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X-Ray Radiation Safety

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Please enjoy our X-Ray Safety Presentation by Peter Wright, CEO of Alternate Systems. For the full presentation & certification process please call us at 972.964.3124.

Please enjoy our X-Ray Safety Presentation by Peter Wright, CEO of Alternate Systems. For the full presentation & certification process please call us at 972.964.3124.

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  • LD 50/60 is dose at which 50% of exposed population will die within 60 days\n
  • LD 50/60 is dose at which 50% of exposed population will die within 60 days\n
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  • Transcript

    • 1. X-Ray Radiation Safety Presented by Peter Wright
    • 2. Training & Certification Available• To receive the full presentation and certification at your workplace please call Alternate Systems at 972.964.3124 or email us at pwwright@alternatesystems.com
    • 3. Overview
    • 4. Overview• Types of Radiation
    • 5. Overview• Types of Radiation• How X-Rays are generated
    • 6. Overview• Types of Radiation• How X-Rays are generated• Potential Health Effects
    • 7. Overview• Types of Radiation• How X-Rays are generated• Potential Health Effects• ALARA: As Low As Reasonably Achievable
    • 8. Radiation Regulations
    • 9. Radiation Regulations• 10CFR 20: Title 10 (Energy), Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 addresses general standards for radiation protection
    • 10. Radiation Regulations• 10CFR 20: Title 10 (Energy), Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 addresses general standards for radiation protection• Texas AdministrativeCode §289.228 addresses safety requirements for analytical and other industrial radiation machines
    • 11. Model of the Atom Bohr Model of the Atom: Protons are positively charged, neutrons have no charge, and electrons are negatively charged.
    • 12. X-Ray Production
    • 13. X-Ray Production X-rays are generated when electrons move to lower energy levels
    • 14. X-Ray Tube
    • 15. Radiation
    • 16. Radiation• Radiationis energy transmitted through space in the form of electromagnetic waves or energetic particles:
    • 17. Background Radiation
    • 18. Background Radiation• We are all exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources:
    • 19. Background Radiation• We are all exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources: • Radioactive substances in the earth
    • 20. Background Radiation• We are all exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources: • Radioactive substances in the earth • Radioactive gas from the earth
    • 21. Background Radiation• We are all exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources: • Radioactive substances in the earth • Radioactive gas from the earth • Cosmic rays from outer space
    • 22. Background Radiation• We are all exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources: • Radioactive substances in the earth • Radioactive gas from the earth • Cosmic rays from outer space • Trace amounts of radioactivity in the body
    • 23. Mechanisms of Damage
    • 24. Mechanisms of Damage• Injury to living tissue results from transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure:
    • 25. Mechanisms of Damage• Injury to living tissue results from transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure: • Produce free radicals
    • 26. Mechanisms of Damage• Injury to living tissue results from transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure: • Produce free radicals • Break chemical bonds
    • 27. Mechanisms of Damage• Injury to living tissue results from transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure: • Produce free radicals • Break chemical bonds • Produce new chemical bonds and cross-linkage
    • 28. Mechanisms of Damage• Injury to living tissue results from transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure: • Produce free radicals • Break chemical bonds • Produce new chemical bonds and cross-linkage • Damage molecules that regulate vital cell processes, i.e., DNA, RNA, proteins
    • 29. Mechanisms of Damage
    • 30. Prompt Effects of Radiation
    • 31. Prompt Effects of Radiation
    • 32. Prompt Effects of Radiation EFFECT DOSE Blood Count Changes 50 rem Vomiting (threshold) 100 rem Mortality (threshold) 150 rem LD 50/60 (minimal care) 320-360 rem LD 50/60 (support care) 480-540 rem 100% Mortality(best care) 800 rem
    • 33. Delayed Effects of Radiation
    • 34. Delayed Effects of Radiation• Cataracts are induced when a dose exceeding approximately 200-300 rem is delivered to the lens of the eye and may take months or years to appear
    • 35. Delayed Effects of Radiation• Cataracts are induced when a dose exceeding approximately 200-300 rem is delivered to the lens of the eye and may take months or years to appear• Cancer can be induced with radiation dose:
    • 36. Delayed Effects of Radiation• Cataracts are induced when a dose exceeding approximately 200-300 rem is delivered to the lens of the eye and may take months or years to appear• Cancer can be induced with radiation dose: • Leukemia
    • 37. Delayed Effects of Radiation• Cataracts are induced when a dose exceeding approximately 200-300 rem is delivered to the lens of the eye and may take months or years to appear• Cancer can be induced with radiation dose: • Leukemia • Multiple Myeloma
    • 38. Delayed Effects of Radiation• Cataracts are induced when a dose exceeding approximately 200-300 rem is delivered to the lens of the eye and may take months or years to appear• Cancer can be induced with radiation dose: • Leukemia • Multiple Myeloma • Breast, Lung, and Skin Cancer
    • 39. Genetic Effects
    • 40. Genetic Effects• There is no direct evidence of radiation-induced genetic effects in humans, even at high doses
    • 41. Minimal Threat Devices
    • 42. Minimal Threat Devices• Radiation is contained inside the device
    • 43. Minimal Threat Devices• Radiation is contained inside the device• Safety devices are employed to prevent exposure
    • 44. Minimal Threat Devices• Radiation is contained inside the device• Safety devices are employed to prevent exposure• Radiation at the device is the same as background radiation
    • 45. Minimal Threat Devices• Radiation is contained inside the device• Safety devices are employed to prevent exposure• Radiation at the device is the same as background radiation• Safety checks are made regularly
    • 46. ALARA
    • 47. ALARA• As Low As Reasonably Achievable
    • 48. ALARA• As Low As Reasonably Achievable• If any radiation levels above background radiation are observed, appropriate steps are taken to reduce radiation
    • 49. Summary
    • 50. Summary• Radiation is regulated because of health hazards
    • 51. Summary• Radiation is regulated because of health hazards• X-rays are a form of energy like light, only invisible
    • 52. Summary• Radiation is regulated because of health hazards• X-rays are a form of energy like light, only invisible• X-rays are generated when electrons change energy levels in an atom
    • 53. Summary• Radiation is regulated because of health hazards• X-rays are a form of energy like light, only invisible• X-rays are generated when electrons change energy levels in an atom• Health hazards include burns and cancer
    • 54. Finally
    • 55. Finally• Protect yourself:
    • 56. Finally• Protect yourself: • Observe unit for functioning safety features
    • 57. Finally• Protect yourself: • Observe unit for functioning safety features • Notifythe RSO of any changes in operating characteristics or damage
    • 58. Finally• Protect yourself: • Observe unit for functioning safety features • Notifythe RSO of any changes in operating characteristics or damage • Insure that only authorized users operate the device
    • 59. Finally• Protect yourself: • Observe unit for functioning safety features • Notifythe RSO of any changes in operating characteristics or damage • Insure that only authorized users operate the device • Insure that you and those around you are protected from exposure
    • 60. Finally• Protect yourself: • Observe unit for functioning safety features • Notifythe RSO of any changes in operating characteristics or damage • Insure that only authorized users operate the device • Insure that you and those around you are protected from exposure • Be Aware!
    • 61. Thank you Peter W. Wright Alternate Systems 972.964.3124 pwwright@alternatesystems.com Texas Bureau of Radiation Control Registration R17795 ANSI/NCSL Z540 / ISO 10012ISO/IEC 17025:2005 / ISO 9001:2008

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