SURVIVING                 LECTURES              TOOLS & METHODS FOR VISUAL LEARNERS©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Profess...
“I draw pictures…©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
“I draw pictures…                all day”                                                           quote from Veer.com©20...
I will explain…©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
“I learn better by seeing            things…”©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design |...
“I need you to show me…”©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw...
students will self              diagnose as©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | I...
Visual Learners©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
?              read??                                     bd©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communicati...
?              read??              listen??                                     bd©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professo...
?              read??              listen??              do math??                                     bd©2012 Alma Hoffma...
?              read??              listen??              do math??              write a paper??                           ...
but the chief enemy©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
Lectures this way
sigh!
their best friend©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
doodles done in a lecture
but is doodling in class                           a bad thing?©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communic...
37%are visual learners                                                      Linda Silverman                               ...
our ancestors doodled©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
gasulla gorge                         (Gardner, 1991, p. 37)   ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communic...
our presidents doodle©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
ronald reagan’sAssistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu     ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | ...
famous writers doodled©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
mark twain                    http://flavorwire.com/147177/idle-doodles-by-famous-authors   ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant...
Bill Gates doodles©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
bill gates           http://macdailynews.com/2005/01/31/experts_say_bill_gates_doodles_show_hes_stressed_and_tense/     ©2...
Picasso doodled©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
picasso’s doodle                             http://absentmindeddrawing.blogspot.com/2011/06/picasso-doodles.html    ©2012...
Leonardo doodled©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
Leonardo doodledleonardo’s doodles                                    (Zöllner 2004)    ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Pr...
Leonardo doodledleonardo’s doodles                                    (Zöllner 2004)    ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Pr...
we are wired to respond to visual data or stimuli      ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication an...
empathy is a function of              the brain                                                    Carol S. Jeffers       ...
so why do students seem              to not pay attention?©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication...
we have been trained              and train them to not pay              attention©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professo...
WHAT??©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
“ Part of the problem stems from               a pattern of learning that simply               requires memorization of in...
©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
…see learning as a blur of myriad facts, dates, names, equations,           “               or procedural rules to be memo...
a walk to memory land…©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
and assimiliation©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
technology integration in lectures      ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW...
students were even more passive     ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | h...
“ you are going to upload            the presentation anyway…©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communicat...
2009 ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
2009           a turning point ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffma...
no more!©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
business strategist who uses visual thinking
but change is hard to do…©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipf...
change is hard to do…caught a student doodling while I was lecturing      ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visu...
what is it about doodling©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipf...
bad reputation©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
doodle:           “meaningless marks, to do something of little value…            to dawdle, to dilly dally, to monkey aro...
“doing nothing at work            is the equivalent of            masturbating at work”                                   ...
“doodling is really to make            spontaneous marks to            help yourself think…”                              ...
doodling is really to make spontaneous marks tohelp yourself think…” | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@i...
doodlers recalled29%more information                                                       Jackie Andrade                 ...
not convinced?©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
benefits              kinesthetic                                                    Jesse Berg, M.I                       ...
benefits              kinesthetic              multi sensory                                                    Jesse Berg,...
benefits              kinesthetic              multi sensory              engages different              areas of the brain...
benefits              kinesthetic              multi sensory              engages different              areas of the brain...
benefits              connect concepts in tactile              and visual manner                                           ...
benefits               connect concepts in tactile               and visual manner               helps in decision making  ...
benefits              connect concepts in tactile              and visual manner              helps in decision making     ...
benefits               helps identify the underlying               structure of an argument                                ...
gallery©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
doodling is really to make spontaneous marks tohelp yourself think…”                 Sunny Brown
doodling is really to make spontaneous marks tohelp yourself think…”                 Sunny Brown
students’ doodles©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
natural and spontaneous content organization
natural and spontaneous content organization
sometimes they feel my pain
discussing oral presentations: visual metaphors
they listen to advise
and apply it to other classes
but you are a designer©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
“ sketchbooks [doodling]             are not about being a             good artist, they are about             being a goo...
the key components©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
listen : synthetize : visualize              in real time                                                    Craighton Ber...
the key elements©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
line              letters              connectors              bullets              shadows              frames           ...
let’s practice!              Gever Tully              http://www.ted.com/talks/gever_tulley_on_5_dangerous_things_for_kids...
thank you!©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
sources              1.   Absent Minded Drawing." : Picasso Doodles. 8 June 2011. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://absentmindedd...
sources              21. Novak, J.D. & A. J. Cañas, The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them, ...
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Survivinglectures

  1. 1. SURVIVING LECTURES TOOLS & METHODS FOR VISUAL LEARNERS©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  2. 2. “I draw pictures…©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  3. 3. “I draw pictures… all day” quote from Veer.com©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  4. 4. I will explain…©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  5. 5. “I learn better by seeing things…”©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  6. 6. “I need you to show me…”©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  7. 7. students will self diagnose as©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  8. 8. Visual Learners©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  9. 9. ? read?? bd©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  10. 10. ? read?? listen?? bd©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  11. 11. ? read?? listen?? do math?? bd©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  12. 12. ? read?? listen?? do math?? write a paper?? bd©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  13. 13. but the chief enemy©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  14. 14. Lectures this way
  15. 15. sigh!
  16. 16. their best friend©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  17. 17. doodles done in a lecture
  18. 18. but is doodling in class a bad thing?©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  19. 19. 37%are visual learners Linda Silverman Director Institute for the Study of Advanced Development & the Gifted Development Center Author of Counseling the Gifted and Talented Upside-Down Brilliance ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  20. 20. our ancestors doodled©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  21. 21. gasulla gorge (Gardner, 1991, p. 37) ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  22. 22. our presidents doodle©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  23. 23. ronald reagan’sAssistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | doodles: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6118892
  24. 24. famous writers doodled©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  25. 25. mark twain http://flavorwire.com/147177/idle-doodles-by-famous-authors ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  26. 26. Bill Gates doodles©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  27. 27. bill gates http://macdailynews.com/2005/01/31/experts_say_bill_gates_doodles_show_hes_stressed_and_tense/ ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  28. 28. Picasso doodled©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  29. 29. picasso’s doodle http://absentmindeddrawing.blogspot.com/2011/06/picasso-doodles.html ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  30. 30. Leonardo doodled©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  31. 31. Leonardo doodledleonardo’s doodles (Zöllner 2004) ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  32. 32. Leonardo doodledleonardo’s doodles (Zöllner 2004) ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  33. 33. we are wired to respond to visual data or stimuli ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  34. 34. empathy is a function of the brain Carol S. Jeffers Professor at California State University, USA On Empathy: The Mirror Neuron System and Art Education©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  35. 35. so why do students seem to not pay attention?©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  36. 36. we have been trained and train them to not pay attention©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  37. 37. WHAT??©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  38. 38. ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  39. 39. “ Part of the problem stems from a pattern of learning that simply requires memorization of information, and no evaluation of the information is required.” Joseph D. Novak Professor Emeritus at Cornell University The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  40. 40. ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  41. 41. …see learning as a blur of myriad facts, dates, names, equations, “ or procedural rules to be memorized. For these students, the subject matter of most disciplines, and especially science, mathematics, and history, is a cacophony of information to memorize, and they usually find this boring. Joseph D. Novak Professor Emeritus at Cornell University The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  42. 42. a walk to memory land…©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  43. 43. and assimiliation©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  44. 44. technology integration in lectures ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  45. 45. students were even more passive ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  46. 46. “ you are going to upload the presentation anyway…©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  47. 47. 2009 ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  48. 48. 2009 a turning point ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  49. 49. no more!©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  50. 50. business strategist who uses visual thinking
  51. 51. but change is hard to do…©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  52. 52. change is hard to do…caught a student doodling while I was lecturing ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  53. 53. what is it about doodling©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  54. 54. bad reputation©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  55. 55. doodle: “meaningless marks, to do something of little value… to dawdle, to dilly dally, to monkey around, to make my personal favorite— to do nothing.” Sunny Brown Author & Doodler Gamestorming©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  56. 56. “doing nothing at work is the equivalent of masturbating at work” Sunny Brown Author & Doodler Gamestorming©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  57. 57. “doodling is really to make spontaneous marks to help yourself think…” Sunny Brown Author & Doodler Gamestorming©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  58. 58. doodling is really to make spontaneous marks tohelp yourself think…” | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor Sunny Brown
  59. 59. doodlers recalled29%more information Jackie Andrade Professor of Psychology University of Plymouth What does Doodling do? Applied Cognitive Psychology Journal Feb. 2009 ©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  60. 60. not convinced?©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  61. 61. benefits kinesthetic Jesse Berg, M.I President of The Visual Leap Educator Instructional Technologist Visual Learning Expert©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  62. 62. benefits kinesthetic multi sensory Jesse Berg, M.I President of The Visual Leap Educator Instructional Technologist Visual Learning Expert©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  63. 63. benefits kinesthetic multi sensory engages different areas of the brain Jesse Berg, M.I President of The Visual Leap Educator Instructional Technologist Visual Learning Expert©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  64. 64. benefits kinesthetic multi sensory engages different areas of the brain Jesse Berg, M.I President of The Visual Leap Educator Instructional Technologist Visual Learning Expert©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  65. 65. benefits connect concepts in tactile and visual manner Jesse Berg, M.I President of The Visual Leap Educator Instructional Technologist Visual Learning Expert©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  66. 66. benefits connect concepts in tactile and visual manner helps in decision making Jesse Berg, M.I President of The Visual Leap Educator Instructional Technologist Visual Learning Expert©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  67. 67. benefits connect concepts in tactile and visual manner helps in decision making clarifies ideas Jesse Berg, M.I President of The Visual Leap Educator Instructional Technologist Visual Learning Expert©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  68. 68. benefits helps identify the underlying structure of an argument Jesse Berg, M.I President of The Visual Leap Educator Instructional Technologist Visual Learning Expert©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  69. 69. gallery©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  70. 70. doodling is really to make spontaneous marks tohelp yourself think…” Sunny Brown
  71. 71. doodling is really to make spontaneous marks tohelp yourself think…” Sunny Brown
  72. 72. students’ doodles©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  73. 73. natural and spontaneous content organization
  74. 74. natural and spontaneous content organization
  75. 75. sometimes they feel my pain
  76. 76. discussing oral presentations: visual metaphors
  77. 77. they listen to advise
  78. 78. and apply it to other classes
  79. 79. but you are a designer©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  80. 80. “ sketchbooks [doodling] are not about being a good artist, they are about being a good thinker” Jason Santa María Designer, educator and speaker©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  81. 81. the key components©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  82. 82. listen : synthetize : visualize in real time Craighton Berman Lead designer at gravitytank©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  83. 83. the key elements©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  84. 84. line letters connectors bullets shadows frames and sticky figures!©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  85. 85. let’s practice! Gever Tully http://www.ted.com/talks/gever_tulley_on_5_dangerous_things_for_kids.html©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  86. 86. thank you!©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  87. 87. sources 1. Absent Minded Drawing." : Picasso Doodles. 8 June 2011. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://absentmindeddrawing.blogspot.com/2011/06/picasso- doodles.html>. 2. Andrade, Jackie. "What Does Doodling Do?" Applied Cognitive Psychology 24 (2010): 100-06. Print. 3. Andrade, Jackie. "What Does Doodling Do?" Applied Cognitive Psychology (2009). Wiley InterScience. Wiley, 27 Feb. 2009. Web. <http:// interscience.wiley.com>. 4. Berg, Jesse. "Doodles and Visual Thinking." Telephone interview. 22 Feb. 2012. 5. Berg, Jesse. "Visual Spatial Learners." The Visual Leap. The Visual Leap. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <https://www.thevisualleap.com/ about_visualspatiallearners>. 6. Berman, Craighton. "Sketchnotes 101: The Basics of Visual Note-Taking." Core77. 21 June 2011. Web. <http://www.core77.com/blog>. 7. Berman, Craighton. "Sketchnotes 101: Visual Thinking." Core77. 6 June 2011. Web <http://www.core77.com/blog>. 8. Bonneville, Douglas. "Why Graphic Designers Should Learn to Draw." Bonfx.com 4 May 2010. Web. <http://bonfx.com>. 9. Brown, Sunni. "Sunni Brown: Doodlers, Unite! | Video on TED.com." TED: Ideas worth Spreading. TED, Sept. 2011. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.ted.com/talks/sunni_brown.html>. 10. "Doodle Meanings." Doodle Meanings - National Doodle Day Friday March 2, 2012. Web. <http://doodle.epilepsy.org.uk/meanings/ index.html>. 11. Gardner, Helen, Richard G. Tansey, and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardners Art through the Ages. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College, 1996. Print. 12. Gardner, Howard. "Can Technology Exploit Our Many Ways of Knowing?" 32-35. Http://www.howardgardner.com. Web. <http:// www.howardgardner.com>. 13. Gardner, Howard. "A Multiplicity of Intelligences: In Tribute to Professor Luigi Vignolo." Http://www.howardgardner.com/Papers/papers.html. Web. <http://www.howardgardner.com/Papers/papers.html>. 14. "Get Smart - Doodle!" Weblog post. Timtim. 2 Mar. 2009. Web. <http://www.timtim.com>. 15. "Great Performances . Educational Resources . Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences Theory . Overview | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/education/ed_mi_overview.html>. 16. Greenberg, David, and Paul Collins. Presidential Doodles: Two Centuries of Scribbles, Scratches, Squiggles & Scrawls from the Oval Office. New York, NY: Basic, 2006. Print. 17. Jeffers, Carol. "On Empathy: The Mirror Neuron System and Art Education." International Journal of Education and the Arts 10.15 (2009). 18. Lowry, Cheryl. "Doodling: An Antidote for Digital Distraction." Flip the Media. University of Washington, Master of Communication in Digital Media, 5 July 2011. Web. <http://flipthemedia.com/index.php/2011/07/doodling-an-antidote-for-digital-distraction/>. 19. "MacDailyNews." Experts Say Bill Gates’ Doodles Show He’s ‘stressed and Tense, Not a Natural Leader’ (with Image) –. Mac Daily News, 31 Jan. 2005. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://macdailynews.com/2005/01/31/experts_say_bill_gates_doodles_show_hes_stressed_and_tense/>. 20. Meggs, Philip. The History of Graphic Design. John Wiley & Sons, 2006. Print.©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu
  88. 88. sources 21. Novak, J.D. & A. J. Cañas, The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them, Technical Report IHMC Cmap Tools 2006-01 Rev 01-2008, Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, 2008. 22. Porter, Joshua, and Joshua Brewer. "Sketch, Sketch, Sketch." Weblog post. 52weeksofux. 21 Jan. 2010. Web. <http://52weeksofux.com>. 23. Roam, Dan. The Back of the Napkin: Solving Problems and Selling Ideas with Pictures. New York: Portfolio, 2008. Print. 24. Rohde, Mike. "Sketching: The Visual Thinking Power Tool." A List Apart. 25 Jan. 2011. Web. <http://alistapart.com>. 25. Salisbury, Martin, and Morag Styles London. Childrens Picturebooks The Art of Visual Storytelling. London: Laurence King Pub, 2012. Print. 26. Sample, Ian. "Doodling Should Be Encouraged in Boring Meetings, Claims a Psychologist." The Guardian. The Guardian, 26 Feb. 2009. Web. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/feb/27/doodling-doodles-boring-meetings-concentration>. 27. Santa Maria, Jason. "Pretty Sketchy." Weblog post. Jason Santa Maria. 22 Apr. 2009. Web. <http://v4.jasonsantamaria.com>. 28. Silverman, Linda Ph.D., and Jeffrey N. Freed, M.A.T. “Strategies for Gifted Visual-Spatial Learners.” Gifted Development Center, Denver, Colorado 29. Silverman, Linda Ph.D. “The Visual-Spatial Learner.” Gifted Development Center, Denver, Colorado 30. Spiegel, Alix. "Bored? Try Doodling to Keep the Brain on Task." Morning Edition. NPR. 12 Mar. 2009. NPR. NPR, 12 Mar. 2009. Web. <http:// www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=101727048>. 31. Temple, Emily. "Idle Doodles by Famous Authors." Weblog post. Flavorwire. 30 Jan. 2011. Web. <http://www.flavorwire.com>. 32. "Visual Spatial Learners." The Visual Leap. Web. <https://www.thevisualleap.com/about_visualspatiallearners.html>. 33. "What Is Visual Thinking." The Visual Leap. Web. <https://thevisualleap.com>. 34. Zollner, Frank, and Johannes Nathan. Leonardo Da Vinci: Sketches and Drawings. Taschen, 2004. Print.©2012 Alma Hoffmann | Assistant Professor | Visual Communication and Design | IPFW | hoffmann@ipfw.edu

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