Almanns Spanish Classes                        http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                    spa...
Almanns Spanish Classes                     http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                 spanish@a...
Almanns Spanish Classes                         http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                     s...
Almanns Spanish Classes                        http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                  spani...
Almanns Spanish Classes                         http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                    sp...
Almanns Spanish Classes                        http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                   span...
Almanns Spanish Classes                      http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                spanish@a...
Almanns Spanish Classes                        http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                    spa...
Almanns Spanish Classes                         http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                     s...
Almanns Spanish Classes                        http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                    spa...
Almanns Spanish Classes                        http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                    spa...
Almanns Spanish Classes                         http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                     s...
Almanns Spanish Classes                         http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                     s...
Almanns Spanish Classes                        http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                    spa...
Almanns Spanish Classes                        http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                spanish...
Almanns Spanish Classes                     http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                               spanish@alm...
Almanns Spanish Classes    http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com           spanish@almanns.com                      -Por es...
Almanns Spanish Classes                          http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                     ...
Almanns Spanish Classes                         http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                     s...
Almanns Spanish Classes                        http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                  spani...
Almanns Spanish Classes                         http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                    sp...
Almanns Spanish Classes                        http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                   span...
Almanns Spanish Classes                          http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                     ...
Almanns Spanish Classes                         http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com                                     s...
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Spanish Speaking Resources

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Spanish Speaking Resources

  1. 1. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com Top ten free Spanish learning appsToday we’d like to share with you some apps which we think are great resources to add on to yourSpanish immersion experience. In no particular order:  Google Translate (https://itunes.apple.com/za/app/google-translate/id414706506?mt=8) Speak and hear your phrases and the corresponding translation.  TED (https://itunes.apple.com/za/app/ted/id376183339?mt=8) Watch these riveting talks in Spanish or English or choose subtitles as well.  Quiz ME! (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/quiz-me!/id490508243?mt=8) Download flashcard sets from the online study website Quizlet. Practice your Spanish with thousands of flashcards and any conceivable topic (including practice with the subjunctive).  Word Reference (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/wordreference- dictionary/id515127233?mt=8) These excellent dictionaries and forums from Word Reference are now adapted for your mobile and tablet.  iBooks (https://itunes.apple.com/za/app/ibooks/id364709193?mt=8) Download and read books. Some are for free and classic Spanish books are available.  Pressreader (https://itunes.apple.com/za/app/pressreader/id313904711?mt=8) Browse and read full digital replicas of thousands of newspapers and magazines from 97 countries just like you would in print. 1
  2. 2. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com Trip advisor (https://itunes.apple.com/za/app/tripadvisor-hotels- flights/id284876795?mt=8) Thinking of traveling to practice your Spanish? This app makes it easy to find hotels, restaurants, and fun things to do, wherever you go. iSpain (https://itunes.apple.com/es/app/ispain.-great-city-destinations/id333213883?mt=8) Traveling to Spain? This app has all you need. City guides, currency converter, translator, weather forecast, pictures and more. Metro Madrid (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/metro-madrid/id292665921?mt=8) Discover the best way to arrive at your destination. Features include fastest route, all lines, timetables, find your closest station. This app has versions for many other countries and cities. SkyScanner (https://itunes.apple.com/za/app/skyscanner-all-flights- everywhere!/id415458524?mt=8) There’s no excuse no to travel to a Spanish speaking country with this app. According to SkyScanner (put link) it’s “the most flexible and powerful flight search app in the world”. You can scan all flight options at the same time (dates, price, airlines) and compare them all at the same time. 2
  3. 3. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com Free Spanish PodcastsWhat better way to practice your Spanish than with free podcasts? Download and listen in thegym, in the car, cooking, in waiting rooms. We’ve compiled a list of our favorite podcasts toexpose you to more Spanish in practice as well as to entertain you.Cody’s cuentos:Free Spanish language podcast with classic fairy tales from the Brothers Grimm , Hans ChristianAndersen, Charles Perrault, among others.iTunes UThis section of iTunes provides open source material from many universities and colleges around theworld. Learn anywhere, anytime from any course and in any language. One of our favorites is:Actualidad Médica. If you’ve ever wondered why women’s hands are colder than men’s, then this isthe podcast for you.Nuevos trailers de cine en españolPractice your Spanish comprehension with this daily video podcast. All the trailers are in Spanishand the familiarity with the English versions of the featured trailers will have you well on your way tounderstanding more Spanish.Ciencia al cuboThis podcast is for you if you’ve always wanted to find out the science behind curiosities such as“why we go grey”, “the origin of blue eyes” and “what are mirror neurons?”.La rosa de los vientosFrom Onda Cero this podcast features history, science and nature. 3
  4. 4. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comNewsWhat better way to practice your Spanish than by listening to current news stories and interviewsevery day. One of our favorites is Hoy por hoy from Cadena Ser. This is a daily podcast.iVooxThis is your one-stop site to go to download and listen to radios shows and podcasts. They have allgenres and themes including history, mystery and space. 4
  5. 5. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comEffective SpeakingOne of the most important things you can do to put yourself on the road to speaking Spanisheffectively is set yourself a target. Accent, intonation and stress are also important. By having a goodattitude to speaking it’ll make it easier for you to understand and communicate a positive attitudewhen speaking with Spanish speakers.We have a few suggestions to help you with this:1. Continually listen and practice.2. Speak calmly, trying to control the sound that comes out—theres no rush.3. Think of yourself as a different person when you speak Spanish. Try to imitate the voices ofSpanish speakers you like of your own gender. Record yourself and try to listen where you canimprove your pronunciation.Here are also some phrase to help you to improve your conversation skills and expressing youropinion:Presenting an argument:Un problema/algo que se discute a menudo hoy en día es...Este tema es, en realidad, muy complejo…El tema/la cuestión principal que nos ocupa en esta ocasión es…Lo primero que hace falta decir es que…Es un tópico decir que…Se suele decir que…En primer lugar, consideremos…Voy a considerar en primer lugarDebemos examinar con atención… 5
  6. 6. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comExpressing negative or positive views:Es vergonzoso que…No estoy ni a favor ni en contra de…Me parece lógico que…La sociedad no puede soportar…A mi modo de ver…Está no es una opinión que yo comparta…Me preocupa que…Eso sería demasiado optimista…Parece mentira que…Es inútil que…Mucha gente piensa que…Uno debe ponerse en contra de…Estoy a favor de…(No) me sorprende que…A mi parecer…A nadie le importa si…E lamentable que…Es difícil de imaginar que…Developing the argument:Por un lado..., por otro, ...Esto nos lleva a considerar…Pasemos ahora a ocuparnos de…Consideremos el caso de…Los hechos hablan por sí mismos…A llegar a este punto podemos afirmar que…Un problema, relacionado con el anterior, es el de…Debemos distinguir entre… y... 6
  7. 7. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comTodo el mundo reconoce que…Pocas personas negarán que…Es innegable que…Hay que reconocer que…Sin lugar a dudas…Sin duda/es cierto que…El problema que plantea este argumento es que…Por otra parte, podemos decir/observar que…La otra cara de la moneda es/no obstante…La clave del problema está en…Otra manera de enfocar este argumento/asunto/problema sería…Lo cual nos lleva a otro aspecto del asunto…Si se sopesan los pros y las contras…Lo que sirve para ilustrar/demostrar que…Concluding:Para resumir…En resumen…En conjunto…Qué conclusiones se pueden sacar de?...Todo lo cual sirve para demostrar que…Está claro que el problema/asunto/tema… 7
  8. 8. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comEl español de/en América. ¿De dónde viene el seseo?(Parallel text)Por Rebekka Wellmanns y Alfonso CuencaMucho se ha escrito sobre los orígenes de los rasgos fonéticos y dialectales del español de América ydel influjo que tuvo el andaluz [sur de España] para este fin en el sur del continente americano. Asícomo el judeo-español que llegó a Oriente con los sefardíes sufrió un aislamiento casi total, elespañol de América no perdió el contacto con la península y esto se ha hecho evidente en lacontrastación empírica de los rasgos dialectales que comparten andaluces y americanos de hablahispana.El español que llegó a América del Sur se asentó mayoritariamente, pero no en todas partes, comoes sabido. Vamos a hablar aquí de la influencia del seseo allí donde se asentó, en términosmeramente histórico-lingüísticos y no otra cosa. La política, en este caso, o los gustos subjetivosestán fuera de nuestro interés.El seseo es un fenómeno que comparten andaluces, canarios y todo el español de América,fenómeno por el cual los fonemas cuyas grafías son “c”, “z” y “s” se igualan y se asimilan a laconsonante fricativa alveolar sorda /s/.Efectivamente, hay un consenso mayoritario según el cual varios rasgos fonéticos adoptados enalgunas partes de América del Sur (como el seseo o la relajación de ciertas consonantes) provienendel influjo de los colonizadores que se dieron cita en Sevilla antes de 1492. Con la salvedad de que ala tesis del andalucismo hay que añadir el influjo extremeño, entre otros, la historia de la lenguaespañola nos permite dar por buena esta tesis sevillista o andalucista.Evitaremos, sin embargo, hacer glosa por extenso de las investigaciones que defienden elindigenismo como razón principal para la adopción de estos rasgos dialectales; evitaremos la tesisdel clima como factor diferenciador, y también evitaremos las tesis antiandalucistas que tienen porfinalidad argüir ideas de pertenencia en favor de su propio pueblo y no la de esclarecer con rigor yde acuerdo a la historiografía más competente. También evitamos aquí detallar los estudios de lainfluencia dialectal atribuidos a tierras más altas de la península (como los de Henríquez Ureña); yevitaremos todo esto porque nos parecen tesis harto improcedentes, o sesgadas o sin apenas valor 8
  9. 9. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comcientífico. La cercanía entre el andaluz o el canario y el español americano en el seseo es tanevidente que buscar influencias en el País Vasco, en Cataluña o en el clima paraguayo nos resultadelirante por mucho que haya estudios para tales fines. Hay que aceptar, sin embargo, ynaturalmente, que hubo un porcentaje mínimo de mezcla con dialectos del resto de la penínsulapara constituir la coiné del español atlántico, pero es casi tan irrelevante y tan impreciso sostenerque los rasgos comunes del seseo provienen de Cataluña o de Galicia, o del clima, como pretenderafirmar que el español de Bolivia no es español sino puro guaraní. En la misma medida, resultaría deltodo falso afirmar que el español de España se mantenga puro en América, ese latín vulgar que llegóa las Antillas: ni en España se mantiene puro ni “pureza” es un término posible en historia de lalingüística. Ni el clima ni el Náhuatl, v.g. (con su indudable influencia en otros extremos) hicieron queel seseo andaluz y el americano sean tan parecidos; resulta casi de Perogrullo explicarlo: fueron losandaluces, entre otros (vide supra), quienes exportaron tales peculiaridades, y no otra cosa.El español que se habla en América es el atlántico, lo mismo que lo son el canario, el andaluz, elextremeño o el murciano, atlánticos todos. Utilizamos aquí con Diego Catalán la distinción célebrede “español atlántico”, que luego amplió Rafael Lapesa, no por definitiva, obviamente, sino porquenos parece la más rigurosa en términos de similitudes y disimilitudes en lo que concierneparticularmente a la fonética; no tanto ya a la morfosintaxis, donde la coiné en el registro culto esmucho más igualadora para todos los países de habla hispana de lo que algunos aldeanismospretenden demostrar sin conseguirlo nunca.La colonización americana fue ordenada en Castilla y llevada a cabo en Andalucía, con la ayuda de lasCanarias. Los estudios del censo de colonos de Boyd-Bowman, entre 1492 y 1580, muestran datosconcluyentes: el 35.8% de los embarcados eran andaluces; 16.9% extremeños; un 14.8% castellanos;y el 22.5% restante de diversa procedencia (otros estudios “pan-peninsulares”, como los deHenríquez Ureña, han sido ya sobradamente desacreditados). Las tripulaciones de los barcos, encontra de míticas ideas de bravuconería racial o jingoísmo, eran mayoritariamente meridionalesporque en el norte, con sus marcas y economías menos pobres, entre otras razones, resultaba másdifícil enrolar a los marinos. En las zonas meridionales de la península, por el contrario, la pobrezadesesperanzada fue la que propició un mayor y más fácil reclutamiento, junto con, claro está, laplanificación en Sevilla, donde los inmigrantes pasaron todo un año antes del embarque, y donde laimpregnación lingüística común, castellana y andaluza, también se dejó notar evidentemente. Eneste punto, sin embargo, abarcar más es más preciso, en contra de las tesis puramente andalucistaso sevillanistas, y parece más sensato hablar de español peninsular meridional para dar cabida a todaesa realidad lingüística mezclada que partió para el Nuevo Mundo. Pero no fue la gallardía de un 9
  10. 10. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.compueblo aguerrido (adjetivos que aquí sobran) la que hizo de andaluces o extremeños conquistadoresimprovisados: lo fue la necesidad de un rancho diario que, embarcados, y no en tierra, teníanasegurado. La variedad de dialectos peninsulares era ya enorme, pero no hay duda de que, siatendemos a los estudios más serios, el seseo o la reducción consonántica provienen de Andalucíacon claro predominio, del resto de las provincias del sur, y, en menor medida, de Castilla; cuyamorfosintaxis, por otra parte, no difería en mucho de la andaluza de los siglos XV y XVI.En su “Bosquejo de un mapa tipológico de las lenguas de América del Sur”*, Antonio Tovar hace unataxonomía lingüística donde podemos encontrar diferencias dialectales entre dos mil tribus, condialectos que divide en 23 secciones y que a su vez comprenden 173 grupos de lenguas amerindiascon sus respectivas influencias. Pero advierte Tovar, inmediatamente: «el lingüista no puede estarsatisfecho con un mero inventario» (ibídem). ¡Qué decir entonces de quienes se contentan condividir el español entre el de España y el de América! Hablar de español latino como un bloquehomogéneo, y contrapuesto al español peninsular o ibérico, suena a chiste a nada que uno sedocumente mínimamente con la historia del español en España y en América.Por otra parte, la influencia de las lenguas indígenas en el español que se habla en América esindudable, como indudable es también que el mayor o menor aislamiento haya hecho que losdialectos se multipliquen y se enriquezcan enormemente. De eso no cabe ninguna duda. Por eso esmás científico aglutinar toda esta riqueza en la expresión “español atlántico”, a efectosclasificatorios y si atendemos a sus raíces e influencias compartidas. Pero, claro está, resultainsuficiente cuando tratamos de distinguir diferencias a efectos de estudios concretos o deprofesionalización lingüística. El español de América, en no pocos casos, comparte más con muchasregiones españolas meridionales que con sus propios vecinos del continente. Este hecho esfácilmente observable para el hispanohablante nativo, venga de donde venga. A efectos dedocencia, traducción o interpretación usar la marca “español latino” es decir bien poca cosa o esmás bien no decir nada, tan poca cosa como decir “planeta” o “nebulosa”. Hay que concretar ydistinguir cuándo, dónde y cómo. Por influencia y por similitudes, contraponer el español peninsularal español latino es una simplificación aberrante. Contraponer el español castellano de Castilla alatlántico es insuficiente, pero más propio, según los estudios clásicos de los más reputados filólogos.Entre el hermanamiento, respetuoso y estudioso de las diferencias, y el aldeanismo o el subjetivismode “me gusta” o “no me gusta”, defendemos aquí lo primero. Mil culturas, muchos dialectos, unalengua hermana, con una coiné en el registro culto sin duda muy cercana y comprensible para todoslos nativos hispanohablantes, un registro culto no exigible al mayor número pero obligatorio para unprofesional de la enseñanza o de la traducción en español. 10
  11. 11. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com*[http://cvc.cervantes.es/lengua/thesaurus/pdf/16/TH_16_002_172_0.pdf]The Spanish of/in America. Where does seseo come from?Much has been written about the origins of phonetic and dialectal features of Latin AmericanSpanish and the Andalusian [southern Spain] influence that this has had on the South Americancontinent. So that the Judeo-Spanish who came to the East with the Sephardim suffered an almostcomplete isolation, the Spanish language in America did not lose contact with the Spanish mainlandand this has been evident in the empirical testing of dialectal features that Andalusians and Spanish-Americans speakers share.The Spanish language arrived in South America and settled in most parts, but not everywhere, as it isknown. We’re going to speak about the influence of seseo where it settled, in purely historical-linguistic terms and nothing else. Politics, in this case, is beyond our interests.Seseo is an Andalusian and Canary Island phenomenon and that all American Spanish shared, thephenomenon whereby phonemes whose spellings are “c”, “z” and “s” are equalized and assimilatedto the voiceless alveolar fricative consonant /s/.Indeed, there is a majority consensus whereby several phonetic features adopted in parts of SouthAmerica (such as seseo or the relaxation of certain consonants) come from the influx of settlers whogathered in Seville before 1492. With the exception that one must add the Extramaduran influence,among others, the history of the Spanish language allows us to take for good the Andalucist or evenSevillianist ideas.We´ll avoid, however, extensive glosses of research which advocate Indianism as the main reason forthe adoption of these dialect features; we’ll avoid the theory of climate as a differentiating factor,and we’ll also avoid arguments which are intended as anti-Andalucist ideas arguing in favor of theirown people and not to rigorously clarify according to the relevant historiography. We’ll also avoiddetailing here dialectal studies of the influence attributed to the higher ground of Spain (like thoseof Henríquez Ureña) and we’ll avoid all this because they seem like irrelevant or biased arguments,with little scientific value. The closeness between the Andalusian or Canarian and Spanish Americanin the seseo is so obvious that to look for influences in the Basque Country, Catalonia, or in theParaguayan climate, we find that they are delirious arguments as much as there are studies tosupport them. We must accept, however, and naturally, there was a minimum of dialects mixed with 11
  12. 12. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comthe rest of the peninsula to form the Koine of the Atlantic Spanish, but is almost as irrelevant and asvague to claim that common features of seseo are from Catalonia or Galicia, or the climate, and it’slike trying to say that the Spanish of Bolivia is not Spanish but pure Guarani. To the same extent, it isentirely wrong to say that the Spanish of Spain remains pure in America, that Vulgar Latin that cameto the West Indies: neither the Spanish in Spain remains pure nor is “purity” a possible term in thehistory of linguistics. Neither the weather nor the Náhuatl, e.g. (with its undoubted influence inother cases) made the Andalusian and American seseo seem so similar; it is almost too obvious toexplain: the Andalusians, among others (see above), were those who exported such peculiarities,and no other reason.The Spanish spoken in Latin America is the Atlantic Spanish, the same as are the Canary Spanish,Andalusian, the Extremaduran, or Murcian, Atlantic all. We use here the famous distinction of DiegoCatalan, “Atlantic Spanish”, which later was expanded by Rafael Lapesa, not as definitive, obviously,but because we think it is the most rigorous in terms of similarities and dissimilarities with respectparticularly to the phonetic, not so much as to the morphosyntax, where the Koine on record is moreequalizing for all Spanish speaking countries of which some parochialisms claim to show withoutever succeeding.American Colonization was ordered in Castile and carried out in Andalusia, with the help of theCanary Islands. Census studies of settlers by Boyd-Bowman, between 1492 and 1580, showconclusive data: 35.8% of those on board were Andalusian; 16.9% Extremaduran, 14.8% Castilian,and the remaining 22.5% of different origins. “Pan-peninsular” studies, like those of HenríquezUreña, have already been widely discredited. The crews of the ships, in opposition to the false ideasof racial bravado or jingoism, were mostly from southern Spain because in the north, with itsfiefdoms and richer economies, it was more difficult to recruit seamen, among other reasons. In thesouthern parts of the peninsula, however, there was hopeless poverty that led to greater and easierrecruitment, along with, of course, the carrying out in Seville, where immigrants spent an entire yearprior to embarkation, and where the influence of common languages, Castilian and Andalusian, wasevidently noticeable. At this point, however, it’s more accurate to cover more. Contrary to the mereSevillanist or Andalusian root, it seems more sensible to speak of southern peninsular Spanish toaccommodate all that mixed linguistic reality that departed for the New World. But it was not thebravery of a valiant people (too many adjectives here for a historical account) that made theAndalusian and Extremaduran improvised conquerors: it was the need for a daily ration that wasensured on the ship and not on the land. The variety of peninsular dialects was already huge, butthere is no doubt that, if we pay attention to serious studies, the seseo or consonantal reduction 12
  13. 13. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comcome from a clear Andalucian dominance, from the rest of the southern provinces, and to a lesserextent, from Castile, whose morphosyntax, moreover, did not differ much from the Andalusian inthe 15th and 16th centuries.In his “Sketch of a typological map of the languages in South America” *, Antonio Tovar makes alinguistic taxonomy where we can find differences between two thousand tribal dialects, dividedinto 23 sections, which comprises of 173 Amerindian language groups with their respectiveinfluences. But Tovar warns us almost immediately: “the linguist cannot be satisfied with a mereinventory” (ibid.). What to say about those who are content to divide the Spanish between theSpanish of Spain and the American one! Latin Spanish, talking as a homogenous, as opposed topeninsular or Iberian Spanish, sounds like a joke of one who is scarcely documenting the history ofSpanish in Spain and in Latin America.Moreover, the influence of indigenous languages in the Spanish spoken in America is undeniable, asit is also undeniable that this remoteness has varying dialects which has multiplied and enrichedthem greatly. Of that there is no doubt. So it is more scientific to join all this richness in theexpression “Atlantic Spanish” for qualifying purposes and if we look at its shared roots andinfluences. But, of course, it is insufficient when trying to distinguish differences in relation toconcrete studies or specific linguistic purposes. Latin American Spanish, in some cases, has more incommon with the southern Spanish regions of Spain than with their own continental neighbors. Thisfact is easily observed by native Spanish speakers, wherever they come from. For the purposes ofteaching, translation or interpretation, to use the label “Latin Spanish” is to say almost nothing at all,it´s almost as vague as saying “planet” or “nebula”. We must define and distinguish where, when andhow. For influence and similarities, to oppose continental Spanish from Latin Spanish is an aberrantsimplification. To distinguish between Castilian Spanish and Atlantic Spanish is insufficient, but moreaccurate, according to the studies of the most renowned classical philologists. Among the fraternity,respectful and studious of the differences, and the parochialism or subjectivism of “I like it” or “Idon’t like it”, we defend the first one here. One thousand cultures, many dialects, a sister language,with an educated Koine undoubtedly very close and intelligible to all native Spanish speakers, aneducated register that we can’t prescribe for all, but certainly mandatory for professional teachersor Spanish translators.Translated by Rebekka Wellmanns 13
  14. 14. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com Use of “por” and “para”.¡Para qué tanto lío si por “para” dices “for”, y por “por” dices lo mismo, luego no hay “para” ni“por”!Here we’ll give you a practical distinction for intermediate/advanced students between the use of“por” and “para”. Mucho ánimo. ¡¡Que tú puedes!! Yes, you can!!Este texto que te escribo es para [for] que practiques las diferencias entre “por” y “para”, pues estaspreposiciones te las vas a encontrar cada dos por tres [two out of three times]. Para cuando hayasterminado [for when you have finished] de leer esta entrada verás las diferencias un poco mejor,aunque has de saber que para aprenderlas [to learn them] tienes mucho por leer [you have a lot toread] y también que necesitas practicar mucho por ti mismo/a [by yourself]. Lee en español para queno te olvides [to not forget] otra vez. Si no te acuerdas hoy te acordarás por [in] la mañana. Essabido por [by] todos que esta parte es un poquito difícil, pero, por mucho que te quejes [as muchas you complain], no hay para tanto [not for long].Para cuando sepas esto, por nada ya dudarás [you won’t lack for anything]. Para un propósito, digo“para”. Si quiero decírtelo por correo [by e-mail], digo “por”. Si quiero avisarte de que voy para tucasa [I’m going to your home], te digo “para”. Si para navidades [if by Christmas] no lo hasaprendido, la culpa será para ti. Lo hago por ti [because of you] y también lo hago para ti [for you].Por cada [for every] vez que aciertes te daré un caramelo para que lo celebremos [so that wecelebrate it]. Por eso [for that reason] no deberías dejarlo, y, para sabértelo bien, nada como leer yconversar mucho. Voto por ti. ¡No dejes de estudiar por [because of] pereza! Estaré por aquí[around here] si me necesitas. Si quieres te lo explico por carta o por teléfono. Gracias por leerme. Yesto es todo por ahora. 14
  15. 15. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comPara PorPurpose: After certain verbs it can mean: ‘for’-Tengo un regalo para ti. especially to show reason: I have a present for you. -Lo hago por ti. I do it for you.Finality of an action: It can mean: ‘through’, ‘on behalf of’,-Tengo entradas para ir al cine. ‘by’, ‘because of’: I have tickets to go to the cinema. -El ladrón saltó por la ventana. The thief jumped through the window. -Lo he enviado por correo. I have sent it by email. -Por tu salud, deja de fumar. For your health, stop smoking.Time frame: Approximate place:-El archivo estará listo para esta noche. -El baño está por la parte de atrás de la The file will be ready for tonight. casa. The bathroom is in the back part of the house.Destination: Approximate time:-Voy para Madrid. -Por julio iremos al Caribe. I’m going to Madrid. Around July we will go to the Caribbean.To indicate a recipient: By/how:-Este libro es para Julián. -Agárralo por la camisa. This book is for Julián. Grab him/her by the shirt.Opinion: With the passive tense:-Para mí, me gustan más los perros. -Corregido por un traductor. For me, I like dogs more. Corrected by a translator.To express a contrast: Price:-Para verano, hace mucho frío. -He comprado las uvas por cinco euros. For summer, it’s very cold. I have bought the grapes for five euros.An action that will soon be completed: Place along/through which:-Estoy para salir. -Voy por el camino más corto. I’m about to go out. I’m going along the shortest path.Use/function: Cause:-El agua aquí es para lavarte. -No lo he hecho por el dolor de cabeza. 15
  16. 16. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com The water here is to wash yourself. I haven’t done it because of my headache.In the near future: Substitution:-Tengo que terminar el trabajo para el -Ha cambiado el vestido por la falda.día 23. S/he has changed the dress for the skirt. I have to finish the job for the 23rd. To express gratitude or apology: -Lo siento por entretenerte. I’m sorry for keeping you. For multiplication: -Diez por dos son veinte. Ten times two is twenty. Speed, frequency and proportion: -Compro comida una vez por semana. I buy food once a week. A subjective consideration/“to be seen as”: -Me tiene por su hermano. She looks like his/her brother. When followed by an infinitive, it expresses an action yet to be completed: -Las tareas están por hacer. The tasks are yet to be done. To be in the mood or inclined to do something when used with ‘estar’: -Estaba por llorar. S/he felt like crying. In certain expressions: -Por lo general = by and large. -Por ahora = for now. -Por adelantado = in advance. -Por allí = around there. -Por aquí = around here. -Por amor de Dios = for the love of God. -Por casualidad = by chance. -Por ciento = percent. -Por completo = completely. -Por dentro = inside. -Por desgracia = unfortunately. -Por ejemplo = for example. 16
  17. 17. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com -Por eso = therefore. -Por cierto = certainly, by the way. -Por favor = please. -Por fin = finally. -Por lo general = generally. -Por lo visto = apparently. -Por medio de = by means of. -Por lo menos = at least. -Por lo tanto = consequently. -Por mi parte = as for me. -Por ningún lado = nowhere. -Por otra parte = on the other hand. -Palabra por palabra = word for word. -Por primera vez = for the first time. -Por separado = separately. -Por supuesto = of course. -Por suerte = fortunately. -Por todas partes = everywhere. -Por todos lados = on all sides. -Por ultimo = finally. 17
  18. 18. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com Use of sino and peroIt is sometimes difficult for Spanish students to correctly use of the adversative conjunctions “sino”and “pero”. This is because such a distinction does not exist in many other languages.These adversatives may be exclusive or non-exclusive.In short, we can say:“Sino” is used in coordination when it precedes a negative element.Esta tarde no iremos al cine sino al teatro. This evening we won´t go to the cinema but to thetheatre.A common mistake:Esta tarde no iremos al cine pero al teatro.When the coordinated phrase is affirmative we use “pero”:Esta tarde hace frío pero iremos a pasear. This evening is cold but we´ll take a walk.For the conjunction of variables we use “y”:Es malhumorado y poco sociable. He is bad-tempered and not very social.Es bondadoso y caritativo. He is kind and charitable.However, as a link in relational values that may be antagonistic in semantic terms we´ll use “pero”(sometimes it works as attenuation to what is said before).Es malhumorado pero bondadoso. He is bad-tempered but kind.Es poco sociable pero caritativo. He is not too social but charitable.So we would never say:Es feo pero imbécil. He is ugly but silly. 18
  19. 19. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comorConduce mal pero temerariamente. He drives badly but recklessly.When the value of denial is explicit in the coordinated sentence, even contradictory, we use “sino”.No es baja sino muy alta. She is not short but very tall.No es feo sino muy guapo. He is not ugly but very handsome.This means that we counterpose qualities.We will also use “pero” at the beginning of a sentence that is contrary to what is said before. Andfinally, we will use “pero” in interrogative and exclamatory sentences to indicate surprise orastonishment: ¡Pero qué dices!, but what are you saying!, ¡Pero si aún es de noche! But it’s still night! 19
  20. 20. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com Spanish ChristmasWith the festive season drawing close, many Spanish speaking countries are preparing for theirvarious celebrations. Today we’d like to share with you how Spanish speakers celebrate thesefestivities.Christmas Eve (Nochebuena):This is one of the most important gatherings of the year. Family members come together to partakeof a dinner and later to attend midnight mass and Christmas carols. On a typical Spanish table youwill see: Pork, chicken, turkey, mutton, lamb, prawn, seafood… all the typical dishes. Sweet thingsare abundant on this night: turrón (a type of nougat), marzipan, dates among many other sweetthings.Christmas Day (Día de Navidad):Christmas day is celebrated by giving a small gift to each other in the morning and a traditionalChristmas meal in the afternoon. Not many presents are given on Christmas day because El Día deReyes (6 January) was traditionally the present giving day. However, nowadays more Spanishspeaking countries are following the traditional western tradition of opening presents on Christmasday as well as on el día de Reyes.New Year’s Eve and New Year’s day (Nochevieja y Año Nuevo)In Spain, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, among others, it’s traditional to eat 12 grapes (las doceuvas de la suerte) at each stroke of midnight. For each stroke you should eat one grape. If youmanage to consume all the grapes within the period of the strikes, it means good luck in the newyear. The origin of this custom came from an excess of grapes.At dawn or on the morning of the first churros con chocolate are usually eaten with friends andfamily. 20
  21. 21. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comDía de Reyes (6 January)El Día de Reyes is a Christian tradition from when the three kings brought three gifts to the babyJesus. On the night before el Día de Reyes children polish and leave their shoes outside their doors. Ifthe children have been good, they receive presents; if not, a lump of coal —carbon— (a hard candydyed black) is left inside the shoes. Sweet wine, nibbles, sweets, fruit and milk are left out. Thetraditional Roscón de Reyes is eaten as well. Children used to receive gifts on this day only, althoughlately Santa Claus (Papá Noel) is coming to visit them on 25th.Throughout this festive season there are many celebratory parades as well where you can see colorsgalore. 21
  22. 22. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com Latin American Spanish vs. Spain Spanish(Parallel text)By Rebekka Wellmanns.Conocer una lengua como hablante nativo común dista mucho de saber enseñarla. La enseñanzaonline, cada vez más accesible, ha traído maravillosas ventajas pero también perversiones delirantesy disparadas. Uno de esos dislates perversos que proliferan con cierta frecuencia, en bitácoras deaficionados, es la contraposición que se hace entre el español latino y el español de España entérminos de “superioridad” o de “inferioridad”. Voy a intentar demostrar aquí que ese mito no tienefundamento lingüístico serio y, por tanto, trataré de disiparlo apelando al mero sentido común de unestudiante cualquiera de español como segunda lengua:Alberto Gómez Font, lingüista de origen colombiano y coordinador de la Fundeu (Fundación deEspañol Urgente) dice, con conocimiento y experiencia propios: «No tiene nada que ver cómo hablala gente de Bogotá con la de Medellín, o la de Cali con la de Cartagena de Indias [ciudades todascolombianas]; uno de Cartagena de Indias habla mucho más parecido a alguien de Cádiz [España]que a otro de Bogotá. Y uno de Bogotá habla mucho más parecido a alguien de Madrid [España] quea uno de Cartagena».Esta formidable variedad de hablas nos impide ser taxativos a la hora de distinguir acentoshispanoamericanos o acentos españoles en contraposiciones totalizadoras. En su excelente Historiade la lengua española, el gran filólogo español Rafael Lapesa nos explica lo que parece un hechoevidente para cualquiera que haya viajado a unos cuantos kilómetros de su propio pueblo: «No esigual el habla cubana que la argentina, ni la de un mejicano o guatemalteco que la de un peruano ochileno»*.La diferencia entre el español de España y el español latino, como dos bloques homogéneos,discretos y distinguibles, es, simplemente, falsa, y para afirmarlo solo hace falta apelar al sentidocomún y a la experiencia. La variedad de hablas que toda lengua contiene, de acuerdo a susevoluciones económicas y socioculturales, es siempre algo valioso y enriquecedor. No será nunca lamisma el habla de un campesino que la de un negociante en el comercio digital, porque,evidentemente, las exigencias son diferentes y cada lengua evoluciona con arreglo a los intereses de 22
  23. 23. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.comsus hablantes. Por esto, afirmar la superioridad de unas hablas sobre otras, en una u otra dirección,es simplemente un sesgo producto de la mala fe o de la ignorancia. El español castellano de España,en su habla, si atendemos a los estudios clásicos de historia de la lengua española, no se contraponeal español de América (“Spanish latin”), sino al español atlántico, y este incluye al de América, perotambién al cordobés, al malagueño, al sevillano, al extremeño, al murciano, al canario, etc. Por esoconviene dejar claro de una vez que, en contradicción con algunas de las barbaridades que sepueden leer por internet, el español que un estudiante ha de aprender es solo uno: el español culto.Un español cuya Nueva Gramática ha sido elaborada con la ayuda de gramáticos de todos los paísesde habla hispana. Tesoro lingüístico y cultural al que llamamos lengua española, del que todosdisfrutamos y que, por tanto, todos debiéramos compartir y cuidar en hermandad.En resolución, un profesor competente jamás hará distinciones en términos de supuestassuperioridades o inferioridades de la lengua española venga esta de donde venga. Las diferenciasfonéticas y dialectales deben de ser explicadas, no “vendidas” en términos de superioridadraciológico-lingüística (superioridad siempre en favor, curiosamente, de la nacionalidad de quien lahabla o escribe). Español de América, español de España, bienvenidos todos cuando quien lo enseñaes un profesional de esa enseñanza y no un ocioso sin más conocimientos lingüísticos y docentesque los del uso cotidiano de su lengua.* Rafael Lapesa, Historia de la lengua española, Gredos, Madrid 1981, pág. 535. Latin American Spanish vs Spanish from SpainKnowing a language as a native speaker is a long way from knowing how to teach it. Onlineeducation, increasingly accessible, has brought wonderful benefits but also delusional or foolishperversions. One such absurd nonsense that proliferates, in amateur blogs, is the contrast drawnbetween the Latin American Spanish and Spanish from Spain in terms of "superiority" or"inferiority". We will try to show that this myth has no serious linguistic basis, and therefore Ill try todispel it appealing to the mere common sense of any student of Spanish as a Second Language:Alberto Gómez Font, a Colombian-born linguist, coordinator of Fundeu (Foundation of UrgentSpanish), argues with his own knowledge and experience: “It has nothing to do with how peopletalk in Bogota, and nothing to do with people from Medellin or Cali to Cartagena de Indias [allColombian cities], a person from Cartagena de Indias speaks much more like someone from Cádiz 23
  24. 24. Almanns Spanish Classes http://www.almannsspanishteacher.com spanish@almanns.com[Spain] than another from Bogotá. And someone from Bogotá speaks much more like someone fromMadrid [Spain] than someone from Cartagena.”This formidable range of dialects prevents us as distinguishing as total opposites Latin AmericanSpanish or Spanish of Spain accents. In his excellent Historia de la lengua española, thegreat Spanish philologist Rafael Lapesa explains what seems an obvious fact to anyone who hastraveled a few miles from his own land: “The speech of a Cuban is not the same as that of anArgentinian, nor a Mexican or Guatemalan from a Peruvian or Chilean”*.The difference between the Spanish of Spain and Latin American Spanish, as two homogeneousblocks, discrete and distinguishable, is simply false, and to prove that we only need to appeal tocommon sense and experience. The variety of speech that every language has, according to itseconomic and cultural developments, is always valuable and enriching. The speech of a peasant willnever be the same as that of an e-commerce businessman, because, obviously, the requirements aredifferent and every language evolves according to the interests of their speakers. Therefore, to talkabout the superiority of one dialect over others, in any direction, is simply a product of racial bias,bad faith or ignorance. The Castilian Spanish of Spain, if we look at the history of classical studies ofthe Spanish language, is not opposed to Latin American Spanish (“Spanish Latin”), but to the AtlanticSpanish and this includes the American, but also the Cordovan, the people of Málaga, the Sevillian,the people of Murcia, the Extremaduran, the Canary Islander, etc. So we should say at once that,contrary to some of the atrocities that can be read online sometimes, the Spanish that a student hasto learn is only one: the educated Spanish. A Spanish whose New Grammar has been developed withthe help of grammarians of all Spanish-speaking countries. That linguistic and cultural treasure whichwe call the Spanish language, that we all enjoy and that, therefore, we should all share and lookafter in fraternity.In summary: A competent teacher will never make distinctions in terms of alleged superiority orinferiority in Spanish speech wherever it comes from. Phonetic and dialectal differences must beexplained, not “sold” in terms of racist-linguistic superiority (superiority which curiously is always infavor of the speaker or writer depending on his/her nationality). Latin American Spanish,Spanish from Spain, we welcome both when the teacher is a professional and not a person with freetime and with no more philological and teaching knowledge than the daily use of his/her nativelanguage.Translated from Spanish by Alfonso Cuenca. 24

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