INTRODUCTION Lead – highly toxic substance Exposure – can produce a wide range of adverse health effects Both adults & children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood – more frequent Lead exposure – estimated by measuring levels of lead in the blood (μg/dl) Current threshold lead toxicity - 10 μg/dl
Where is it found?Human are exposed to lead through : Deteriorating paint Household dust Bare soil Air Drinking water Food Ceramics Hair dyes & other cosmetics
The past use of leaded gasoline The lead produced by vehicle emissions continue even today to present a hazard as much of that lead now remains in soil
Mechanism of Lead Toxicity Lead inhibits the production of hemoglobin which needed by red blood cell (RBC) to carry oxygen & lock onto & inactivates enzymes in the brain & nervous system
What are the health effects? Many different effects associated with elevated blood lead levels Young children (<6y) – vulnerable to lead’s harmful health effects – because their brains & CNS are still being formed Even very low levels of exposure – result in reduced IQ, learning disability, attention deficit disorders, behavioral problems, stunted growth, impaired hearing & kidney damage
At high levels of exposure – child may become mentally retarded, coma & fatal In adults – increase blood pressure, fertility problems, nerve disorders, muscle & joint pain, irritability, memory & concentration problems When pregnant women has an elevated blood lead level, it can easily be transferred to fetus as lead cross placenta
Chelation Therapy Process that lowers the amount of lead stored in the body Used if the blood lead level is very high Drugs called chelating agents cause metal-like lead to bind to them & eliminated from the body through urine Since chelating agents may increase the absorption of lead & other metals, it is essential to remove the source of lead before treat the patient
Simple steps prevention Washing hands- help reduce hand-to-mouth transfer of contaminated dust or soil, wash children hands after outdoor play, before eating & at bedtime Clean dusty surfaces – clean your floors with wet mop & wipe furniture, windowsills & other dusty surfaces Run cold water – if you have older plumbing containing lead pipes or fittings, run your cold water for at least a minutes before cooking. Don’t use hot tap water to make baby formula or for cooking
Eat right – to reduce amount of lead retain by human body Check your ceramic ware – some pottery may contain lead that can leach into food & drinks Do not store alcohol in crystal containers
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