Lexicostatistical percentages in support of this were presented by scholars, Thomas and Healey (1962).Cognate sets – words which came from the same etymology (same root words)
If Taiwan was settled before any other area historically occupied by speakers of Austronesian languages, and the direction of movement out of Taiwan was southward into Insular Southeast Asia and the Pacific, the Philippines would be the second-longest settled area in the Autronesian world.If so, why should there be a Proto-Philippines?
The collection of 180 languages can be divided into at least 9 microgroups.
Levelling started in coastal areas. Maritime traders. Maritime groups.
The Greater Central Philippines Hypothesis
The Greater Central Philippines Hypothesis ROBERT BLUST University of Hawaii
The Evidence for Proto-PhilippinesAll Philippine languages developed in situ, and aredaughters of a single parent language called Proto-Philippines.EVIDENCE: cognate sets For example: Dumagat: amiyan (northeast monsoon) Ilokano: amian Hiligaynon: aminh-an Cebuano: amihan Maranao: amian
BUT, THERE ARE PROBLEMS:Most scholars believed that Proto-Austronesian wasspoken in Taiwan.Direction of theAustronesianexpansion:1. Southwardinto the Philippines2. Westward intoBorneo, mainland Southeast Asia, Sumatra andMadagascar3. Eastward into Sulawesi, Moluccas and the Pacific
Philippine Microgroups (Blust, 1991)1. Bashiic – Yami of Botel tobago Island and Itbayaten and Ivatan2. Cordilleran – Agta, Atta, Balangaw, Bontok, Casiguran…3. Central Luzon – Kapampangan, Bolinao, Sambal4. Inati – Negrito population in Panay5. Kalamian – Kalamian Tagbanwa and Agutaynon6. GCP (Central Philippines, South Mangyan, Palawanic, Manobo, Danaw, Suban un, Gorontalic)7. Bilic – Bilaan, T‟boli8. Sangiric – Northern peninsula of Sulawesi in Indonesia9. Minahasan – vicinity of Lake Tondano in Sulawesi
Assumption:Tagalog, Bikol, Bisayan complex, South Mangyan(but not North Mangyan), the Palawaniclanguages, all of the languages of Mindanao exceptthe South Mindanao group and the Gorontalo-Mongondow languages of Sulawesi continue an immediate protolanguage called Greater Central Philippines.
Philippine Language• To any language native to the Philippine Islands without regard to its genetic affiliation.• To any member of a putative subgroup of Austronesian Language most members of which are located in the Philippine Island.
• Blake (1906:318) Languages in the Philippines as a “subdivision of the Malay branch of the Malayo Polynesian family of Speech”• Philippine subgroup: its members included & only the languages in the Philippine archipelago
FACTS: Almost the entire central region of the Bisayas and southern Luzonconstitutes an extended dialect network with roughly 45 million first- language speakers ofTagalog, Bikol and intergrading varieties of Bisayas
Linguistic diversity showsurprisingly high degree ofhomogeneity... The linguistic history of the central Philippines included a major episode of linguistic expansion/ extinction.Proto-Greater Central Philippines - name of the hypothetical language broughtabout the linguistic levelling in the Bisayas andSouthern Luzon.Expansion of Proto-Greater Central Philippines
Central Philippine languagespredominate to the almost totalexclusion of others.WHY IS THIS SO?
Evidence of GCP expansion:1. Unexpectedly low level of linguistic diversity in southern Luzon, Bisayas and Northeast Mindanao.2. Gorontalic languages of northern Sulawesi linked with languages of the central Philippines3. Presence of „the strereotyped g‟, referring to sporadic instances of *R > g in languages which normally reflect PPH *R as some other phoneme.
Again, GCP Hypothesis:• History of related languages is not always a uniform process of differentiation and divergence… but may be punctuated by important episodes of extinction. Speakers of PGCP underwent a dramatic territorial expansion, probably from ahomeland in northern Mindanao or southern Visayas.
TIMELINE:4 500 BP – earliest radiocarbon dates accepted for a Neolithic presence (initial Austronesian settlement)3 500 BP – break-up of Proto-Philippines; separation of the Philippine Languages - Philippines must have been home to various descendants of Proto-Malayo- Polynesian“The how and why of such an expansion probablywill never be known”, said Blust.
Circa 3 500 BP,• Austronesian languages started to be thinly distributed throughout the Philippine Islands, but were confined to a fairly narrow range of environments, including only the coastal zones of the larger islands.
The Proto-Philippine territorial expansion covered a greater territory and led to more widespread linguistic levelling.Because of Austronesian colonization,1. Linguistic clock was „reset‟.2. Divergence began anew from asingle founding community.3. Language displacement -historical events led to language expansion and extinction.
As a result ofcontact, Austronesian languageswere adopted, and this happened throughout the Philippine archipelago.
Austronesian culture history: some linguistic inferences and theirrelations to the archaeological record ROBERT BLUST University of Hawaii
• Historical linguistics can illuminate fragments of the human cultural past that are often irrecoverable from the archaeological record.• Evidences may be: – Mutually corroboratory – Contradictory
• Comparative method was used. – To reconstruct culture history. – To illustrate the ways in which tools may complement, corroborate, or contradict the independent testimony of archaeology.
Striking example of partial agreement between linguistic and archaeological inferences involves the… PIGSediq (north central Formosa) – babuiKankanabu (south central Formosa) – baburuPaiwan (southern Formosa) – vavuiTagalog – baboySulawesi – wawu
CONCLUSIONS Austronesian speakers were sedentary villagers who possessed: (1) Sophisticated maritime technology (2) Root and grain crops (3) Pig, dog, fowl (4) Pottery (5) Knowledge of iron and loom (6) Indigenous syllabary