Forest Health, Forest Action Plan
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  • Always remember to check the fact when someone tells you something “DO NOT TAKE THEIR WORD ON IT!” <br />
  • Let the audience answer the question for you… <br />
  • What is an invasive… Let the answers come from the audience. <br />
  • An invasive MUST “AGGRESSIVELY COMPETE AND DISPLACE” native species…. This takes the “Feeling and Emotion” out of what is and invasive. <br />
  • The enemies in the Invasives’ homeland are not present here. <br />
  • Let the audience answer the question for you… <br />
  • Kudzu – The poster child of invasives …. What happens when you let Wisterial go native? <br />
  • If you want to get in trouble… go to a “Blue Hair” Garden club and tell them that the State Flower of Georgia is an INVASIVE! <br />
  • The problem with this plant is it has a beautiful fall color and pretty little berries in the fall. <br />
  • We had to have a way to take the emotion and feeling out of “What is an Invasive Species”? Make a note of the total acres of invasives that we predicted in 2009- 500,000 Acres <br />
  • Revised List for 2013 - It Did Not Change many Species but the numbers exploded! And the percent change is dramatic over a two year period <br />
  • Instead of 500,000 acres we now are looking at 2.2 Million acres of invasives across the state of Georgia. <br />
  • There was an average 14% increase in invasive plants in a two year period. <br />
  • The Poster Child of Invasives! <br />
  • Is this guy ambitious or just stupid? <br />
  • This is the one invasive that almost everyone know. Privet can be found from Florida to Tennessee and is the most aggressive invasive I know. <br />
  • Birds eat it, Then Poop, A small plant comes up (How can this be a problem?) and then you have a wall of privet. Easily treated with Glyphophosate 2 – 5 percent rate. Winter time is a great time to treat. <br />
  • This is beginning to be one of our fastest growing problems across Georgia. It is now found from North to South Georgia. <br />
  • How can a small “Little” fern be a problem? <br />
  • Covers like Kudzu <br />
  • With a little wind… None of us wants to be in this. A huge fire hazard! <br />
  • It may not take too long for it to become a middle and north Georgia problem through the movement of pine straw mulch. <br />
  • Sometimes our Native Insects are a problem! Southern Pine Beetle. <br />
  • Three Ips , Southern Pine Beetle(The Smallest and most destructive) and Black Turpentine Beetle. (IPS and SPB carry Blue Stain – Black Turpentine does not) <br />
  • We begin trapping when the Dogwoods begin Blooming. <br />
  • It Is Not Rocket Science. We trap the Southern Pine Beetles and the Predator Beetles. If there are more predators that SPB we predict a good year. If there are more SPB than predators it could be a bad year. <br />
  • Clerid Beetle - Preditor <br />
  • We also perform Aerial Bark Beetle Surveys. Normally on August or Septemeber. <br />
  • 1,100 acres lost to Southern Pine Beetle in 2012 in South Georgia due to the landowner not listening to advice to thin the stand. <br />
  • Our Global Economy is also bringing in Invasives… The increase in commerce is good, but we have to be vigilant to find the invaders. <br />
  • New Cranes at the port of Savannah. Arrived in the summer of 2013. These are huge see the two men at the top of the crane? <br />
  • It is the Solid Wood Packing Material that we see these invaders coming in on. <br />
  • Composit materials are definitely making things better. This pressed board and composite material make it impossible for insects to hitch a ride. <br />
  • First introduced in 2002 – Redbay Ambrosia Beetle Quickly spread. North South and West. <br />
  • Well over 7,00,000 acres of Redbay and Sassafras has been killed in Georgia and it is still spreading. This Infestation will go all the way to Michigan befor it stops. There is NO WAY to control or stop this beetle. What if this had been Oak or Pine???? <br />
  • Take your pick… There are a load of bad things out there. Our Forest Health Team is working together to make Early Detection and then a Rapid Response to control and eradicate these pests before they become a problem in the state. <br />
  • THIS IS OUR JOB! <br />

Transcript

  • 1. Invasives in Georgia…. Threats to Forest Health in Georgia Jeff Kastle Forest Health Forester Georgia Forestry Commission
  • 2. Invasives and Other Forest Health Issues in Georgia…. Jeff Kastle Forest Health Forester Georgia Forestry Commission
  • 3. Forest Health Management Forest Health Coordinator – Chip Bates Forest Health Specialist: Mark McClure - Southwest Georgia Lynne Womack – North Georgia Chris Barnes – East Georgia Forest Health Technicians: Jim Sullivan Scott Cameron Reggie Morgan
  • 4. Forest Health Management Monitoring Activities Southern Pine Beetle Activity • Spring Trapping (annual prediction) & Aerial Monitoring Gypsy Moth Trapping Emerald Ash Borer Trapping Monitor for Sudden Oak Death Pathogen
  • 5. Forest Health Management Other Activities Cogon Grass • If discovered, Forest Health personnel will treat the spot at no cost to the landowner. This usually requires a minimum of three annual visits
  • 6. Forest Health Management Other Activities Hemlock Wooly Adelgid • Georgia Forestry Commission rents soil injectors Brief History • Native of southeast Asia • Accidentally introduced in 1924
  • 7. Invasive Species?
  • 8. What IS An Invasive? ANY Plant or Animal that has been introduced.
  • 9. What IS An Invasive? ANY Plant or Animal that has been introduced and aggressively competes with and displaces local native communities.
  • 10. What IS An Invasive? ANY Plant or Animal that has been introduced and aggressively competes with and displaces local native communities. Normally having No Natural Enemies to limit reproduction and spread.
  • 11. What are some Common Invasive Species?
  • 12. What are some common Invasive Species? • Kudzu • Wisteria
  • 13. What are some common Invasive Species? • • • • • Kudzu Wisteria Chinese Privet Chinaberry Cherokee Rose
  • 14. What are some common Invasive Species? • • • • • • Kudzu Wisteria Chinese Privet Chinaberry Cherokee Rose Chinese Tallowtree
  • 15. 2009 Dirty Dozen List: Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Non-native Privet non-native Lespedeza kudzu Chinaberry Japanese Climbing Fern Tallowtree non-native Roses non-native Olives chinese/japanese wisteria napalese browntop Mimosa Cogongrass Acres 347,346 58,391 26,669 23,057 9,225 7,204 5,799 5,158 5,045 4,061 3,567 200 495,722 •Top 11 species removing honeysuckle and fescue •Cogongrass is GFC estimate
  • 16. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet Napalese browntop Chinaberry Kudzu Non-native lespedeza Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
  • 17. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) Napalese browntop Chinaberry Kudzu Non-native lespedeza Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
  • 18. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) Chinaberry Kudzu Non-native lespedeza Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
  • 19. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) Kudzu Non-native lespedeza Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
  • 20. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) Kudzu (42,158 Acres) Non-native lespedeza Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
  • 21. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) Kudzu (42,158 Acres) Non-native lespedeza (41,069 Acres) Japanese climbing fern Mimosa Non-native roses Chinese tallowtree Non-native olive Chinese / Japanese wisteria Cogongrass 14% 60% 13% 17% 1% 26% 19% 21% 36% 26% 36% 183 Acres
  • 22. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) 14% Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) 60% Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) 13% Kudzu (42,158 Acres) 17% Non-native lespedeza (41,069 Acres) 1% Japanese climbing fern (20,563 Acres) 26% Mimosa 19% Non-native roses 21% Chinese tallowtree 36% Non-native olive 26% Chinese / Japanese wisteria 36% Cogongrass 183 Acres
  • 23. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) 14% Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) 60% Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) 13% Kudzu (42,158 Acres) 17% Non-native lespedeza (41,069 Acres) 1% Japanese climbing fern (20,563 Acres) 26% Mimosa 19% Non-native roses 21% Chinese tallowtree 36% Non-native olive 26% Chinese / Japanese wisteria 36% Cogongrass 183 Acres 2,226,800 Acres of non-native invasive plants across Georgia
  • 24. 2013 “Dirty Dozen”List Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Species or Genera Percent Increase Non-native privet (726,148 Acres) 14% Napalese browntop (111,836 Acres) 60% Chinaberry (67,543 Acres) 13% Kudzu (42,158 Acres) 17% Non-native lespedeza (41,069 Acres) 1% Japanese climbing fern (20,563 Acres) 26% Mimosa 19% Non-native roses 21% Chinese tallowtree 36% Non-native olive 26% Chinese / Japanese wisteria 36% Cogongrass 183 Acres 14% Increase in 2 years across Georgia
  • 25. Kudzu •Imported in 1876 •Erosion Control in the 30’s •Use Chemical or Biological Control •Tordon, Transline, or Escort
  • 26. Chinese Privet •Imported in 1852 •Planted as an ornamental •Adapts well to many sites •Aggressive invasive species
  • 27. Chinese Privet • By far one of the most invasive species in Georgia • Colonizes low wet areas readily • Spread easily by wildlife (birds) • Forms dense thicket walls • Shades and out competes with many native species and once established, is very difficult to remove
  • 28. Chinese Privet Control • Because privet is an evergreen, winter time is a great time to target this species • Not much else is green during this time • Very few other things will be harmed by foliar active herbicides like glyphosate (ex. Round-up) • Most common prescription is a 2% - 5% solution rate of 41% active ingredient products of glyphosate applied evenly over the shrub
  • 29. Chinese Privet • Great example of why invasive species need to be controlled • Without control they have the potential to dominate sites and push out native species • Reduce the native bio-diversity
  • 30. Japanese Climbing Fern
  • 31. Japanese Climbing Fern • First introduced in 1930’s (ORNAMENTAL) • Approximately 20,000 acres • Easily spread in pine straw
  • 32. Japanese Climbing Fern
  • 33. Japanese Climbing Fern • Dies back in late winter • Dead vines providing a trellis for re-establishment
  • 34. Japanese Climbing Fern
  • 35. Japanese Climbing Fern
  • 36. Japanese Climbing Fern
  • 37. • Southern Bark Beetle • • – Prediction Survey – Aerial Bark Beetle • Survey • • Hemlock Woolly • Adelgid • • Laurel Wilt Disease • • Early Detection Rapid • Response • • Sudden Oak Death • Annosum Root Disease Cogongrass Chinese Tallowtree Japanese Climbing Fern Chinese Privet Exotic Wood Borers Emerald Ash Borer Gypsy Moth Trifoliate Orange Tree of Heaven
  • 38. 3 Main Types of Pine Bark Beetles Ips species (3) Southern Pine Beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Black Turpentine Beetle Dendroctonus terebrans
  • 39. Southern Pine Beetle • Without question, has the potential to cause the most damage to timber (more than any other single disease or insect) • Historically, we have very little damage in South Georgia • Normally a major problem in North Georgia • Damage goes in cycles
  • 40. Southern Pine Beetle Prediction Survey • Usually completed about the time the dogwoods are beginning to leaf out
  • 41. Lindgren Funnel Trap
  • 42. Clerid beetles are natural predators of the Southern Pine Beetle
  • 43. •Southern Pine Beetle –Prediction Survey (Spring) –Aerial Bark Beetle Survey (as needed)
  • 44. Detection Survey
  • 45. Detection Survey
  • 46. Pine Beetle Spots Start Small & Spread Quickly
  • 47. Pine Beetle Spots Start Small & Spread Quickly
  • 48. Pine Beetle Control and Prevention • Periodic thinning to maintain a vigorous growing stand • Pre-commercial thinning in young overstocked stands
  • 49. Too dense Room To Grow
  • 50. Our global economy…. The port of Savannah and the Atlanta airport have the potential to bring in many non-native species.
  • 51. The Port of Savannah… 1994 550,000 Containers 2009 2.36 million Containers 2010 2.82 million Containers 2011 2.93 million Containers (Projected Growth) 2015 4.37 Million Containers Homeland Security – Customs and Border Protection
  • 52. The Expansion has started
  • 53. Solid Wood Packing Material
  • 54. Solid Wood Packing Material
  • 55. Laurel Wilt Disease
  • 56. WHAT IF ????? THIS HAD BEEN: OAK PINE
  • 57. • Hemlock Woolly Adelgid • Exotic Wood Borers • Chinese Tallowtree • Emerald Ash Borer • Southern Pine Beetle • Gypsy Moth • Sudden Oak Death • Trifoliate Orange • Heterobasidion Root Disease • Tree of Heaven • Chinese Privet
  • 58. QUESTIONS ? Jeff Kastle Forest Health Forester 1055 E. Whitehall Road Athens, Ga. 30605 GATREES.org Office: 706.552.4450 E-mail: jkastle@gfc.state.ga.us