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  1. 1. MUSIC & STRESS Effect of Music on Academic Stress Perceived by College StudentsALMONTE | FRANCISCO
  5. 5. FEASIBILITYMusic is a feasible diagnostic tool possesses the ability to induce emotions to listeners, intentionally and unintentionally
  6. 6. FEASIBILITYELICITS… FEELINGS, IDEAS, THOUGHTS problems, repressed memories, experiences, ambitions
  7. 7. FEASIBILITYIt can either relieve the person of stress or stress the person with its tempo, rhythm, lyrics, and tone
  8. 8. FEASIBILITYIt is also highly accessible cheap simple and practical
  10. 10. OBSERVATIONRelated studies determined thatmusic is helpful in dealing with the cognitive component of stress.
  11. 11. OBSERVATIONInds. who listened to classical music or to music they believed was relaxing would perceive themselvesto be more relaxed and less anxious than inds. who listened to hard rock music (Burns, et al., 2002).
  12. 12. OBSERVATION Standley (1986), support the idea that music cause physiological changes (in blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate) slow and relaxed music lower physiological arousaland faster music  increases physiological arousal
  13. 13. OBSERVATION Violent songs compared to nonviolent songslead to more aggressive thoughts and feelings of hostility, even when not provoked (Labbe, Schmidt, Babin, & Pharr, 2007)
  14. 14. OBSERVATIONIF inds.  are exposed to classical music or self-selected relaxing music  exhibit significantreduction of anxiety and anger, and an increase in feeling of relaxation, as compared to those who sit in silence or listento heavy metal music.
  15. 15. OBSERVATIONSome studies would still conclude that the participant’senjoyment, interest in andappreciation of music was more important,regardless of the type of music being listened to.
  17. 17. METHODOLOGYA survey was self-administered in selected respondents in UP Manila.  consisted of 33 college students selected through convenience sampling.
  18. 18. METHODOLOGYThe diagnostic tool comprised of two parts: 1. theprojective test 2. the questionnaire
  19. 19. METHODOLOGYPROJECTIVE TEST – participants were asked to listen to 6 songs of different genre (i.e. classical, rock, country, RnB, metal and pop) – write in a blank sheet of paper whatever thoughts, ideas and feelings come into mind upon hearing each song.
  20. 20. METHODOLOGYSelf-developed questionnaire consisted of:  Yes/No items,  Partially closed-ended questions  Continuous Rating Scale measured on a 4-point Likert Scale and  Visual Analogue Scale.
  21. 21. METHODOLOGYFIRST PART consisted of:  questions about the emotions associated with stress  the different genre of music which the participant preferred to listen when stressed.  rate their familiarity and enjoyment of the song  belief whether it relieves stress
  22. 22. METHODOLOGYA continuous scale was devised to measure academic stress. composed of 2 domains: 1. Academic Pressure - motivation to study, time pressures, financial and time management worries, fear of failing, concern about academic ability and grades, struggle to meet academic standards 2. Social Support – family, peers, mentors .
  23. 23. METHODOLOGYEthical considerations 1. The survey questionnaire was administered during the respondents’ free time. 2. Informed consent and briefing of the study’s objectives and methods. 3. Assured anonymity and confidentiality and the right to withdraw from the study anytime. .
  25. 25. TEST OF VALIDITYData from the questionnaire were entered and analyzed in the SPSS ver. 17, to evaluate whether the diagnostic tool measures what it claims to measure
  26. 26. TEST OF VALIDITYResults 79% (n=26) of the respondents equated stress with anxiety and pressure.
  27. 27. TEST OF VALIDITYResults Descriptive Statistics N Sum q0.1.1 33 18.00 Pressure q0.1.2 33 26.00 Anxiety q0.1.3 33 26.00 q0.1.4 33 3.00 q0.1.5 33 3.00 q0.1.6 33 13.00 q.0.1.7 33 1.00 q.0.1.8 33 2.00 q.0.1.9 33 1.00 q.0.1.10 33 1.00 Valid N (listwise) 33
  28. 28. TEST OF VALIDITYResults Except for song #5 (genre: metal),moderate and positive correlation bet. enjoyment of the song and the belief that it can relieve stress.
  29. 29. TEST OF VALIDITYThe Spearman correlationcoefficients were as follows: 0.721 (classical) 0.655 (rock), 0.546 (country), 0.746 (RnB), -0.165 (metal), 0.683 (pop)
  30. 30. TEST OF VALIDITYCorrelation of the enjoyment of the song and the belief that it can relieve stress (Genre: Classical) Symmetric Measures Asymp. Std. a b Value Error Approx. T Approx. Sig. cInterval by Interval Pearsons R .672 .091 5.050 .000 cOrdinal by Ordinal Spearman Correlation .721 .089 5.794 .000N of Valid Cases 33a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.c. Based on normal approximation.
  31. 31. TEST OF VALIDITYResults There exists a weak to moderate correlation bet. the familiarity and enjoyment of the song.
  32. 32. TEST OF VALIDITYThe Spearman correlation coefficients were as follows: 0.598 (classical), 0.237 (rock), 0.566 (country), 0.504 (RnB), 0.691 (metal) and 0.573 (pop)
  33. 33. TEST OF VALIDITYResults Academic pressure is directly proportional to the level of stress, while social support is inversely proportional. The higher the academic pressure and the lower the social support, the higher is the level of stress.
  34. 34. TEST OF VALIDITYResults The self-developed Academic Stress Scale (ASS) consisted of 30 items: 23 for academic pressures and 7 for social support.
  35. 35. TEST OF VALIDITYResults Most of the participants’ scale scores were interpreted as slightly stressed and moderately stressed. The score ranges are: 30-52 (not stressed), 53-75 (slightly stressed), 76-98 (moderately stressed) and 99-120 (stressed).
  36. 36. TEST OF VALIDITYExtraneous variables/Contaminants 1. the environmental noise 2. the familiarity in music
  37. 37. TEST OF VALIDITYExtraneous variables/Contaminants 3. the use of music as a coping strategy when stressed 4. gender difference
  38. 38. TEST OF VALIDITYComparing the results of the projective test and the questionnaire. categories: ST (Stress), AC (Academics), DT (Death), AM (Ambition), MO (Movement), MOP (Movement with other people), CH (Chaos), FR (Fire), PL (Place), IO (Inanimate objects), EM (Emotions) and GE (Genre).
  39. 39. TEST OF VALIDITYResponses which talked about ST, AC, DT, CH, FR were classified as deviant, and are grounds for being stressed, anxious, pressured and tensed.
  40. 40. TEST OF VALIDITYThe PANAS X-Scale was utilized as a guide in classifying the different emotions (e.g. Basic Negative Emotions: fear, hostility, guilt, sadness; Basic Positive Emotions: Joviality, Self-Assurance, Attentiveness; Other Affective States: shyness, fatigue, serenity, surprise).
  42. 42. TEST OF RELIABILITY The Cronbach’s alpha of the Academic Stress Scale (ASS) was measured using SPSS ver. 17 to know if the scale measures what it intends to measure.Cronbach’s alpha : 0.663 items were internally consistent and that items measured the same domain
  43. 43. TEST OF RELIABILITY Reliability Statistics Cronbachs Alpha N of Items .663 30
  44. 44. TEST OF RELIABILITYFor the projective test, test-retest method and reliability estimates such as inter-rater reliability and alternate-form reliability weren’t done due to limited time.
  45. 45. TEST OF RELIABILITY Researchers havetried to control and eliminate the factors which will lead to measurement error and lower the test’s reliability such as fatigue, nervousness, error in content sampling, misinterpreted instructions, and guessing.
  47. 47. SIGNIFICANCEStudents feel stress and anxietydue to academic and peer pressures and high expectations from the family. If no effective coping strategy is utilized, stress and anxiety may lead to depression, or worse, suicide.
  48. 48. SIGNIFICANCEIt is very important to regularly check the student’s level of stress and to know the factors behind it, so that interventions such as symposiums on stress coping, counseling, group therapies can properly address it.
  49. 49. SIGNIFICANCE The study opens doors for more creative diagnostic tools, like music. Music has the potential to elicit happy or repressed memories and to project the thoughts, ideas and feelings of the respondents.•
  51. 51. APPLICATIONS1. This diagnostic tool (music projective test and the ASS) can be administered to high school students, undergrads and to those taking masterals or PhDs.
  52. 52. APPLICATIONS2. Using music in classroom, offices and hospitals to relieve tension 3. Using music as a projective test not only to determine stress but also the personality of the person.
  53. 53. REFERENCESBurns, J., Labbe, E., Brooke, A., Capeless, K., Cooksey, B., Steadman, A., et al.(2002). The Effects of Different Types of Music on Perceived and PhysiologicalMeasures of Stress. Journal of Music Therapy , 101-116.Labbe, E., Schmidt, N., Babin, J., & Pharr, M. (2007). Coping with Stress: TheEffectiveness of Different Types of Music. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback , 163-168.Standley, J. (1986). Music research in medical/dental treatment. Journal of MusicTherapy , 56-122.Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). THE PANAS-X. The University of Iowa.