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Chance, probabilities, and genetic ratios

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• Genetics is different from most other biology courses you have taken in that memorization is not veryimportant. You are expected to learn vocabulary and some examples of genetic disorders,formulae, etc. But learning and applying concepts is much more important. In particular, youneed to be able to think about and analyze genetic data
• For example in tossing a coin, where the probability of having either a head or tail on top is one half since it consists only of two sides.
• sometimes, a trait is distributed in a population in different intensitiesThe distribution is a description of the population in terms of the proportion of individuals that have each of the possible phenotypes.Many traits are influenced by multiple genes as well as the effects of the environment. These are called multifactorial traits or complex traits because each factor that affects the trait contributes, at most, a modest amount to the total variation in the trait observed in the entire population. Displaying a distribution completely, either in tabular form or in graphical form is always helpful but often unnecessary. In many cases a description of the distribution in terms of two major features is sufficient. These features are the mean and the variance.
• Xp = Efx/Ef
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• 1. CHANCE, PROBABILITIES, AND GENETIC RATIOS
• 2. CHANCE • central role in Mendelian genetics • union of gametes during fertilization process • is a random process • probability is the measure on how a particular event will happen
• 3. PROBABILITY • given a value between 0 (0% chance or it will not occur) and 1 (100% chance or it will occur) • the higher the degree of probability the more likely the event is to happen
• 4. GENETIC RATIO • representation of genotypes of a pair of contrasting traits of a character in the form of ratio – homozygous dominant – heterozygous – homozygous recessive
• 5. Percent Deviation • useful in determining how accurate the data collected by student • Percent deviation = (student data - lab data) / lab data then multiplied by 100 • if negative (student data is lower than lab data) • if positive (student data is higher than lab data)
• 6. STATISTICAL CONCEPTS AND RULES Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation
• 7. • Pick 10 leaves from the samples • measure (in mm) the length and broadest width of the leaf • Obtain measurements by other groups • Compute for sample mean, sample variance, sample standard deviation • Plot frequency against the measure value to prepare histograms