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SG4:10 presentation
 

SG4:10 presentation

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A summary presenation on SG4:10 for safe working at height on scaffolding.

A summary presenation on SG4:10 for safe working at height on scaffolding.

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  • W@H Regs requires person working at height to be competent Scaffolders should be CISRS card holders Must be current – require renewal every 5 years.
  • McInerney Minimum SMSTS & Basic Scaffold Inspection trained person on site for ALL scaffold works Contractor Each gang must have a nominated charge hand Each contractor on a site must have a nominated person in charge of all gangs There must be a nominated supervisor, either on site or roaming DO YOU KNOW THEM?
  • Scaffolding Plan is a risk assessment and a method statement Purpose = take account of all foreseeable hazards in addition to commercial considerations for the job The risk assessment must identify all preventative and protective control measures to eliminate or reduce the risk of injury Must take into account logistical effort, productivity impact and purchasing cost of using the correct methods Arrangements for emergency and rescue from height legally required Consideration of additional risks posed by evacuation and rescue from height is needed Weather conditions must be considered, including limitations of work Design needed where required
  • Take steps to understand hazards and the requirements of the scaffold plan Inform employers of medical conditions Not W@H if under influence of D&A, including prescription which affects ability Use techniques & equipment to prevent falls Not tamper with or modify any equipment not authorised by the employer Check fall arrest equipment daily and report any damaged equipment Report any additional or emergent hazards
  • Scaffolders must focus on creating a “safe zone” with collective fall protection, as a priority, with a minimum of: A fully boarded and correctly supported platform without gaps where someone could fall; and A single main guardrail (950mm above the platform) where there is a risk of a fall W@H Regs require collective fall prevention before personal measures Traversing along a platform without any form of fall protection no longer permitted. This change only affects a small part of their working day. A “safe zone” will not completely remove the hazard in all instances, eg when raising or lowering boards. Personal fall protection (eg harnesses) must be used in these instances:
  • When working without a fully boarded platform, scaffolders must remain clipped on to a suitable anchor point. Must always clip on when within 1m of the end of the “safe zone” – this area is classed as “at risk”:
  • Minimum single guardrail, 950mm above platform, each side of scaffold where fall could occur. Inside gaps between scaffold and façade where scaffolders can fall must be protected with guardrails Guardrails required on all lifts Guardrails must be erected and left in place Guardrails required on all lifts where lift height >950mm (eg bricklayers lifts)
  • Where necessary to reach below platform (fix bracing etc) the scaffolder must be clipped on:
  • The working platform must be fully boarded without gaps where a person (or materials) could fall: Exception to the above is where access is required for clipping to the ledger. Only ONE board is permitted to be removed:
  • When raising and lowering equipment the scaffolder must be clipped on, or create a safe handling platform with double guardrails and stop end:
  • It is possible on all Basic Scaffold for boards to be positioned or removed from below. This is the safest and most effective method. No other method should be accepted on site, unless the specific design of the scaffold prevents this being used.
  • All guardrails secured to prevent them becoming displaced (eg accidental fall against them) Lateral gaps in guardrails only permitted where a point of access is necessary. An incomplete scaffold working platform needs to be clearly identified with warning signs and physical measures to prevent access:
  • Must consider: Suitability of the method - which suits the scaffolding application contemplated Requirements of manufacturer instructions - it is mandatory under European legislation for the manufacturers all proprietary systems to provide information on the safe use of equipment. The contents of this information should be referred to. Changes to normal sequence of work (eg advanced guardrails) – eg positioning advanced guardrails to the inside face of the scaffold before fixing transoms or tie assemblies, which could then get in the way of putting advanced guardrail in place. New techniques (eg hemping) – Hemping is lifting standards over the handrails – so handrails put in first NOTE: Manual Handling issues then arise. Fall risks protected (eg stop ends, inside faces etc) Additional fall protection required for safe use – eg harness, restraint, crash deck, netting etc Can it be used as anchor point for harnesses? – not all components can be used for fixing a fall arrest equipment – must be able to take at least 6kN energy. Any specific training needed – in the use of the gurardail system, eg step up needs training to ensure that scaffolder clipped on etc Arrangements for handling, delivery and storage Any inspection and maintenance requirements – especially for special equipment used eg how often do they need to be checked or maintained eg harness Rescue planning, and need for any specialist equipment – this should be considered in addition to the scaffolders normal plan, as the sequence of work may change
  • This is an effective system but mostly impractical on a housing site. Must be clipped on with a harness to a harness point and NOT to any handrail on the equipment – harness points are engineered to take the load and any energy introduced to the equipment Operator must be trained and certified in operating the MEWP – other persons may ride it but not operate it.
  • Frame type guardrail (top left, top middle) Pushed up outside of scaffold Their use can be impeded by protruding tubes etc from outside of the scaffold For effective use transoms, ledgers, bracing etc needs to be correctly sized so not to impede guardrails use Where fall risk to the inside, change to working practice may need to be considered e.g. locate AGS first before fixing transoms, hop up brackets and ties Horizontal type (top right) Best suited to independent tied scaffolds (eg façade scaffolds) It is pushed along a lift Fixes to the standards Can provide protection to both inside and outside faces of scaffold To work effectively must be used with another AGS for the first bay, to enable scaffolder to be protected at first bay to position the horizontal AGS in place – note also required on final bay during dismantling Additional precautions needed for stop ends – typically personal fall restraint or harness? Care is needed when topping out standards above the guardrail Telescopic type (all bottom row), similar to frame type Pushed up outside of scaffold Their use can be impeded by protruding tubes etc from outside of the scaffold For effective use transoms, ledgers, bracing etc needs to be correctly sized so not to impede guardrails use Where fall risk to the inside, change to working practice may need to be considered
  • Covers proprietary products as tools for positioning guardrails in advance Pivoting type (left pictures) Is a lever Primarily for traditional tube and fitting scaffold Used on the outer face of the scaffold (space required to lever) Additional stop-end measures required. Push type (middle and right pictures) Primarily suited to traditional tube and fitting Utilises a locating tool Uses special couplers allow tubes to be lifted from below Handrail is automatically locked and remains in place when scaffolders go to next lift Sequence of work is critical – must be raised before ledgers are put in They stay in place until permanent guardrail is fitted Couplers can be replaced with right-angle couplers and then tightened – thereby using only one set of tubes Can be used on all faces of scaffold including inside faces and stop ends Tool can also be used to unlock the guardrail from below during dismantling
  • AGM = “Advanced Guardrail Methods” Benefits Cost-effective way Developed by scaffolders – so it works Uses equipments scaffolders already have – no significant outlay for scaffolders Disadvantages Can be more time consuming Less productive for scaffolders Heavy - Can weigh more as using standard scaffold tubes and fittings
  • Two vertical tubes (typically 9 or 10ft) One or two horizontal tubes as temporary guardrail Lay out in “goalpost” type frame Fix the horizontal tube (guardrail) to the verticals using right-angle couplers Fix “upside down” a second right angle coupler to each upright tube 1100mm down from the guardrail height Using two scaffolders lift frame and fix to ledger – NOTE the upside down coupler will allow the frame to support itself until secured NOTE an additional guardrail is required on the ground lift to enable the coupler to be secured Once permanent handrails installed, advanced guardrails can be raised to next level
  • Ideally for 2m high lift Allows standard to be fitted and then the top guardrail on lift above Permanent edge protection can be fixed from the step Can be removed safely from the step during dismantling Sequence of work needs to be considered – ledger bracing or stop ends can impede some steps NOTE: Guardrails need to be fixed to base lift to allow step to be used to secure 1 st lift guardrail NOTE: Scaffolder still exposed to a risk of fall between ledger and guardrail from step-up WARNING: Scaffolders MUST be clipped on, ideally to back ledger above, when installing guardrail
  • Best suited for 2m lift scaffold Step is fixed to the standard or guardrail (NOTE: Guardrails must be fixed using right angle couplers) 1m above the working platform The guardrail on the next lift secured Scaffolder has a guardrail in place = the ledger for the next lift Allows guardrails to be positioned in advance from below, and removed from a safe location below
  • Sequence of work must be considered - ledger bracing or step-end guardrails may impede some step designs. Therefore these need to be put in place after guardrails have been erected above Guardrails will need to be fitted to the base lift to enable the step up to be used on the first lift. Base lift may need to be boarded for some step designs to work
  • Similar to step up but more suited to smaller lift Scaffold must be fully boarded for the step up NOTE: MUST be proprietary hop ups – Do NOT accept milk crates etc WARNING; Scaffolder MUST be clipped on, preferably to the rear ledger, when installing guardrail
  • Where it can be demonstrated that it is not reasonably practicable to provide advanced guardrail protection, then fall protection must be used Scaffolders MUST be clipped on at all times when exposed to the risk of a fall whilst working outside or within 1m of the “Safe Zone” In order to traverse along an unprotected platform, a minimum system of work would be required utilising double or twin tailed lanyards. To minimise the fall potential, it is preferable to utilise anchor devices that fix to the standard (inside standard) rather than a ledger below foot level
  • Selection must be risk assessed Fall arrest equipment are designed, tested and manufactured to meet European Standards and have limitations of use Selection of equipment must take into consideration distance and consequence of a fall – and the right equipment selected
  • Anchor point positioned as high as possible reduces the distance of fall reduces force in the fall (6kN forces possible) Lanyard to be as short as possible Reduces distance of fall Reduces force of the fall Reduces risk of someone walking to an extremity that leads to a fall
  • Only effective if continually attached whilst exposed to a risk of fall If scaffolder has to change anchor point then single lanyard is not acceptable Scaffolders using single lanyard are NOT permitted to traverse outside of guardrail protection as they will be exposed to fall. Scaffolders within 1m of an unprotected edge must remain clipped on .
  • Effective when having to traverse without guard rail in limited scenarios, eg bridging using beams or temporary roofs: Limited applications in general scaffolding only – not as a replacement for advanced guardrail:
  • twin tailed (double) energy absorbing lanyard should be used with a common energy absorber to reduce loads transferred in the body When using only one of the two lanyards scaffolders should NOT wrap the spare lanyard around their body or attach it back to the harness or toolbelt, as this could cause the energy absorbing lanyard to fail. Spare lanyard should be: attached onto the same anchor point, hang free, or clipped to purpose designed point on the harness
  • Personal Fall Protection systems are totally reliant on being attached to a suitable anchor point It is critical for safe performance that likely loads that would be transferred to the anchor points, and the ability of the anchor point and any supporting structure to resist those forces, be established. Loads transferred to anchor when fall is arrested can be 6kN Must never be used if defective – must be destroyed Must never be used if used to arrest a fall – must be destroyed
  • NASC have tested and demonstrated that steel tube and fitting scaffold is adequate for scaffolder wearing full body harness attached by lanyard with energy absorber provided under certain circumstances Where alternative scaffolding materials are used (aluminium or glass reinforced plastic (GRP)) suppliers must be informed and information gathered on suitability for anchor points
  • Photo 1 – Abrasion damage adjacent to energy abosrber: displaced protective sleeve over energy absorber Photo 2 – Missing label (essential to know date of manufacturer and its capabilitiues etc); damage to protective sleeve over energy absorber Photo 3 – Wear at end of absorber loop at connection Photo 4 – Surface fibres damaged by abrasion Photo 5 – Damaged webbing and protector to energy absorber Photo 6 – Heavy paint contamination to webbing Photo 7 – Two similar products with unknown history – top webbing is heavily soiled Photo 8 – Damaged gate on karabiner Photo 9 – Size comparison of cuts on webbing – max 1mm cut allowed only top left photo can be used, remaining 3 should be discarded.
  • Purpose of this test is to see how much the delegates will have learnt from the training, as well as provide an opportunity to reinforce the main points.

SG4:10 presentation SG4:10 presentation Presentation Transcript

  • SG4:10 Preventing Falls in Scaffolding A presentation by
  • Content
    • Introduction
    • Test Paper 1
    • Planning for Work at Height
    • The Scaffolders “Safe Zone”
    • Collective Fall Arrest system
    • Personal fall protection equipment
    • Summary
    • Test Paper 2
    • Questions and Answers
  • Aims of this presentation
    • Understand the basics of SG4:10
    • Understand that unprotected traversing is NO LONGER PERMITTED
    • Overview of various methods of creating a “Safe Zone”
    • Identify different Advanced Guardrail Systems
  • Introduction
    • Falls from height = half fatal accidents in construction
    • “ The NASC acknowledges that scaffolders have to work in hazardous situations ” SG4:10
    • NASC members reported in1999 = 93 falls of scaffolders, 2009 = 20 falls despite 18% increase in members in same time
    • SG4:10 focuses on the requirement of a “safe zone”
    • It is no longer acceptable for scaffolders to traverse without some form of fall protection
  •  
  • Test Paper 1
  • Planning for Work at Height
    • Definition of “Work at Height” - Do you know?
    • Work at Height Regulations define it as:
    • “ work in any place…where, if measures required by these Regulations were not taken, a person could fall a distance liable to cause personal injury”
    • The Work at Height Regulations do not specify a distance a person could fall before precautions must be taken.
  •  
  • Competence and capability
    • Competent
    • CISRS card
    • Renewal every 5 years.
  • Supervision
    • McInerney
    • SMSTS
    • Basic Scaffold Inspection
    • Contractor
    • Gang = nominated charge hand
    • Contractor = nominated person in charge of all gangs
    • Site = nominated supervisor, either on site or roaming
    • DO YOU KNOW THEM?
  • Why?
  • Scaffolding Plan
    • Risk assessment & method statement
    • Purpose = take account
    • Preventative and protective control
    • Eliminate or reduce risk of injury
    • Logistical effort, productivity impact and purchasing cost
    • Emergency and Rescue Plan
    • Additional risks of evacuation and rescue
    • Weather conditions
    • Design
  • Scaffolders Responsibilities
    • Understand hazards and the scaffold plan
    • Medical conditions
    • Drugs & Alcohol, including prescription which affects ability
    • Use techniques & equipment to prevent falls
    • Not tamper with or modify any equipment
    • Check fall arrest equipment
    • Report any additional or emergent hazards
  • The scaffolders “Safe Zone”
    • Creating a “safe zone” :
      • A fully boarded and correctly supported platform without gaps where someone could fall; and
      • A single main guardrail (950mm above the platform) where there is a risk of a fall
    • Collective fall prevention
    • Unprotected Traversing (tunnelling) no longer permitted.
    • Safe Zone will not completely remove the hazards:
    • Must remain clipped on to a suitable anchor point.
    • 1m “at risk zone”
  • Working Platforms
    • Three types:
      • Finished working platform (used by others)
      • Platforms for other purposes ( loading towers etc )
      • Scaffolders platform ( erection, alteration, dismantling )
  • Scaffolders Platform
    • Single guardrail @ 950mm above platform
    • Each side where fall could occur
    • Inside gaps protected with guardrails
    • Guardrails on all lifts
    • Guardrails left in place
    • Guardrails required on all lifts >950mm (eg bricklayers lifts)
    • Reaching below = must be clipped on:
    • Fully boarded :
    • Exception where if clipping to the ledger - ONE board removed:
    ALL boards must be correctly supported e.g. 38mm boards every 1.2m
    • Raising or lowering = clipped on,
    • Or a safe platform double guardrails and stop end:
  • Basic sequence of erection
    • First lift boarded from below
    • All other lifts should be boarded from below
    • Guardrails secured
    • Lateral gaps for access only
    • Incomplete scaffold signs and barrier
  • Methods of creating a “Safe Zone”
    • Must consider:
    • Suitability of the method
    • Requirements of manufacturer instructions
    • Changes to normal sequence of work (eg advanced guardrails)
    • New techniques (eg hemping)
    • Fall risks protected (eg stop ends, inside faces etc)
    • Additional fall protection required for safe use
    • Can it be used as anchor point for harnesses?
    • Any specific training needed
    • Arrangements for handling, delivery and storage
    • Any inspection and maintenance requirements
    • Rescue planning, and need for any specialist equipment
  • Types of “Safe Zone”
    • Mobile elevating work platform (MEWP)
    • Effective but impractical on housing
    • Clipped to a harness point
    • Trained and certified
  • Advanced Guardrail
    • Several systems on the market
    • They provide collective fall prevention for scaffolders when traversing along a boarded lift.
    • Allows scaffolders to maintain guardrail edge protection at all times.
  • Types of Advanced Guardrail Systems Needs AGS on Bay 1
  • Types of Advanced Guardrail Tools
  • Types of Advanced Guardrail Methods
    • Designed by scaffolders
    • Different styles
      • Frame type
      • Horizontal type
      • System Scaffold
      • Short lift system
  • Types of Advanced Guardrail Methods Frame Type AGM
  • Types of Advanced Guardrail Methods Horizontal Type AGM Step 1 – from behind guardrail, fix 2 right angle couplers to standards, above existing guardrail Step 2 – Using 6m (21ft) tube, place it loosely in the two fittings, so it can still slide side to side Step 3 – Push the tube out horizontally past the next standard and tighten end coupler Step 4 – Walk out to fix temporary guardrail to the standard, clipping on if within 1m of end Step 5 – Working platform guardrail(s) to be completed, next lift built with “safe zone” Step 6 – Temporary guardrail can be released and slid along horizontally to next bay
  • Types of Advanced Guardrail Methods
    • Erecting scaffold using short lift heights (eg 1m), with ledgers of next lift at 1m forms the normal 2m lift height.
    • Therefore, as each lift progresses there is a 1m high guardrail present.
    • Decking on intermediate lift lifted to next lift.
    • Works best when scaffold designed without ledger bracing
    Short Lift system
  • Types of Advanced Guardrail Methods System Scaffold systems
  • Types of Advanced Guardrail Methods Scaffolders’ Step-up
    • Best for 2m lifts
    • Fixed to standard or guardrail (right angle couplers)
    • Guardrail on the next lift secured
    • Scaffolder has a guardrail in place = the ledger for the next lift
    • Guardrails positioned in advance from below, and removed from a safe location below
    • Sequence of work must be considered
    • Ledger bracing or step-end guardrails may impede some step designs.
    • Guardrails fitted to the base lift
    • Base may be boarded for some steps
  • IMPORTANT Scaffolders must be clipped on, ideally to the top ledger, due to the risk of falling from the scaffold when using the Step-up system. Scaffolders must be clipped on before climbing on the temporary platform and must not jump down onto the boarded platform due to the risk of board failure from impact loads.
  • Types of Advanced Guardrail Methods Bricklayers lift Bricklayers lifts are often unsuitable for the Scaffolders Step-up. Alternatives are:
  • And the last resort…….
  • Protected Traversing
    • Demonstrated it is not reasonably practicable for advanced guardrail
    • MUST be clipped on within 1m of the “Safe Zone”
    • Traversing = twin tailed lanyards
    • Utilise anchor devices that fix to standard
    This should be used only as a last resort!
  •  
  • Collective Fall Arrest Systems
  • Safety Nets “ Bean” Bags Safety Net Fan Air Bags Decking
  • Personal Fall Arrest Systems Anchor Points
    • Risk assessed
    • European Standards
    • Correct type - distance & consequence
    Minimum standard High specification
    • Anchor point = high as possible
    • Lanyard = short as possible
    • Why?
    • Harnesses MUST be worn correctly, with arms and legs in correct positions, and straps tight
    • WHY???
  • Single Fall Arrest Lanyard
    • Continually attached
    • Change anchor point? Single lanyard not acceptable
    • Single lanyard NOT permitted to traverse
    • Within 1m of an unprotected edge must remain clipped on .
  • Double Fall Arrest Lanyard
    • Traversinge without guard rail e.g. bridging using beams or temporary roofs:
    • Limited applications in general scaffolding only – not as a replacement for advanced guardrail:
    • Twin tailed lanyard used with a energy absorber
    • Should NOT wrap spare lanyard around body
    • Spare lanyard should be:
      • attached onto the same anchor point,
      • hang free, or
      • clipped to purpose designed point on the harness
  • Personal Fall Arrest Systems Anchor points
    • Totally reliant on attachment to anchor point
    • Establish potential loads
    • Loads transferred can be 6kN
    • Destroy if defective
    • Destroy if used in fall previously
  • Attaching to scaffolding
    • Scaffold is adequate for full body harness and lanyard attachment
    • Alternative materials used = manufacturers guidance required
  • Suitable Scaffold Anchor Points
    • Ledgers and transoms supported with load bearing couplers
    • Standards, only when using suitable anchor device designed for the purpose.
    • Standards only where there are no joints between the lift and the attachment point
    • Guardrails supported by load bearing couplers
    • Transoms supported by ledgers in the lift above, fixed at both ends by single couplers
  • Unsuitable Scaffold Anchor Points
    • Ledgers or guardrails supported with putlog clips or single couplers
    • Ledgers or guardrails within a bay where it has joints
    • Standards – unless suitable anchor device is used designed for the purpose
    • Standards with a joint between the lift and the attachment point
    • Puncheons
    • Transoms below foot level
    • Putlog transoms or bridle tubes
    • Transoms when underslung below ledgers on non-load bearing couplers
    • Reveal or prop tie assemblies
    • Braces or other diagonal tubes
    • Other tube open ended or not supported both sides of the attachment position eg protruding end of a transom
    • Proprietary anchor devices for anchoring to scaffold available
    • Enables scaffolders to attach lanyards to vertical standards
    • Enables higher connection point
    • Carabiners designed to attach to standards makes effective and efficient anchor points
    • For system scaffolding, the manufacturer’s requirements must be consulted and considered prior to using as anchor point
    Connection options
    • Rope or webbing particularly vulnerable to damage from wear and tear during normal use
    • Any doubt - refer to the product information.
    • Contractor to inspect
    • Three levels of inspection:
      • Pre-use checks
      • Detailed inspections
      • Interim inspections
    Inspection and maintenance
    • Normally only takes a few minutes
    • For harnesses and lanyards (and attachments)
    • Required at the beginning of each shift they are used
    • Pre-use checks should be tactile and visual
    • Checks should include passing through hands to detect softening or hardening or fraying of fibres or ingress of contaminants
    • Should be undertaken in good light.
    • Defects must be reported to a competent person, trained in full inspection of the equipment before it is used again.
    • Spares should be available to replace worn or damaged equipment.
    Pre-use checks
    • More formal in-depth inspections
    • Looking for underlying defects or problems
    • NASC & HSE recommend this be done at least every 3 months
    Detailed Inspection Interim Inspection
    • In-depth inspections in-between detailed inspections
    • Identified through risk assessment
    • Important in arduous environments (eg paints, chemicals, grit blasting, very hot environments inc welding, acidic or alkaline environments
  • Photo 7 Photo 2 Photo 3 Photo 4 Photo 5 Photo 6 Photo 8 Photo 1 Photo 9
    • Beams
    • Girder
    • Any other structural steelwork
    • Wire Systems
    • Permanently installed anchorage points
    Other Anchor options
    • Line system
    • Inertia Reel system
    Other Anchor options Caution!
  • Summary
    • Unprotected traversing NOT ALLOWED
    • Hierarchy of Control required
    • Advanced Guardrails mandatory
    • Where not possible, must be clipped on
    • Must be clipped on when within 1m of unprotected fall
    • Double/ twin tailed lanyard required
    • Harnesses must be suitable and inspected
  • Test Paper 2