Invasives in Georgia….

Threats to
Forest Health
in Georgia

Jeff Kastle
Forest Health
Forester
Georgia Forestry
Commissio...
Invasives and Other Forest Health Issues in Georgia….

Jeff Kastle
Forest Health
Forester
Georgia Forestry
Commission
Forest Health Management
Forest Health Coordinator – Chip Bates
Forest Health Specialist:
Mark McClure - Southwest Georgia...
Forest Health Management
Monitoring Activities
Southern Pine Beetle Activity
•

Spring Trapping (annual prediction) & Aeri...
Forest Health Management
Other Activities

Cogon Grass
• If discovered, Forest Health personnel will
treat the spot at no ...
Forest Health Management
Other Activities
Hemlock Wooly Adelgid
• Georgia Forestry Commission rents
soil injectors
Brief H...
Invasive Species?
What IS An Invasive?
ANY Plant or Animal that has been
introduced.
What IS An Invasive?
ANY Plant or Animal that has been
introduced and aggressively competes
with and displaces local nativ...
What IS An Invasive?
ANY Plant or Animal that has been
introduced and aggressively competes
with and displaces local nativ...
What are some
Common Invasive
Species?
What are some common
Invasive Species?
• Kudzu
• Wisteria
What are some common
Invasive Species?
•
•
•
•
•

Kudzu
Wisteria
Chinese Privet
Chinaberry
Cherokee Rose
What are some common
Invasive Species?
•
•
•
•
•
•

Kudzu
Wisteria
Chinese Privet
Chinaberry
Cherokee Rose
Chinese Tallowt...
2009 Dirty Dozen List:
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Species or Genera
Non-native Privet
non-native Lespedeza
kudzu
Chi...
2013 “Dirty Dozen”List
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Species or Genera

Percent
Increase

Non-native privet
Napalese br...
2013 “Dirty Dozen”List
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Species or Genera

Percent
Increase

Non-native privet (726,148 Ac...
2013 “Dirty Dozen”List
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Species or Genera

Percent
Increase

Non-native privet (726,148 Ac...
2013 “Dirty Dozen”List
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Species or Genera

Percent
Increase

Non-native privet (726,148 Ac...
2013 “Dirty Dozen”List
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Species or Genera

Percent
Increase

Non-native privet (726,148 Ac...
2013 “Dirty Dozen”List
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Species or Genera

Percent
Increase

Non-native privet (726,148 Ac...
2013 “Dirty Dozen”List
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Species or Genera

Percent
Increase

Non-native privet (726,148 Ac...
2013 “Dirty Dozen”List
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Species or Genera

Percent
Increase

Non-native privet (726,148 Ac...
2013 “Dirty Dozen”List
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Species or Genera

Percent
Increase

Non-native privet (726,148 Ac...
Kudzu
•Imported in 1876
•Erosion Control in
the 30’s
•Use Chemical or
Biological Control
•Tordon, Transline, or
Escort
Chinese Privet

•Imported in 1852
•Planted as an ornamental
•Adapts well to many sites
•Aggressive invasive species
Chinese Privet
• By far one of the most invasive species in
Georgia
• Colonizes low wet areas readily
• Spread easily by w...
Chinese Privet
Control
• Because privet is an evergreen, winter time is a
great time to target this species
• Not much els...
Chinese Privet
• Great example of why invasive species need to be
controlled
• Without control they have the potential to
...
Japanese
Climbing Fern
Japanese Climbing Fern
• First introduced in 1930’s (ORNAMENTAL)
• Approximately 20,000 acres
• Easily spread in pine stra...
Japanese Climbing Fern
Japanese Climbing Fern
• Dies back in late winter
• Dead vines providing a trellis for
re-establishment
Japanese Climbing Fern
Japanese Climbing Fern
Japanese Climbing Fern
• Southern Bark Beetle •
•
– Prediction Survey
– Aerial Bark Beetle
•
Survey
•
• Hemlock Woolly
•
Adelgid
•
• Laurel Wilt ...
3 Main Types
of Pine Bark
Beetles
Ips species (3)

Southern Pine Beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis

Black Turpentine Beetle
De...
Southern Pine Beetle
• Without question, has the potential to cause the most
damage to timber (more than any other single ...
Southern Pine Beetle
Prediction Survey
• Usually completed about the time the dogwoods
are beginning to leaf out
Lindgren Funnel Trap
Clerid beetles are natural predators of
the Southern Pine Beetle
•Southern Pine Beetle
–Prediction Survey (Spring)
–Aerial Bark Beetle Survey (as needed)
Detection Survey
Detection Survey
Pine Beetle Spots Start Small & Spread Quickly
Pine Beetle Spots Start Small & Spread Quickly
Pine Beetle Control and Prevention
• Periodic thinning to maintain a vigorous
growing stand
• Pre-commercial thinning in y...
Too dense
Room To Grow
Our global economy….
The port of Savannah and the Atlanta airport have the potential to
bring in many non-native species.
The Port of Savannah…
1994

550,000 Containers

2009

2.36 million Containers

2010

2.82 million Containers

2011

2.93 m...
The Expansion has started
Solid Wood Packing Material
Solid Wood Packing Material
Laurel Wilt Disease
WHAT IF ?????
THIS HAD BEEN:
OAK
PINE
• Hemlock Woolly Adelgid • Exotic Wood Borers
• Chinese Tallowtree

• Emerald Ash Borer

• Southern Pine Beetle

• Gypsy M...
QUESTIONS ?
Jeff Kastle
Forest Health Forester
1055 E. Whitehall Road
Athens, Ga. 30605
GATREES.org

Office: 706.552.4450
...
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
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  • Always remember to check the fact when someone tells you something “DO NOT TAKE THEIR WORD ON IT!”
  • Let the audience answer the question for you…
  • What is an invasive… Let the answers come from the audience.
  • An invasive MUST “AGGRESSIVELY COMPETE AND DISPLACE” native species…. This takes the “Feeling and Emotion” out of what is and invasive.
  • The enemies in the Invasives’ homeland are not present here.
  • Let the audience answer the question for you…
  • Kudzu – The poster child of invasives …. What happens when you let Wisterial go native?
  • If you want to get in trouble… go to a “Blue Hair” Garden club and tell them that the State Flower of Georgia is an INVASIVE!
  • The problem with this plant is it has a beautiful fall color and pretty little berries in the fall.
  • We had to have a way to take the emotion and feeling out of “What is an Invasive Species”? Make a note of the total acres of invasives that we predicted in 2009- 500,000 Acres
  • Revised List for 2013 - It Did Not Change many Species but the numbers exploded! And the percent change is dramatic over a two year period
  • Instead of 500,000 acres we now are looking at 2.2 Million acres of invasives across the state of Georgia.
  • There was an average 14% increase in invasive plants in a two year period.
  • The Poster Child of Invasives!
  • Is this guy ambitious or just stupid?
  • This is the one invasive that almost everyone know. Privet can be found from Florida to Tennessee and is the most aggressive invasive I know.
  • Birds eat it, Then Poop, A small plant comes up (How can this be a problem?) and then you have a wall of privet. Easily treated with Glyphophosate 2 – 5 percent rate. Winter time is a great time to treat.
  • This is beginning to be one of our fastest growing problems across Georgia. It is now found from North to South Georgia.
  • How can a small “Little” fern be a problem?
  • Covers like Kudzu
  • With a little wind… None of us wants to be in this. A huge fire hazard!
  • It may not take too long for it to become a middle and north Georgia problem through the movement of pine straw mulch.
  • Sometimes our Native Insects are a problem! Southern Pine Beetle.
  • Three Ips , Southern Pine Beetle(The Smallest and most destructive) and Black Turpentine Beetle. (IPS and SPB carry Blue Stain – Black Turpentine does not)
  • We begin trapping when the Dogwoods begin Blooming.
  • It Is Not Rocket Science. We trap the Southern Pine Beetles and the Predator Beetles. If there are more predators that SPB we predict a good year. If there are more SPB than predators it could be a bad year.
  • Clerid Beetle - Preditor
  • We also perform Aerial Bark Beetle Surveys. Normally on August or Septemeber.
  • 1,100 acres lost to Southern Pine Beetle in 2012 in South Georgia due to the landowner not listening to advice to thin the stand.
  • Our Global Economy is also bringing in Invasives… The increase in commerce is good, but we have to be vigilant to find the invaders.
  • New Cranes at the port of Savannah. Arrived in the summer of 2013. These are huge see the two men at the top of the crane?
  • It is the Solid Wood Packing Material that we see these invaders coming in on.
  • Composit materials are definitely making things better. This pressed board and composite material make it impossible for insects to hitch a ride.
  • First introduced in 2002 – Redbay Ambrosia Beetle Quickly spread. North South and West.
  • Well over 7,00,000 acres of Redbay and Sassafras has been killed in Georgia and it is still spreading. This Infestation will go all the way to Michigan befor it stops. There is NO WAY to control or stop this beetle. What if this had been Oak or Pine????
  • Take your pick… There are a load of bad things out there. Our Forest Health Team is working together to make Early Detection and then a Rapid Response to control and eradicate these pests before they become a problem in the state.
  • THIS IS OUR JOB!
  • Forest Health, Forest Action Plan

    1. 1. Invasives in Georgia…. Threats to Forest Health in Georgia Jeff Kastle Forest Health Forester Georgia Forestry Commission
    2. 2. Invasives and Other Forest Health Issues in Georgia…. Jeff Kastle Forest Health Forester Georgia Forestry Commission
    3. 3. Forest Health Management Forest Health Coordinator – Chip Bates Forest Health Specialist: Mark McClure - Southwest Georgia Lynne Womack – North Georgia Chris Barnes – East Georgia Forest Health Technicians: Jim Sullivan Scott Cameron Reggie Morgan
    4. 4. Forest Health Management Monitoring Activities Southern Pine Beetle Activity • Spring Trapping (annual prediction) & Aerial Monitoring Gypsy Moth Trapping Emerald Ash Borer Trapping Monitor for Sudden Oak Death Pathogen
    5. 5. Forest Health Management Other Activities Cogon Grass • If discovered, Forest Health personnel will treat the spot at no cost to the landowner. This usually requires a minimum of three annual visits
    6. 6. Forest Health Management Other Activities Hemlock Wooly Adelgid • Georgia Forestry Commission rents soil injectors Brief History • Native of southeast Asia • Accidentally introduced in 1924
    7. 7. Invasive Species?
    8. 8. What IS An Invasive? ANY Plant or Animal that has been introduced.
    9. 9. What IS An Invasive? ANY Plant or Animal that has been introduced and aggressively competes with and displaces local native communities.
    10. 10. What IS An Invasive? ANY Plant or Animal that has been introduced and aggressively competes with and displaces local native communities. Normally having No Natural Enemies to limit reproduction and spread.
    11. 11. What are some Common Invasive Species?
    12. 12. What are some common Invasive Species? • Kudzu • Wisteria
    13. 13. What are some common Invasive Species? • • • • • Kudzu Wisteria Chinese Privet Chinaberry Cherokee Rose
    14. 14. What are some common Invasive Species? • • • • • • Kudzu Wisteria Chinese Privet Chinaberry Cherokee Rose Chinese Tallowtree
    15. 15. 2009 Dirty Dozen List: Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Non-native Privet non-native Lespedeza kudzu Chinaberry Japanese Climbing Fern Tallowtree non-native Roses non-native Olives chinese/japanese wisteria napalese browntop Mimosa Cogongrass Acres 347,346 58,391 26,669 23,057 9,225 7,204 5,799 5,158 5,045 4,061 3,567 200 495,722 •Top 11 species removing honeysuckle and fescue •Cogongrass is GFC estimate
    16. 16. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet Napalese browntop Chinaberry Kudzu Non-native lespedeza Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
    17. 17. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) Napalese browntop Chinaberry Kudzu Non-native lespedeza Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
    18. 18. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) Chinaberry Kudzu Non-native lespedeza Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
    19. 19. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) Kudzu Non-native lespedeza Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
    20. 20. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) Kudzu (42,158 Acres) Non-native lespedeza Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
    21. 21. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) Kudzu (42,158 Acres) Non-native lespedeza (41,069 Acres) Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
    22. 22. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) 14% Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) 60% Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) 13% Kudzu (42,158 Acres) 17% Non-native lespedeza (41,069 Acres) 1% Japanese climbing fern (20,563 Acres) 26% Mimosa 19% Non-native roses 21% Chinese tallowtree 36% Non-native olive 26% Chinese / Japanese wisteria 36% Cogongrass 183 Acres
    23. 23. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) 14% Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) 60% Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) 13% Kudzu (42,158 Acres) 17% Non-native lespedeza (41,069 Acres) 1% Japanese climbing fern (20,563 Acres) 26% Mimosa 19% Non-native roses 21% Chinese tallowtree 36% Non-native olive 26% Chinese / Japanese wisteria 36% Cogongrass 183 Acres 2,226,800 Acres of non-native invasive plants across Georgia
    24. 24. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) 14% Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) 60% Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) 13% Kudzu (42,158 Acres) 17% Non-native lespedeza (41,069 Acres) 1% Japanese climbing fern (20,563 Acres) 26% Mimosa 19% Non-native roses 21% Chinese tallowtree 36% Non-native olive 26% Chinese / Japanese wisteria 36% Cogongrass 183 Acres 14% Increase in 2 years across Georgia
    25. 25. Kudzu •Imported in 1876 •Erosion Control in the 30’s •Use Chemical or Biological Control •Tordon, Transline, or Escort
    26. 26. Chinese Privet •Imported in 1852 •Planted as an ornamental •Adapts well to many sites •Aggressive invasive species
    27. 27. Chinese Privet • By far one of the most invasive species in Georgia • Colonizes low wet areas readily • Spread easily by wildlife (birds) • Forms dense thicket walls • Shades and out competes with many native species and once established, is very difficult to remove
    28. 28. Chinese Privet Control • Because privet is an evergreen, winter time is a great time to target this species • Not much else is green during this time • Very few other things will be harmed by foliar active herbicides like glyphosate (ex. Round-up) • Most common prescription is a 2% - 5% solution rate of 41% active ingredient products of glyphosate applied evenly over the shrub
    29. 29. Chinese Privet • Great example of why invasive species need to be controlled • Without control they have the potential to dominate sites and push out native species • Reduce the native bio-diversity
    30. 30. Japanese Climbing Fern
    31. 31. Japanese Climbing Fern • First introduced in 1930’s (ORNAMENTAL) • Approximately 20,000 acres • Easily spread in pine straw
    32. 32. Japanese Climbing Fern
    33. 33. Japanese Climbing Fern • Dies back in late winter • Dead vines providing a trellis for re-establishment
    34. 34. Japanese Climbing Fern
    35. 35. Japanese Climbing Fern
    36. 36. Japanese Climbing Fern
    37. 37. • Southern Bark Beetle • • – Prediction Survey – Aerial Bark Beetle • Survey • • Hemlock Woolly • Adelgid • • Laurel Wilt Disease • • Early Detection Rapid • Response • • Sudden Oak Death • Annosum Root Disease Cogongrass Chinese Tallowtree Japanese Climbing Fern Chinese Privet Exotic Wood Borers Emerald Ash Borer Gypsy Moth Trifoliate Orange Tree of Heaven
    38. 38. 3 Main Types of Pine Bark Beetles Ips species (3) Southern Pine Beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Black Turpentine Beetle Dendroctonus terebrans
    39. 39. Southern Pine Beetle • Without question, has the potential to cause the most damage to timber (more than any other single disease or insect) • Historically, we have very little damage in South Georgia • Normally a major problem in North Georgia • Damage goes in cycles
    40. 40. Southern Pine Beetle Prediction Survey • Usually completed about the time the dogwoods are beginning to leaf out
    41. 41. Lindgren Funnel Trap
    42. 42. Clerid beetles are natural predators of the Southern Pine Beetle
    43. 43. •Southern Pine Beetle –Prediction Survey (Spring) –Aerial Bark Beetle Survey (as needed)
    44. 44. Detection Survey
    45. 45. Detection Survey
    46. 46. Pine Beetle Spots Start Small & Spread Quickly
    47. 47. Pine Beetle Spots Start Small & Spread Quickly
    48. 48. Pine Beetle Control and Prevention • Periodic thinning to maintain a vigorous growing stand • Pre-commercial thinning in young overstocked stands
    49. 49. Too dense Room To Grow
    50. 50. Our global economy…. The port of Savannah and the Atlanta airport have the potential to bring in many non-native species.
    51. 51. The Port of Savannah… 1994 550,000 Containers 2009 2.36 million Containers 2010 2.82 million Containers 2011 2.93 million Containers (Projected Growth) 2015 4.37 Million Containers Homeland Security – Customs and Border Protection
    52. 52. The Expansion has started
    53. 53. Solid Wood Packing Material
    54. 54. Solid Wood Packing Material
    55. 55. Laurel Wilt Disease
    56. 56. WHAT IF ????? THIS HAD BEEN: OAK PINE
    57. 57. • Hemlock Woolly Adelgid • Exotic Wood Borers • Chinese Tallowtree • Emerald Ash Borer • Southern Pine Beetle • Gypsy Moth • Sudden Oak Death • Trifoliate Orange • Heterobasidion Root Disease • Tree of Heaven • Chinese Privet
    58. 58. QUESTIONS ? Jeff Kastle Forest Health Forester 1055 E. Whitehall Road Athens, Ga. 30605 GATREES.org Office: 706.552.4450 E-mail: jkastle@gfc.state.ga.us
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