Global Warming and Climate Change


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Global Warming and Climate Change

  1. 1. Dr. Najib Altawell Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law & Policy (CEPMLP) University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK 1 February 2011 Global Warming & Climate Change
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>The Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Solving The Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions Using ‘Renewable Energy’ </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Main Culprits </li></ul><ul><li>Water Vapour (H 2 O) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Methane (CH 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone (O 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>But There Can Be Others….! </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul>Global Natural Phenomena Manmade Beyond Or Within The Planet Earth ?
  5. 5. <ul><li>First Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming Is Manmade! </li></ul><ul><li>- The official Line - </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The History </li></ul>CO 2 The Planet Earth The Relationship Between The Earth And CO 2 The Earth Atmosphere is Always Changing
  7. 7. What Was The Percentage? 95 to 99% CO 2
  8. 8. Helping The Evolution Source: e.g. Microorganisms Called ‘Plankton’
  9. 9. <ul><li>The CO 2 Concentration In The Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Before The Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>40% - 45% </li></ul><ul><li>Higher than it was before the industrial revolution </li></ul>
  10. 10. Source: The Beginning Of The End The Combustion Engine The Good, The Bad And The Ugly Bringing Back CO 2
  11. 11. Source : What Is Nuclear Bomb? Is It The Missing Energy We Need?
  12. 12. CO 2 The Average Temperature On The Planet Venus is 465 degrees C Source: The Planet Earth Is Heading To….?! … ..The Fate Of The Planet Venus!?
  13. 13. Source: US Dept. of Energy
  14. 14. Source: US Dept. of Energy
  15. 15. Source NASA : http://
  16. 16. <ul><li>The sources of manmade CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity and heat production (35%). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Transport (24%). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Manufacturing industries and construction (22%). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Other sectors (14%). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Other energy industries, like refineries (5%). </li></ul><ul><li>Data from SINTEF Group (an independent research organisation in Scandinavia) </li></ul><ul><li>Source : </li></ul>
  17. 17. Second Approach Global Natural Phenomena
  18. 18. <ul><li>‘ Global Warming Natural, May End Within 20 Years, Says Ohio State University Researcher ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul><ul><li>6 billion tons of CO 2 (manmade) </li></ul>In their report, the IPCC* wrote that some 90 billion tons of carbon as carbon dioxide annually circulate between the earth's ocean and the atmosphere, and another 60 billion tons exchange between the vegetation and the atmosphere. 150 billion tones *Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  19. 19. <ul><li>Third Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Solar variations </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul>
  20. 20. Fourth Approach ‘ fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic circulation systems can cause small changes in global average cloudiness, this is all that is necessary to cause climate change’ Dr. Roy Spencer
  21. 21. <ul><li>‘ I argue that global warming is a threat, but is due to natural causes which we cannot prevent’ </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Gorman </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fifth Approach ‘ Climate change is much more likely to be part of a cycle of warming and cooling that has happened regularly every 1,500 years for the last million years’ , Dennis Avery and Fred Singer http ://
  23. 23. ‘ Dr Buckee believes human behaviour has no effect on the climate and the vast sums spent by governments trying to promote renewable energy to cut greenhouse gas emissions are being wasted’
  24. 24. Source : / Sixth Approach
  25. 25. Beyond The Planet Earth The Seventh Approach
  26. 26. <ul><li>Source : </li></ul><ul><li>X-ray telescopes (Chandra X-ray Observatory) detecting the fiery glow from super-heated gas swirling into a black hole. </li></ul>What This Has To Do With The ‘Global Warming’?
  27. 27. Source :
  28. 28. <ul><li>‘ As the Sun ventures out &quot;above&quot; the galactic plane, it becomes increasingly exposed to the cosmic ray generating shock front that the Milky Way creates as it ploughs through space.  As we get closer to this point of maximum exposure, leaving the shielding of the thick galactic disk behind, the increasing radiation will destroys many higher species, forcing another evolutionary epoch.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Professors Medvedev and Melott of the University of Kansas </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  29. 29. From ‘Within The Planet Earth’ The Eighth Approach
  30. 30. Source : The Earth Magnetic Field
  31. 31. <ul><li>Source : </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent heat waves and water shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise: </li></ul><ul><li>Population displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Property losses </li></ul><ul><li>More frequent/on a large scale: </li></ul><ul><li>Damages caused by storms, floods and wildfires </li></ul><ul><li>Farms, forests and fisheries will be less productive </li></ul><ul><li>Species extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of infectious disease </li></ul><ul><li>Heart and respiratory problems (higher concentration of ground level ozone) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Source: United States Global Change Research Program Decreasing soil moisture Higher evaporation rate Frequent & sustained drought Shortages of underground water
  33. 33. <ul><li>Is Global Warming Unstoppable? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Global Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change cannot be avoided </li></ul>Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “ [ s]ocieties can respond to climate change by adapting to its impacts and by reducing [GHG] emissions (mitigation), thereby reducing the rate and magnitude of change ” (IPCC, 2007b)
  35. 35. Better energy efficiency Wider/global renewable energy production Global involvement/implementation of ‘Carbon Capture Storage’ (CCS)
  36. 36. <ul><li>‘ Renewable Energy’ Is Part Of The Answer! </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits? </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Biomass Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Power </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Power </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal Power </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean Thermal Power </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Solar Power </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Power </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal Power </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean Thermal Power </li></ul>
  39. 39. Biomass Energy Energy Crops ‘ Solutions to Climate Change: Using Trees and Grasses to Capture Carbon and Produce Energy’ Land & Water
  40. 40. <ul><li>Important Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Economical </li></ul><ul><li>Law / Policy / Regulations / Private Sector </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>The Dominant ‘Source of Energy! </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ‘Fuel’ that we will be using in the future? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Environmentally friendly Secured and reliable (supply) Economical – affordable Available on demand (international, national and local - cities, towns and villages) Compatible with wide range of ‘technology’ Grades (produced in different forms, i.e. types) Storage and lifecycle Present and future development are possible
  43. 43. Your Prediction! ? To Help Yourself & To Help Protect Your Environment…..The Main Focus Will Be On….!
  44. 44. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>1. Global warming is real </li></ul><ul><li>2. Scientists are still in ‘disagreement’ of the actual causes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Planning and adapting to the ‘climate changes’ </li></ul><ul><li>4. Reducing greenhouse emission </li></ul><ul><li>5. Renewable energy can be part of a ‘solution’ </li></ul><ul><li>6. Individual, local, national and international support and cooperation are vital </li></ul>
  45. 45. Thank you for listening. Questions?