A. Computer Basics Examine the Role of Hardware and Software.
Central Processing UnitThe microprocessor, the brains of the computer. Referred to a CPU or processor Housed on a tiny silicon chip Chip contains millions of switches and pathways that help your computer make important decisions.
CPU knows which switches to turn on and which to turn off because it receives its instructions from computer programs (software).CPU has two primary sections: Arithmetic/logic unit Control unit
Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU):- Performs arithmetic computations andlogical operations; by combining thesetwo operations the ALU can executecomplex tasks. - Arithmetic operations include addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. - Logical operations involve comparisons.
Control Unit: is the “boss” and Unitcoordinates all of the CPU’s activities. Uses programming instructions, it controls the flow of information through the processor by controlling what happens inside the processor. We communicate with the computer through programming languages. Examples: COBOL, C++, HTML, Java Script or
MemoryFound on the motherboard Short term Random Access Memory (RAM) Long term Read Only Memory (ROM)
Random Access Memory (RAM)Memory on the motherboard that isshort term; where data, information,and program instructions are storedtemporarily on a RAM chip or a set ofRAM chips. Known as the main memory.This memory is considered volatile. The computer can read from and write to RAM.
When the computer is turned offor if there is loss of power, whatever is stored in RAM disappears.“Temporary Memory” – Short Term
Read-Only Memory (ROM)Memory on the motherboard thatis long term; where the specificinstructions that are needed forthe computer to operate arestored. This memory is nonvolatile and your computer can only read from a ROM chip.
The instructions remain on the chipregardless if the power is turnedon or off.Most common is the BIOS ROM;where the computer usesinstructions contained on this chipto boot or start the system whenyou turn on your computer. “Permanent Memory” – LongTerm
Basic Controllers: On the motherboard, a device that controls the transfer of data from the computer to a peripheral device and vice versa. Generally stored on one single chip. Examples: keyboards, mouse, monitors, and printers
Serial and Parallel PortsUsed to connect our peripheral devicesto the computer; usually one serial andone parallel port on a computer. Serial devices transmit data one bit at a time. A modem may be connected to this port. Parallel devices transfer several bits at a time. A printer may be connected to this port.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) A new standard that supports data transfer rates of up to 12 million bits per second. A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices Expected to replace serial and parallel ports in the near future.
Expansion SlotsAn opening on the motherboard wherea circuit board or expansion board canbe inserted. Examples: Additional Memory, video cards, modem cards, and sound cards.
How Does A Computer Process Data?PC system case – the metal and plastic case that houses the main system components of the computer. Central to all of this is the motherboard or system board that mounts into the case.
MotherboardIs a circuit board (a thin plate orboard that contains electroniccomponents) that contains manyintegral components.
Data RepresentationASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)The most popular and widely used standardized coding system
ByteEight bits or combinations of ones andzeros represent a character.Example: 00000001 =1 or 00001010 - 10KB-Kilobyte roughly 1 thousand bytes MB-Megabyte roughly 1 million bytes GB-Gigabyte roughly 1 billion bytes TB-Terabyte roughly 1 trillion bytes
Types of Storage DevicesHard Disk DriveUsed to store data inside of the computer Magnetic platter that holds a large amount of information in a form the computer can understand.
Accessing data is fasterAmount of data that can bestored is much more than whatcan be stored on a floppy disk.Size of Hard drive is measured inmegabytes or gigabytes.
Types of Storage DevicesMagnetic Tape DrivesUsed for making backup copies of largevolumes of data. Very slow Can be used to replace data that may have been lost on the hard drive Look similar to audio tapes. Holds more than Floppy
Optical DiscsUse laser technology to read and writedata on silver platters Compact Disk (CD) can store 650MB to 800MB of information and data. CD-ROM (Read Only Memory) can only read data from a CD-ROM. You can store data on a CD only if you have a CD Burner and CD-R (writable) or CD-RW (rewritable) CD.
DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) is thesize of a regular CD and can beplayed in a regular CD or in a DVDmovie player.DVD can store 4.8GB to 8.0GB ofinformation and data. DVD-ROM isreadable only (a movie DVD).You can store data on a DVD only ifyou have a DVD Burner and DVD+R/DVD-R(writable) or DVD-RW(rewritable) DVD.
Systems SoftwareA group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system.Enables all components of the computer system to communicate.Operating System, Utility Programs, and Graphic User Interface (GUI).
Systems SoftwareOperating System (OS):Provide an interface between the user or application program and the computer hardware. – Win 95/98/2000/XP/Vista – Mac System 6/7/8/9
Utility ProgramsHelp you perform housekeeping chores; complete specialized tasks related to managing the computer’s resources, file management, and so on.GUI (Graphical User Interface)Interface between the operating system and the user. Graphical symbols (icons) represent files, disks, programs, and other objects.
Application SoftwarePrograms that work with the operating system software to help you use your computer to do specific types of work.
Application Software Categories Business Communications Graphics and Multimedia Education and ReferenceEntertainment and Leisure Integrated Programs
Business SoftwareSpreadsheet Database Manipulate Numeric Lets you set up an Data electronic filing Intersection of row systems and column is a cell Sort and Search Grade Book, Financial Report Address book, Card Catalog Word Processing Create, edit, and print text documents Report, flyer, memo
Communications Works with your modems or network hardware and allows your computer to communicate with other computers. Exchange computer files and emailGraphics Software Uses pictures or images to help communicate messages.
Multimedia Combines text, graphics, animation, video, and audio.Clip art Graphical images to be added to documentsDesktop Publishing Uses both pictures and words to give you the ability to create documents. Newsletters and brochures
Education & Entertainment Reference & Leisure Available on Fun many topics Games and Easier simulations Quicker Tests your skills AR, CCC, & Interactive Encyclopedia
Integrated SoftwareCombine several software applications into one program.Include: Work Processing, Spreadsheet, Database, & CommunicationExamples: MS Works, MS OFFICE, & Lotus SmartSuite
Proper Computer CareKeep food and drinks away from the computer and keyboard.Avoid dusty locations.Use a surge protector.Keep magnets Away.
Do not block vents on the CPU.Avoid bright sunny locations.Do not move the computer while it is in use.Always exit programs properly.Use a virus check program on a regular basis.
Proper Diskette CareDo not remove from drives while drive in running or light is on.Avoid contact with magnets and electromagnetic fields.Keep disks stored in a clean, cool and dry place with a protective cover.
Keep protective metal slider in place.Use a virus check program on a regular basis.Avoid hot and cold locations.Make a back-up copy of your programs and files.
Proper CD or DVD CareKeep CDs or DVDs stored in a clean, cool and dry place with a protective cover.Avoid touching the back side of the CD or DVD; to avoid scratches.Avoid hot and cold locations.
Make a back-up copy of your programs and files on CD or DVD.Insert into CD or DVD Drive properly; label facing up.Only write on CD’s or DVD;s with a proper marking Pen on a label or the correct side of the CD or DVD.
Proper Care of PrintersAvoid cold, hot, and dusty locations.Always use the correct ink or toner replacement.Always have the proper printer cable connected to your computer.
Never pull paper out of a printer in motion.Do not turn off the printer while printing.Read the instruction manual before operating a printer.Always use the proper type of paper in your printer.
How to Maintain your Computer SystemStart a notebook of information on your system. Serial numbers Vendor support telephone numbers User IDs Date and vendor for each equipment and software purchase. Trouble log
Periodically review disk directories & delete unneeded files.Make sure all plug-ins are secure at all times.Turn off the power and disconnect the equipment form the power source before you open the inside of you computer.
Keep surrounding area dirt and dust free.Back up files and data regularly.Periodically defragment your hard disk.Protect your system from computer virusesLearn to use system diagnostic programs
ErgonomicsThe science of designing equipment for a comfortable and safe working environment.Proper Computer Ergonomics Sit up straight and lean forward slightly from the waist. Keep your feet flat on the floor. Your body should be about a hand’s length from the front of the keyboard and centered with the keyboard.
Place all materials you will type on the right side of the computer and supplies on the left side.Keep any items you are not using off your desk.Occasionally rest your eyes and take short breaks.Avoid lights that cause glare on the monitor.
Keep your fingers on the home row keys and curved.Keep your wrists up, not touching the keyboard or desk.Focus your eyes on the book, copy or screen.
Questions of the Day 1. Definition Of Software 2. Definition of CPU 3. Definition of RAM 4. Information Processing Cycle (Draw the Cycle)