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  1. 1. THE STRUCTURAL FORM TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION IN ARCHITECTURE AND INDUSTRIAL DESIGNCopyright Luca FrattariNo part of this presentation* may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmittedin any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwisewithout the prior permission in writing of the copyright owner. LUCA FRATTARI*Exception is made for the material not owned by the author 1
  2. 2. University of Camerino School Of Advanced Studies SAS School of Architecture and Design “Eduardo Vittoria” Ascoli Piceno - Italy Conceptual design of a pedestrian bridge by means of topology optimization THE STRUCTURAL FORM Topology Optimization in Architecture and Industrial DesignPh.D. in:Architecture, Environment and DesignCurriculum:Industrial Design and Experimental Architecture - IDEACycle:XXIII° 2
  3. 3. preface This research stems from the requirement to explore the capability of structural optimization in the architectural and industrial design field. In the last decades, special tailoring of software has been tried out, mainly to applications fields such as aeronautics but without integrating the aesthetic structural aspects of the design. 3
  4. 4. preface The application of Topology Optimization in Architecture has allowed to obtain the organic shape of the bridge shown in the picture. 4
  5. 5. 1 INTRODUCTION1.1 The Structural Form1.2 The egg, the seashell and the bone1.3 Apply lessons from nature2 STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION2.1 Optimization problem3 TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION IN ARCHITECTURE3.1 Case studies in architecture3.2 Shelter3.3 Stadium3.4 PEGASUS BRIDGE4 FINAL REMARKS4.1 Obtained results4.2 Future developments 5
  6. 6. 6 DUCTION INTRODU UD O re TR N uc tu O tr ls TI IN e gi ca C ur lo U rm at io D fo n f b O al m t o ur o TR fr en als ct s o ru n pm gIN st sso lo h le ve arc de se re
  7. 7. 1the structural form For contemporary architects integration between form and structure not always represents a design theme. On the contrary, in nature, the two concepts are definitely inseparable because they are fuse together by the evolutionary processes of biological forms. 7
  8. 8. 1the structural form For example, the capability of a tree to withstand self-weight is basic for its survival, as well as its strength against wind and other natural hazards. 8
  9. 9. 1the structural form The trunk of a tree and its various branches may be compared to clamped rods, the Stuttgart airport has adopted a similar approach that allows the structure to grow guaranteeing its stability. 9
  10. 10. 1the egg The Egg is an efficient example of shell structures. Thickness of few tenth of a millimetre is sufficient to withstand important loads if the material is placed correctly. A similar concept is shown in the concrete shell by Heinz Isler in Switzerland. 10
  11. 11. 1the seashell The ribbing of the seashell maximizes stiffness and strength maintaining lightweight in the minimum volume. The same principle is applied in Architecture to build fascinating vaults or components such corrugated irons. 11
  12. 12. 1the bone Bones are another fantastic example of natural optimization. Bone growth is surprising and attractive, the mass is concentrated according to the stress distribution descending from external loads. This process is even reversible as observed on astronauts that lose bone mass after a long stay in a no-gravity ambient. 12
  13. 13. 1Apply Lessons from NATURE In some cases, architecture draws strength from the line of thrust, surprisingly similar to natural lifeforms. Some modern architects have practised such concepts. 13
  14. 14. 1Apply Lessons from NATURE Among all, the Antoni Gaudì vision is remarkable. He made the Structural Form one of his distinguishing traits. The Sagrada Familia and Parco Guell in Barcelona are universally deemed to be masterpieces, they stem from studies carried out empirically, but in an absolutely genial way. 14
  15. 15. 1Apply Lessons from NATURE Todays, designers have enhanced tools that allow continuing this exciting research. The topology optimization, seems to be the tool that better simulates natural growth. We might say: “Nature can give lessons to the architects again”. 15
  16. 16. URAL OPTIMIZATI 162 STRUCTUR N IO AT IZ C RU IM e s, c le spa PT ab n ri ignST O va s n de iz at io L m ig d le es an im RA pt ob , d ts es o pr on in u gy TU n ti ra iq lo S io nc st hn o at u n c op C iz e f co te e t RU im tiv gn on th pt ec si ati n O bj de iz w oST O im ie pt rv O ve O
  17. 17. 2Optimization problem An optimization problem consists of minimizing or maximizing a given function while satisfying suitable constraints. Structural optimization decreases the structural weight increasing the strength, or decreases the weight of an existing structure maintaining the same stiffness features. 17
  18. 18. 2Optimization problem Simplifyng, a designer needs: Design Space (2D or 3D) Restraints Objective function (weight - strength) 18
  19. 19. OGY OPTIMIZATION IN ARCHI 193 ZA TURE T E RE TU EC IT H C AR LO IN PO N IO AT reTO IZ c tu IM gy e st lo hit PT s ol te do rc O to ary ho n a Y OGY gn in et s i G si im m ie LO de el gn ud ns PO pr si st sio de se usTO ca sc di
  20. 20. 3Case studies in Architecture Shelter design: The harbour of Giulianova Stadium design: Coliseum & Colossus Bridge design: Pegasus 20
  21. 21. 3The shelter in the harbour of Giulianova The Gull’s wing design space of the shelter takes inspiration from the Natural Environment. Some data: Length: 113 m - height: 6 m Covered surface: 2200 mq Material: steel Loads: Self weight, Snow, Wind Restraints: Columns, Strength Non-design space Design space Restraints 21
  22. 22. 3The shelter in the harbour of Giulianova The FEM model and key iterations of topology optimization analysis 22
  23. 23. 3The shelter in the harbour of Giulianova Results of the topology optimization analysis is represented by: 2 Isolated columns with five and three branches (right) 2 Columns connected by a connection beam 23
  24. 24. 3The shelter in the harbour of Giulianova The re-design shows an evolution from a: solid model to an STL model to a network model to a surface model underlining the key role of the designer in the project refinement. 24
  25. 25. 3The shelter in the harbour of Giulianova Size Optimization analysis has been use on the latticed steel structure. A tentative pre-design of the structure suggests the use of pipes and bars with the following size for ribs, chords and ties: ribs > pipes d = 193.7 mm and t = 16 mm chords > pipes d = 244.5 mm and t = 25 mm ties > bars d = 30 mm. 25
  26. 26. 3The shelter in the harbour of Giulianova Size optimization procedure needed only three steps to get 30% weight reduction. The maximum stresses in steel sections were lower than 150 MPa. Initial weight 441 tons Final weight 308 tons. 26
  27. 27. 3The shelter in the harbour of Giulianova Considerations Weaknesses: Cost of the structure and needs of a facade. Potentials: Fascinating Structural Form and impressive material reduction 27
  28. 28. 3Coliseum: the concept stadium solidThinking Inspired has been used to develop the stadium exploiting its conceptual design features. Coliseum is an elliptical stadium of 120m x 140m long and 30 m high. Images show the key steps of the re-design process 28
  29. 29. 3The key role of the designer This experience underline the central role of the designer. From one inspiration the designer can create three different interpretations A single design space for three different styles 29
  30. 30. 3Coliseum1st interpretation, Coliseum in concreteThis interpretation exploits thetopological concept.The designer draws inspiration on howand where to place the structure. 30
  31. 31. 3Coliseum The designer has the key to define the overall aspect of the concept following his creativity. 31
  32. 32. 3Coliseum 2nd interpretation, Coliseum in steel This interpretation exploits the same approach (topological concept) combining commercial steel profiles for the structural elements. 32
  33. 33. 3Colossus: the heir of Coliseum A second way to apply topology optimization in architecture is to exploit its expressive potential with a literal re-design . Thanks to this strategy we have a new organic-like stadium: Colossus. This approach is very interesting because it pushes architects and engineers to find different technologies to turn their concepts in reality. 33
  34. 34. 3Colossus: the heir of Coliseum The columns of Colossus, have been re-designed adopting different styles. The designer , following the structural suggestions can express its creativity refining each detail of the project. 34
  35. 35. 3Pegasus: the bridge on Big Beaver Road PEGASUS is the pedestrian bridge designed to cross Big Beaver Road in Troy. PEGASUS is 50m long and will connect Altair’s headquarters to the services across the road. 35
  36. 36. 3Pegasus: the bridge on Big Beaver Road In this project we have some innovations in the method: Pre-design of the steel deck Loads are transmitted by pucks Application of Topology Optimization and Size Optimization to obtain a structural skin collaborative skin. 36
  37. 37. 3Pegasus: the bridge on Big Beaver Road The columns are defined by: Symmetrical Design space X and Y Void areas are placed to force the optimization to external and visible sides Loads are steel-deck self-weight, crowd and wind. Restraints are applied on the 3 columns 37
  38. 38. 3Pegasus: the bridge on Big Beaver Road The shelter is defined by: Symmetrical Design space X and Y Load is the wind Restraints are applied on the connections 38
  39. 39. 3Pegasus: the bridge on Big Beaver Road A size optimization of the columns has been ID Initial Final part thickness (mm) thickness (mm) used once the re-design phase was completed. 1 150 130 2 150 130 Structure is subdivided in 6 sectors with the same 3 150 130 4 150 130 initial thickness. 5 150 115 6 150 80 Thanks to size optimization the weight decreased of 16% (from 453 t to 380 t). 39
  40. 40. 3Pegasus: the bridge on Big Beaver Road Pegasus is the first example of an optimized hollow structure with a collaborative skin. - The next slides are probably the most important of this project cause they represent the visual communication of the project - - They are the result of several sketches, studies and deep reflections on the application of topology optimization in architecture - 40
  41. 41. 3Pegasus: the bridge on Big Beaver Road PEGASUS final re-design. The bridge is composed of two main structures the shelter and the columns. 41
  42. 42. 3Pegasus: the bridge on Big Beaver Road PEGASUS final re-design. The designer expresses his potential following the structural suggestions. 42
  43. 43. 3Pegasus: the bridge on Big Beaver Road Interior view: The deck has been changed to have a nice view of the support structure. Top view: Holes in the shelter guarantee the right sunlight illumination. 43
  44. 44. 3Pegasus: the bridge on Big Beaver Road PEGASUS is the complete combination of architect and engineer knowledge and taste in matter of “Transparency and light”. 44
  45. 45. 3Pegasus “Bright” ideas Pegasus has been conceived to use LED technologies to emphasize the streamlines and to underline its lightness. [Honestly because I love the movie TRON LEGACY...] 45
  46. 46. 3Pegasus Light and “enlightened” 46
  47. 47. 3PegasusWeaknesses:Special construction techniques are required such as naval and aeronautic.High construction costs. 47
  48. 48. 3PegasusPotentials:Impressive organic-like languageInnovation in size optimization applicationFirst example of an optimized structural skin 48
  49. 49. 49 FINAL REMARKS5 FINAL ARKS AR SR rk AL s o lt w su nt re se N ed re KS FI in e p ta th ob of AR he ht t t lig M ou in RE ab m ts ns or n io l f e AL at ra pm A er tu lo N id uc ve ns tr deFI co e s re th tu fu
  50. 50. DESIGN SPACE 5 creation designerObtained results An innovative design TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION methodology to create software / code Structural Forms is the result no satisfactory? yes Brown boxes represent key RE-DESIGN & CHOSE OF MATERIAL phases of the design process. Integration of: yes no is the result no satisfactory? CAD CAE CAM yes SECTION DATABASE creation designer Interactive Display ANALISYS MODEL FOR SIZE OPTIMIZATION designer Rapid Prototyping SIZE OPTIMIZATION software / code yes is the Digital Fabrication no is the result no result depend satisfactory? by section database ? yes FURTHER VERIFIES to create Structural Forms software / code is the result no satisfactory? yes STRUCTURE 50 COMPLETE
  51. 51. 5Future developments CAE + CAD = CAED Computer Aided Engineered Design Integration between CAE and CAD tools in the same environment Rapid Manufacturing and Mass Customization to transform the industrial process in digital fabrication Visual Interactive Tools and Real 3d Interactive Display 51
  52. 52. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSTutor and consultants:Prof. GRAZIANO LEONI (Unicam Board)Mech. Eng. JAMES P. DAGG (solidThinking)Dr. JONATHAN JAGLOM (Objet Geometries)Mech. Eng. ROBERTO D’ARIA (Altair Engineering)Mech. Eng. ROBERTO VADORI (Motorola)Dr. ANNE HUESER (Wacom Europe)The author is kindly grateful for technical support to:Altair EngineeringsolidThinkingObjet GeometriesWacomOvermachnetFabbZCorpEidolab 52