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Structure of words: MORPHEMES
 

Structure of words: MORPHEMES

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    Structure of words: MORPHEMES Structure of words: MORPHEMES Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Linguistics Professor: Dr.Aida A. Dianela Reporter:ALVINT.VARGAS Sat. 7:30-10:30 Structure of Words: MORPHOLOGY
    • A.Words 1. Notion of Words a.Structure of Words Simple words Complex words B. Morphemes, Allomorphs and Morph 1.Morphemes 2.Allomorphs 3.Morphs C. Main Types of Morphemes a. According to Occurrence Free Morphemes Bound Morphemes
    • b. According to Function Lexical Morphemes Bound Roots - Derivational Affixes Grammatical Morphemes - Free Grammatical Morphemes - Bound Grammatical Morphemes - Inflectional Affixes Clitics - Enclitics - Proclitics
    • D. Allomorphs and allomorph conditioning Types of Allomorph  Phonological allomorphs  Suppletive allomorphs Types of Conditioning factors  Phonological conditioning  Lexical conditioning  Morphological conditioning
    •  The boundaries of words in spoken utterances are not overtly marked, so we need criteria for their identification.We introduce the widely used notion of word as minimal free form.We also examine the internal structure of words, that is, how they can be divided into smaller meaningful units.The scientific investigation of this domain is called MORPHOLOGY.
    •  Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words.  Some observations about words and their structure: 1. Some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning. 2. Many words have meaning by themselves. But some words have meaning only when used with other words. 3. Some of the parts into which words can be divided can stand alone as words. But others cannot. 4. These word-parts that can occur only in combination must be combined in the correct way. 5. Languages create new words systematically.
    •  Words Notion ofWords Speakers generally have some notion of words in their language, and all languages probably have a word for ―word‖ – that is, a word that can translate word in some context. Speakers of English generally have a good feel for how an utterance can be divided into words.This may seem trivial: surely words are the things that are separated by largish white spaces in writing. But this does not work smoothly. Ex. Bookcase and Bookshelf Church mouse and Churchman In speech we find no corresponding pauses between words - Ex.The farmer kills the duckling. Nevertheless,no speaker of English would have any doubt that there are five words in this sentence.No one would say that there is a word boundary between farm and erkills or between kill and s.
    • The farmer…kills the duckling orThe um:farmer kills um the duckling. Th…e farm…er kills the duckling. Extension: Ex.  The hairy farmer always kills all the little ducklings.  De farmer kills de duckling /The farmer kills the duckring.  Words are thus minimal free forms: they have a degree of independence from other words in the sentence in the sense that they can be separated from them (free bit) and no smaller part of them has such freedom(minimal bit)
    • Structure of Words  Simple words - no internal structure Ex. farm,kill,duck  Complex words – do have internal structure Ex. farmer,kills,duckling The ―pieces‖ we have been talking about are minimal linguistic signs: they have a form and meaning, and cannot be divided into smaller linguistic signs. Such pieces are morphemes. Morphemes are in a sense atomic signs: they can‘t be split up further. Simple words consist of a single morpheme; complex words of more than one morpheme.
    •  Language differ vastly in terms of the word-complexity they permit.  By comparison, words inYup‘ik (Eskimo,Aleut,Alaska) tend to be more complex, and often correspond to full sentences in English.  Ex.―kaipiallrulliniuk‖ means ―the two of them were apparently really hungry‖, and is made up of six morphemes. Kai- -pia- -llru- -llini- -u- -k- be; hungry- -really- -past- -apparently- -statement- -they:two
    • Morphemes, Allomorphs and Morph  Morphemes sometimes come in different phonological shapes. For instance, we identified a morpheme with the shape /z/ in kills,which indicates that a single person is doing the event now. For cat the corresponding form ends in /s/, and for touches,it ends in / z/.These variant forms are called allomorphs.  Other allomorphs in English are /t/, /d/, and / d/ that are variant forms of the morpheme that attach to verbs and indicate ―past time‖.
    • Ex. kissed /kIst/, killed /kIld/ and batted /bæt d/, respectively.  Allomorphs Maybe complementary distribution Ex. / / and /æn/ = a and an or free variation Ex. exit as /εgzIt/ and /εksIt/, and off as / :f/ and / f/.
    • Morphs  Sometimes used on analogy with phone in phonetics to refer to any meaningful form in a language. Some morphs are grouped together as allomorphs of a morpheme.  Ex. /z/, one going on nouns and specifying plural (more than one), as in dogs /d gz/, the other going on verbs, and indicating‗he, she or it is doing something.
    • Main Types of Morphemes  According to Occurrence Free Morphemes – a simple word consists of a single morpheme, and so is a free morpheme, a morpheme with the potential for independent occurrence. In “The farmer kills the duckling”,the free morphemes are the,farm,kill and duck. Bound Morphemes – by contrast, require the presence of another morpheme to make up a word; they can‘t occur independently.The morphs –er, -s and –ling in the given example are bound morphemes.
    •  Other morphemes like –ish,-ness,-ly,pre-,trans-, and un- are never words by themselves but are always parts of words.These affixes are bound morphemes. Prefixes occur before the morpheme, as in un-happy. Suffixes occur after a morpheme, as in friend-ly.A third type of bound morpheme is an infix, that goes inside another morpheme, as in 'absofreakinglutely' (some languages make more use of this than English). Collectively, suffixes, prefixes and infixes are called affixes.
    •  According to Function  Lexical Morphemes – are those like farm,kill,happy that convey the major‗content‘ of a message, specifying the things, qualities and events spoken about. Words that have meaning by themselves are called lexical morphemes.  Bound Roots - Most roots in English are free however there exist a number which are always bound as they carry no meaning apart from the word in which they are found. (Ex. ―cranberry‖) There are other roots which are bound in the in certain contexts and free in others.(Ex.―blackboard‖)
    •  Derivational Affixes – these are affixes that attach to a lexical root and result in a new word, a complex lexeme called stem.The suffix – er / / in English is a derivational suffix. Adding it to a lexical root gives a stem with related meaning. Ex. bake – baker, boil – boiler.  These suffixes do not only change the meaning of the morpheme they are attached to, they also change its part-of-speech.
    •  Ex.  Noun –Adjective Verb – Noun Adjective – Adverb boy + ish sing + er exact + ly  Noun –Verb Adjective – Noun Verb – Adjective vapor + ize free + dom read + able Some derivational suffixes do not cause change in grammatical class. Ex.  Noun – Noun Verb –Verb Adjective – Adjective Friend + ship un + do pink + ish
    •  Grammatical Morphemes –Whereas lexical morphemes give the major meaning content of an utterance, grammatical morpheme mainly give information about the grammatical structure of the utterance, about how to put the content together to form a coherent whole.  Those words that function to specify the relationship between one lexical morpheme and another—words like at,in,on,-ed,-s—are called grammatical morphemes.  Free Grammatical Morphemes -Words that can stand alone which (1) Signal grammatical & semantic roles & relationships; (2) Qualify or modify meaning (e.g., gender for pronouns)Articles, prepositions, conjunctions, disjunctions, pronouns  Ex. the, a an, to, of, by, for, and, but, his, her
    •  Bound Grammatical Morphemes – Suffixes that (1) indicate grammatical & semantic roles and relationships; and (2) Qualify or modify meaning. Complete list: {-pl}: plural morpheme {-poss}: possessive {-3rd person sg. present} {-present participle} {-past participle} {-er comparative} ―higher‖ {-est superlative} ―highest
    •  Inflectional Affixes – are bound morphemes that give grammatical information relevant to the interpretation of a sentence.They do not give rise to new lexical words, but to different forms of a single lexical word, different forms that are appropriate for the use of the lexical word in the sentence. English has only eight inflectional affixes:  {PLU} = plural Noun -s boys  {POSS} = possessive Noun -‘s boy’s  {COMP} = comparative Adj -er older  {SUP} = superlative Adj -est oldest  {PRES} = present Verb -s walks  {PAST} past Verb -ed walked  {PAST PART} = past participle Verb -en driven  {PRES PART} = present participle Verb -ing driving
    •  Clitics - A word or part of a word that is structurally dependent on a neighboring word (its host) and cannot stand on its own. Not all bound grammatical morphemes are inflectional affixes. The bound form of have,written „ve,as in “They‟ve broken in again”is an example. Bound grammatical morphemes like this, which behave grammatically as separate word, but are phonologically part of the preceding word, are called enclitics. If they are part of the following word, they are called proclitics
    •  The negative word not and a relatively small number of frequently occurring words (mostly verbs) can be contracted and attached to other words. Usually they are attached at the end as enclitics: she's (she is or she has), don't (do not).  Occasionally they are proclitics: d'you (do you), 'tis (it is). The combination of both types of clitics appears in 'tisn't.
    •  Allomorphs and Allomorph conditioning Types of Allomorphs Phonological allomorphs – morphemes that are phonologically similar Ex. /s/ - /z/ - / z/ ( plural and possessive allomorphs) Suppletive allomorphs – morphemes that are quite different phonologically. Ex. good,better,best (The derived comparative and superlative forms of good with the regular derivational suffixes –er and –(e)st
    • Types of Conditioning factors  Phonological conditioning – ex. / / and /æn/ = a and an (conditioned by the following phoneme)  Lexical conditioning – ex. –en, (in the past participle) -ed, (the form of the verb used after have and had. (the choice of allomorph depends on the particular word the morpheme is attached to.)  Morphological conditioning – (Grammatical morphemes condition the presence of the allomorph.)
    • There is no longest word in English  What is the longest word of the English language? Some have mentioned the following: (1) a. antidisestablishmentarianism (28 letters) b. Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious (34 letters) c. pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis (45 letters)  As it turns out, there is no longest word in English. To see this, consider simply the following two series, each of which can be continued without limit to create a potentially infinite number of new words:
    • antidisestablishmentarianism  The word construction is as follows  establish (9)to set up, put in place, or institute  dis-establish (12)to end the established status of a body, in particular a church, given such status by law, such as the Church of England  disestablish-ment (16)the separation of church and state  anti-disestablishment (20)opposition to disestablishment  antidisestablishment-ary (23)of or pertaining to opposition to disestablishment  antidisestablishmentari-an (25)an opponent of disestablishment  antidisestablishmentarian-ism (28)the movement or ideology that opposes disestablishment
    • Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious  The roots of the word have been defined as follows: super- "above", cali- "beauty", fragilistic- "delicate", expiali- "to atone", and docious- "educable", with the sum of these parts signifying roughly "Atoning for educability through delicate beauty."Although the word contains recognizable English morphemes, it does not follow the rules of English morphology as a whole.The morpheme -istic is a suffix in English, whereas the morpheme ex- is typically a prefix; so following normal English morphological rules, it would represent two words:supercalifragilistic and expialidocious.
    • (2) a. great-grandmother b. great-great-grandmother c. great-great-great-grandmother (3) a. sensation b. sensational c. sensationalize d. sensationalization e. sensationalizational f. sensationalizationalize
    • MORPHEMES BOUND FREE FUNCTION OR GRAMMATICAL WORDS CONTENT OR LEXICAL WORDS ROOTAFFIX DERIVATIONAL INFLECTIONAL PREFIX SUFFIX SUFFIX Conjunction (and) Preposition (in) Articles (the) Pronouns (she) Auxiliary verbs (is) Nouns (girl) Adjectives (pretty) Verbs (give) Adverbs (easily) -ceive -mit -fer pre - un - con- -ly -ist -ment -ing -er -s -s -est -‘s -en -ed