ADM100 SAP Web AS Administration I By : ENG. ALY ADEL Senior SAP Netweaver Consultant
UNIT 1 : FUNDAMENTALS Objectives What is SAP system ? Process of a System Logon Configuring SAP Logon Analysis Transactions
What Is SAP System ? Exactly one database and one or more instances. The instance that together with the database, creates a runnable SAP system, is called the “ central instance ”. It is certainly possible to install two instances of a system or even of different systems on one server. When configuring two systems (or their databases) on one server, you should ensure that the two systems are clearly differentiated, otherwise a conflict situation will eventually occur during the use of common resources (such as program libraries), An SAP System consists of the components shown in the graphic:
What Is an Instance of an SAP System? An instance of an SAP system is an administrative unit that provide one or more services . The services provided are commonly started and stopped. These components currently include the Dispatcher , the work processes , the gateway , the assigned main memory areas, and an Internet Communication Manager (ICM), if one is configured. An instance always has exactly one dispatcher. The start of an instance always begins with the start of the associated dispatcher. An instance requires a minimum of two dialog work processes. Otherwise it is not possible to start it. An instance is also called the Application Server .
Process Of System Logon SAP GUI sends the user’s logon data to the instance (step 3 in the above figure). After the dispatcher has determined a free work process to process the logon, it transfers the logon data to this work process (step 4). The work process, in turn, checks whether the received combination of user ID and password is known to the system using a request to the database (steps 5-8). A positive response from the database prompts the work process to return the initial screen of the system to the front end.
Dialog Work Process Multiplexing The processing of a transaction that consists of multiple screens is usually executed using multiple, different dialog work processes. This distribution is called “ work process multiplexing ”.
UNIT 2 : Starting & Stopping The SAP System Objectives System Start : Process System Start : Logs System Shutdown : How and Why ?
System Start : Process The starting of an SAP system is the basic prerequisite for being able to work with the system. Restarts of SAP systems are also required after maintenance work on the hardware in use and changes to the SAP system’s profile. Starting an SAP system is an initial process with which every administrator should be familiar.
System Start <ul><li>1 . Start the database: </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying element of the entire SAP system is the database. Before the SAP instances are started, this must have operational status. The database is therefore always started as the first step. </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Start the central instance: </li></ul><ul><li> Next, the operating system collector SAPOSCOL is started, if it is not already active </li></ul><ul><li>3 . Start other instances: </li></ul><ul><li> The dispatcher is then started with its work processes. </li></ul>
System Start The status of the SAP system , individual instances , and the message server and dispatcher are displayed in the Microsoft Management Console ( MMC) in accordance with the following color legend: GRAY : not running YELLOW : is starting GREEN : Active RED : Terminated after errors
System Start : Logs Logging the Start Process The start process is an especially important phase, which is logged by the operating system, the SAP system, and the database. If the SAP system does not start up, you can find the relevant error message in the log files. All messages that are created by services or the Microsoft Management Console are recorded at operating system level by an event logging service the Event Manager.
System Start : Logs The system displays a list of errors, warnings, and information that have been generated
System Shutdown : How and Why ? <ul><li>It can be necessary to stop an SAP system for a variety of reasons, such as to restart after permanently changing profile parameters, or to allow hardware upgrades to be carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>As the administrator of SAP systems, you need to stop the systems for maintenance purposes or after changing system parameters, and then </li></ul>
System Shutdown : How and Why ? <ul><li>Active Users: </li></ul><ul><li>Check which users are logged on using the User List ( SM04 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Background Processing : </li></ul><ul><li>Check which jobs are active using the Job Overview ( SM37 ). If jobs are terminated by the system stop, these must be rescheduled. Jobs that are scheduled for the time in which the system is stopped run automatically once the system is restarted. </li></ul><ul><li>Batch Input: </li></ul><ul><li>The transaction Batch Input: Session Overview ( SM35 ) displays running batch input jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Update: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Update Overview ( SM13 ) to check whether update processes are terminated by the system stop. These update records are rolled back during the stop, and these are set to the status “init”. These records are then updated again during the restart. </li></ul><ul><li>Before you stop your system, you should inform users using a system message ( SM02 ). </li></ul>
System Shutdown : How and Why ? The stopping of the SAP system is performed in the opposite order to the start. Stopping the instances: In the SAP system itself (transaction RZ03 ) by choosing Control -> Stop SAP instance . In the Microsoft Management Console, right-click to show the context menu and choose the Stop function. Depending on whether you have selected an individual instance or the SAP system, the following are stopped: – A single instance – Central instance and all dialog instances The SAP service waits for a stop message from the MMC or from the CCMS and then stops the SAP system. The service itself is not stopped. The services themselves can be stopped and restarted with the Microsoft Windows Service Control Manager.
UNIT 3 : Introduction To System Configuration Objectives How The System Evaluate It’s Parameters How To Set System Parameters Setting Up Operation Modes
System Parameters <ul><li>The configuration of the individual instances and therefore of the SAP system is performed using system parameters. The default values for these parameters are defined in the program code of the kernel. </li></ul><ul><li>The profile files are automatically created during installation. After installation is complete, the profile files are stored at operating system level in the directory: usrsap<SID>SYSprofile. </li></ul><ul><li>The SAP system has three system profiles. These are: </li></ul><ul><li>Start profile </li></ul><ul><li>Default profile </li></ul><ul><li>Instance profile </li></ul>
System Parameters The instance-specific start profile ( START<instance><instance number>_<host name> ), specifies for each instance which processes are to be started. These are, for example, the message server and the dispatcher. There is only one default profile (DEFAULT.PFL ) for each SAP system, and it is read by all instances. It contains system-wide settings, such as the system name, the name of the database server, the name of the enqueue server, or also the default logon client. The instance profile ( <SID>_<instance><instance number>_<host name> ) defines parameters that apply for one instance, such as the number and type of work processes, or the definition of the size and allocation of the main memory area used by the SAP system, and is therefore instance-specific.
How To Set System Parameters <ul><li>If you want to change profile parameters, you can make these changes using operating system-specific editors. </li></ul><ul><li>After installation, the profile parameters are, at first, only present at file level. To be able to use the profile administration of the SAP system, the profiles must be imported into the database. </li></ul><ul><li>During this import, the system performs a consistency check , These are </li></ul><ul><li>then stored in the database, and written back to file level. </li></ul>
Setting up Operation Modes <ul><li>The demands of users on the system vary during the course of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>During the day, a large number of dialog users, who want to be </li></ul><ul><li>served with high performance by the system, are working. </li></ul><ul><li>During the night, however, only a small number of these dialog work processes are used, and the system can be used to a larger extent to process background jobs. </li></ul>
UNIT 4 : Access To HELP Objectives Configuring The Online Documentation Support Online Help SAP Marketplace
Configuring The Online Documentation <ul><li>The SAP Library, which is also known as the online documentation, is </li></ul><ul><li>an important source of information, and contains information about all relevant topics in the SAP environment. Installing the online documentation locally or company-wide helps users to work more effectively with the SAP system. </li></ul>
SAP Service Marketplace ( http://service.sap.com )
UNIT 5 : Fundamentals of Working with the Database Objectives Architecture of Database Systems Backing Up the Database Contents Overview: Monitor the Database
Architecture of Database Systems <ul><li>The administrator regularly backs up this data. A database management system (DBMS) includes database processes, a buffer in the main memory, data files that contain the data, and log files, in which changes to the data are logged. </li></ul><ul><li>At the start of an SAP system, all work processes are linked to a database process. which perform the query on the database. </li></ul><ul><li>The data is stored in the data files. The special database processes are responsible for the exchange of data between the buffer and the data files. During this exchange, the data is always read and written in complete pages </li></ul><ul><li>If changes are made to the data, these are logged in the log file, Which contains the status changes of the database. Only the changes, and not the complete pages, are logged in the log buffer. </li></ul><ul><li>For every database, there is a mechanism that backs up the log information from the log file to </li></ul><ul><li>A database always also includes structure data that contains essential information for the database, such as the number of data files, and so on. </li></ul>
Backing Up the Database Contents <ul><li>These backups are performed with the database planning calendar (transaction DB13). </li></ul><ul><li>Backup Concept : </li></ul><ul><li>A backup concept for the database always includes the regular backup of the data files, and also the log information. </li></ul>
Scenarios for Recovering a Database <ul><li>Resetting the database (with data loss): </li></ul><ul><li>If a disk crash occurs at a point between t1 and t2, all data from the data </li></ul><ul><li>backup t1 is imported. If no further action is taken, all data changes that were made after t1 are lost. </li></ul>
Scenarios for Recovering a Database <ul><li>Resetting the database (without data loss): </li></ul><ul><li> All data from data backup t1 is imported. the system follows all log information written since t1 (22, 23, ...). As a final step, the log file is followed. This means that all data is now once again in the same status as at the point when the disk crash occurred. Only if all log information since the data backup is available, with no gaps, will there be no data loss. </li></ul><ul><li>If a disk crash occurs at time t5 and a backup medium for the backup t3 is defective, an earlier data backup (in this case, t1) must be used. To recover the database without data loss, it is absolutely necessary to have all log info backups (in this case: t2 and t4) since the data backup t1 and the log information as of 28. It is therefore necessary to keep older data and log info backups. </li></ul>
Scheduling and Monitoring Backups <ul><li>In the SAP system, you can schedule and monitor regular database </li></ul><ul><li>backups with transaction DB13. </li></ul><ul><li>If a manual medium swap is required, if you are, for example, using a local tape station , check which medium is required for the next backup every day by choosing the Vols needed button, and insert this medium before the start of the backup. </li></ul><ul><li>You can set the display of the planning calendar using the menu path </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar -> Calendar Display. </li></ul><ul><li>Check every day whether your backups have been successfully completed. </li></ul><ul><li>In the planning calendar, a successful backup is displayed </li></ul>
UNIT 6 : Archiving Objectives Fundamentals of SAP Data Archiving Performing Data Archiving Accessing Archived Data
SAP Data Archiving <ul><li> if there are Database Administrators among the participants they should Be Aware that the term archive file does not mean the database backup files (such as Oracle Offline Redo Log files, which are often called archive files). </li></ul><ul><li>You can use data archiving to securely store application data that is no longer required for day-today activities outside the database. This stored data is stored in archive files, which you can access later. The result is a .slim. Database, which can be more efficiently in the long-term. </li></ul><ul><li>With current database systems, a large data volume can often lead to performance bottlenecks, which cause bad performance on the user side, and increased resource costs on the administration side. Data that is no longer required in the database for applications should therefore be removed from the database. The data must therefore be stored outside the database on external storage media so that it can later be read again. </li></ul><ul><li> The data is archived in online mode; that is, you do not need to shutdown the system during the archiving. </li></ul><ul><li> Transaction DB15 ( menu path Tools -> CCMS -> DB Administration-> Data Archiving ) provides information about which database tables are associated with which archiving object </li></ul>
UNIT 7 : Working with the Transport System Objectives Data Structure and System Landscapes Performing and Checking Transports
Data Structure <ul><li>SAP systems differentiate between client-dependent and cross-client Customizing. Cross-client Customizing includes the public holiday calendar, or settings for the transport domains and system changeability. </li></ul><ul><li>Client-dependent data is data that is only valid in that client. For example, material master records, orders, and invoices. User data and authorizations are also client-dependent. </li></ul><ul><li>The repository is the central store for all development objects of the ABAP Workbench and is cross-client. The repository objects are stored in packages. Packages are containers for semantically-linked development objects. </li></ul>
System Landscapes SAP recommendation for a three-system landscape is based on the data structure of an SAP system, in which the object repository only exists once.
UNIT 8 : Support Packages, Plug-Ins, and Add-Ons Objectives Term Definition: Support Packages Importing Support Packages Updating the Tools Importing SAP Notes
Support Packages <ul><li>SPAM </li></ul><ul><li>After the installation of your SAP system, you want to import functional </li></ul><ul><li>enhancements into your system, and correct errors that may occur. SAP </li></ul><ul><li>makes Support Packages available for this purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Support Packages and Industry Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>An SAP system consists of different software layers, also called software components. All of these layers are regularly updated using Support Packages errors are corrected and new functions are provided using Support Packages. </li></ul>
Importing Support Packages . <ul><li>Download the Support Packages from the SAP Service Marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>There must be enough space in the file system. </li></ul><ul><li>The import should be performed during a time of low operation. </li></ul><ul><li>TMS/ must be configured. </li></ul><ul><li>The newest SPAM update is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Client 000 for importing; in all other clients only a display function is available. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a user that has system authorizations for transaction SPAM. </li></ul><ul><li>load the Support Packages into your system by choosing </li></ul><ul><li>Support Package-> Load Packages -> From application server </li></ul><ul><li>After that the transportation phase takes place by clicking the transfer icon </li></ul>
Scenarios for Recovering a Database <ul><li>Add-Ons are imported with transaction SAINT: In terms of transaction SAINT, an Add-On is everything that does not belong to the standard SAP system. This includes, for example, Industry Solutions, and Plug-Ins. For a complete list of the Industry Solutions currently offered by </li></ul><ul><li>SAP . </li></ul><ul><li>A few examples of Industry Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Aerospace & Defense </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Automotive </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Banking </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Consumer Products </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Financial Service Provider </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP High Tech </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Mining </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Oil & Gas </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Public Sector </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>mySAP Utilities </li></ul>
UNIT 9 : Scheduling Background Tasks Objectives Fundamentals of Background Processing Time-Based Scheduling of Jobs Event-Based Scheduling of Jobs Background Processing: Other Topics
Fundamentals of Background Processing <ul><li>Background processing should essentially separate long-running or periodic tasks from user interaction. Long-running tasks which would occupy a work process for a long time in dialog can be sequentially processed in the background without affecting the dialog performance. An </li></ul><ul><li>important prerequisite for achieving this goal is an appropriate sizing of the system . </li></ul>
Fundamentals of Background Processing <ul><li>Background processing should essentially separate long-running or periodic tasks from user interaction. Long-running tasks which would occupy a work process for a long time in dialog can be sequentially processed in the background without affecting the dialog performance. An </li></ul><ul><li>important prerequisite for achieving this goal is an appropriate sizing of the system . </li></ul><ul><li>You can use the background work processes for long-running tasks. These are sometimes also called . Batch work processes .. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally, background processing is used not only for long-running, but also for recurrent tasks. Examples of this type of task are the daily database backup or the month end work for financial accounting. </li></ul>
Background Processing: Other Topics LOAD BALANCING
UNIT 10 : Including Printers in SAP Systems . Objectives Configuring Printers in SAP Systems Concept of Logical Spool Servers Managing Spool Requests
Configuring Printers in SAP Systems <ul><li>Local printing </li></ul><ul><li>local printing is that the spool work process and operating system spool are running on the same host. It is irrelevant whether the printer is directly connected to this host, or is reached over a network The spool work process passes on its data locally, that is on the same host. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Transaction SPAD for Spool Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Use Transaction SP02 for your own Spool Requests </li></ul>
UNIT 13 : System Monitoring Objectives Monitoring Architecture Including Remote Systems Creating Your Own Monitors
Monitoring Architecture <ul><li>You want to ensure good performance for the processing of business </li></ul><ul><li>processes. You therefore regularly monitor the SAP systems, and take preventative action if required. </li></ul><ul><li>Initial questions about monitoring: </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure the efficient processing of business processes </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure system security and stability </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Central and cross-system </li></ul><ul><li>With an alert if an error occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring should be organized as efficiently as possible. There is not enough time for an administrator to log on to each host component to check its status. An efficient monitoring structure should be able to display the entire system landscape at a glance centrally. If an error occurs, the </li></ul><ul><li>person responsible is automatically notified. </li></ul><ul><li>An SAP system is selected as the central monitoring system. It should have as high a release status as possible (at least SAP R/3 4.6C) and a high level of availability. In large system landscapes, we recommend that you include a separate system that is used only special tasks such as central </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring, Central User Administration, transport domains controller, or the SAP Solution Manager. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use either transaction RZ20 </li></ul>
UNIT 14 : SAP Solution Manager Objectives Concept of the SAP Solution Manager
SAP Solution Manager <ul><li>The SAP Solution Manager is a tool that provides the administrator with a large number of functions for administering a complex system landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>The SAP Solution Manager is a service and support platform for the implementation and operation of SAP systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The SAP Solution Manager supports customers at the start of the project, during functional and technical implementation, during running operation, and during the optimization of their system landscapes. </li></ul>
Trace Options <ul><li>You can follow the process of various operations in your SAP system with trace functions. This allows you to monitor the system and isolate problems that occur. There are two types of trace: the performance trace and the system trace. You can also use developer traces and the system log </li></ul><ul><li>to correct problems. The following trace options exist in the system: </li></ul><ul><li>System log </li></ul><ul><li>Dump analysis </li></ul><ul><li>System trace </li></ul><ul><li>Performance trace </li></ul><ul><li>Developer trace </li></ul><ul><li>You can use the System Log ( transaction SM21 ) to detect and correct errors in your system and its environment. </li></ul><ul><li>If errors occur during runtime when you call an ABAP program, a runtime error that generates a short dump can occur ( transaction ST22 ). </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to record the internal SAP system activities, such as authorization checks, database accesses, and RFC calls, use the System Trace function ( transaction: ST01 ). </li></ul><ul><li>The Performance Trace( transaction ST05 ) allows you to record database calls, lock management calls, and remote calls of reports and transactions in a trace file . Technical information about internal SAP problems is logged in developer traces. </li></ul>
UNIT 16 : Introduction To System Security Objectives Security in the SAP Environment
Security of The SAP System <ul><li>Clients and Super users </li></ul><ul><li>Client 000 cannot be changed and is used as a template for customer clients. Client 001 was previously intended for production work. However, most customers use a different client, such as client 100. </li></ul><ul><li>Clients 000 and 066 are part of a standard SAP system. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two special users in client 000: </li></ul><ul><li>SAP* for initial access to the system </li></ul><ul><li>DDIC for working with the Transport Management System (TMS) </li></ul><ul><li>To protect SAP* and DDIC against unwanted access, you should change the initial passwords . </li></ul>