Lead poisoning


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Lead poisoning

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Lead – highly toxic substance Exposure – can produce a wide range of adverse health effects Both adults & children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood – more frequent Lead exposure – estimated by measuring levels of lead in the blood (μg/dl) Current threshold lead toxicity - 10 μg/dl
  3. 3. Where is it found?Human are exposed to lead through : Deteriorating paint Household dust Bare soil Air Drinking water Food Ceramics Hair dyes & other cosmetics
  4. 4.  The past use of leaded gasoline The lead produced by vehicle emissions continue even today to present a hazard as much of that lead now remains in soil
  5. 5. Mechanism of Lead Toxicity Lead inhibits the production of hemoglobin which needed by red blood cell (RBC) to carry oxygen & lock onto & inactivates enzymes in the brain & nervous system
  6. 6. What are the health effects? Many different effects associated with elevated blood lead levels Young children (<6y) – vulnerable to lead’s harmful health effects – because their brains & CNS are still being formed Even very low levels of exposure – result in reduced IQ, learning disability, attention deficit disorders, behavioral problems, stunted growth, impaired hearing & kidney damage
  7. 7.  At high levels of exposure – child may become mentally retarded, coma & fatal In adults – increase blood pressure, fertility problems, nerve disorders, muscle & joint pain, irritability, memory & concentration problems When pregnant women has an elevated blood lead level, it can easily be transferred to fetus as lead cross placenta
  8. 8. Chelation Therapy Process that lowers the amount of lead stored in the body Used if the blood lead level is very high Drugs called chelating agents cause metal-like lead to bind to them & eliminated from the body through urine Since chelating agents may increase the absorption of lead & other metals, it is essential to remove the source of lead before treat the patient
  9. 9. Simple steps prevention Washing hands- help reduce hand-to-mouth transfer of contaminated dust or soil, wash children hands after outdoor play, before eating & at bedtime Clean dusty surfaces – clean your floors with wet mop & wipe furniture, windowsills & other dusty surfaces Run cold water – if you have older plumbing containing lead pipes or fittings, run your cold water for at least a minutes before cooking. Don’t use hot tap water to make baby formula or for cooking
  10. 10.  Eat right – to reduce amount of lead retain by human body Check your ceramic ware – some pottery may contain lead that can leach into food & drinks Do not store alcohol in crystal containers