 4. Air syringes – gives off air blasts directly aimed to the tooth being treated. 5. Water syringes – gives off a fine, thin stream of water for flushing or cleaning the tooth being treated.
  15. 15. 6. Pilot light – a strong shaded electric bulb that can be swung in all direction to light up the mouth. 7. Opaque glass plate / x-ray viewer – holds radiograph in place for reading and interpretation.
  16. 16. 8. Bracket table – holds the hand instruments and other materials such as cottons, cotton holder and the like used by the operators. 9. High and low speed adaptors – devices used to hold the handpieces used by the operators.
  17. 17. Other parts of a dental chair/ units: • foot control – allows the handpiece to function as needed • push bottoms to allow adjustments of the chair to permit the dentist to place the patient in convenient positions
  18. 18. Movable Equipment Dental X-ray X-ray machine – a diagnostic apparatus used to reveal conditions of tissues not visible during clinical visual examination. X-ray – a form of energy, of very short wave-lengths that penetrate opaque substance / tissue.
  19. 19. Radiopaque shadow ( lighter ) – objects that are resistant to x-rays ; e.g bone, enamel Radiolucent shadow ( darker ) – objects that are less resistant to x-rays; e.g soft tissues of the mouth
  20. 20. Types of Radiographic Films: 1. Intra-oral -standard film or periapical film ( include 2 or 3 teeth) -Child-sized film 2. Extra-oral panoramic film cephalometric film
  21. 21. Hygiene for the Clinic Attire for the dental staff and patient 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Laboratory gowns Eye Protection Gloves ( disposable) Headdresses / Head cap Face mask
  22. 22. Wear the right size, dispose after single use, immediately replace when punctured
  23. 23. Eye Protection!
  24. 24. Conjunctivitis
  25. 25. Sanitation in a Dental office • the cleanliness of the instruments in the clinic as a protection not only to the patients ( prevent transmission of germs from one patient to another), protection to the dentists and his clinical staff.
  26. 26. Dental Office – can be sanitized with the use of: 1. Aerosol – chemical compounds that mix well with room air, intended to sweeten air 2. Disinfectant – substances which stops or prevents the growth of microorganism.
  27. 27. Sterilizer – special equipment used to kill or free instruments from bacteria, fungi, virus, spores and/or microorganisms Sterilization – the destruction of all life for the purpose of preventing diseases
  28. 28. Methods of Sterilization 1. Simple Boiling 2. Steam under pressure ( e.g. autoclave) 3. By hot air or dry heat sterilization 4. By flame
  29. 29. 5. Intermittent or fractional sterilization utilizing moist heat – most effective in killing spores 6. Chemical / cold sterilization – sterilization in the liquid form
  30. 30. Disinfection – the process of destroying pathogenic microorganisms by the use of chemical agents known as disinfectants, the term is synonymous with germicide. Antisepsis – the process whereby the growth and development of microorganisms are merely inhibited.
  31. 31. Pre-Operative Requirements (Patient’s Chart) 1. Patient’s personal information 2. Case History Medical ( past and present) Dental (past and present) 3. Clinical Examination -General (systemic conditions) - Regional – oral with supplemental diagnostic aids -Radiographs -Dental Chart 4. Diagnosis, Treatment Plan and Treatment
  32. 32. Home Care Regimen ( of the Patient) 1. Toothbrush – one of the indispensable hand instruments in the cleaning the teeth and other structures such as the tongue and gums.
  33. 33. Regular toothbrushing of 3x a day: • can prevent the occurrence of caries and periodontal diseases by controlling the presence of virulent microorganisms. • Can prevent halitosis • Gives patient a pleasant feeling of cleanliness in the mouth
  34. 34. 2. Dentifrices – paste of whitening and cleansing agent with appropriate amount of fluoride for caries prevention. · -pea-sized amount is sufficient · -fluoride concentration of 1,000ppm to 1,500ppm 3. Dental Floss – or dental tape, used for interdental cleaning method · waxed or unwaxed · 18-inch length of floss is recommended 4. Mouthwashes / mouth rinses – substances that temporarily reduces oral malodor, leaving a pleasant taste
  35. 35. Dental Instruments • refers to a wide variety of highly specific instruments held in hand and applied during the actual treatment procedure.
  36. 36. General Classification of Dental Instruments
  37. 37. A. Operative Instruments 1. Hand –Hatchets –Chisels –Hoes –Excavators Rest orat ive Dent ist ryRest orat ive Dentist ry Set : Set : Gingival Margin Trimmer Hoe Hatchet Gingival Margin Trimmer Hatchet Hoe Rest orat ive Dent ist ry Set : Angle Form er Scientific Hybrid Design: Scientific Hybrid Design: Cutting Instruments: Gingival Margin Trimmer – produce proper bevel on Hoe Cutting Instrument: proximoocclusal preparation Hatchet is used for sharpening Internal Line Angles, To refine gingival axial retention particularly in preparations for gold restoration) Scrape and flatten the axial wall and forming line angles (Anterior & PosteriorFormer Angle Teeth) Scientific Hybrid Design:
  38. 38. 2. Rotary Burs Stones Discs -these are inserted in the handpiece
  39. 39. 3. Condensing Instruments e.g. pluggers Rest orat ive Dentist ry Set : Plugger Plugger
  40. 40. 4. Plastic Instruments Rest or at ive Dent ist r y Set : Rest orat ive Dent ist ry Set : Hollen Back Hollen Back –Spatulas –Carvers –Burnishers –Packing instruments Hollen Back Hollen Back Rest orat ive Dent ist ry Set : or at ive Dent ist ry Set : Rest Frahm Am algam Car rier Scientific Hybrid Design: Scientific Hybri Carving Instruments: ( Hollen Back Carving Amalgam and Composite ) Carving Instru ( Hollen Back Carving Amalg Frahm Amalgam carrier Scientific Hybrid Design: Carving Instruments: Scientific Hybrid Design: Amalgam Carrier:
  41. 41. 5. Finishing and Polishing Instruments • Hand –Polishing points –Finishing strips • Rotary –Finishing burs –Rubber cups
  42. 42. 6. Miscellaneous Instruments –E.g. scissors
  43. 43. B. Prophylaxis and Diagnostic Gr acey Scal er s : 1. explorers 2. probes 3. scalers 4. curettes 5. files Posterior 11/12 5/6 7/8 Posterior 13/14 11/12 13/14 Towners Jaquette
  44. 44. C. General Surgical Instruments • • • • • forceps elevators bone chisels mallet curettes
  45. 45. Four Basic Hand Instruments • • • • Mouth mirror Cotton Pliers Rest or at ive Dent ist ry Set 4 Basic I nst rum ent Spoon excavators s : Mouth Mirror Explorer Explorers S. Excavator Tweeser Mouth Mirror Explorer Spoon Tweeser Excavator
  46. 46. Finger Positions REST - position assumed by the third and fourth fingers to stabilize the position of the instrument - position of the thumb resting somewhere on the teeth or gums.
  47. 47. • FINGER GUARD position assumed by the fingers of the non-operating hand to protect the parts being worked upon from injury.
  48. 48. Essential Parts of a Hand Instrument
  49. 49. Parts of Hand Instrument Working Tip Blade Shank Handle Blade or nib – point or head. functional end Shank – connects the shaft and the blade or nib Handle or shaft- area where it is grasped
  50. 50. Basic Instruments Grasps 1. Pen 2. Inverted pen 3. Palm and Thumb 4. Position where no rest is needed
  51. 51. END OF LECTURE