Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Economic Research &Corporate DevelopmentAllianzGlobal WealthReport 2012
AllianzGlobal WealthReport 2012Kathrin BrandmeirDr. Michaela GrimmDr. Michael HeiseDr. Arne HolzhausenGabriele Steck
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012Preface                                                                                  ...
Table of contents	 9	 Summary	13	 Development of global financial assets:		 Personal assets in the shadow of the crisis	29...
Summary
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012The development in global gross financial           Global prosperity gap and different c...
Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional diffe...
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012Nevertheless, more security-focused than            723 million people fall into the weal...
Development ofglobal financial assetsPersonal assetsin the shadow ofthe crisis
Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional diffe...
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012        This also, however, implies a different               The disappointing developme...
Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional diffe...
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012Huge global prosperity gap                                                   Different ca...
Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional diffe...
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012the club of rich countries. The MWCs include not                    rael, Japan, Taiwan a...
Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional diffe...
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012          Asia’s emerging markets (Asia excl.                       the financial crisis ...
Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional diffe...
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012          It is relatively easy to see the link be-                           There are s...
Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional diffe...
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012                     Looking at the sovereign debt crisis and                            ...
Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional diffe...
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012average debt growth to the tune of almost 27% a                                          ...
How global financialassets are distributedHow big is theworld’s middle classin terms of wealth?
Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional diffe...
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012The new wealth middle class                                                 In gross term...
Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional diffe...
Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012         Personal debt is not, however, a “privi-           Obviously, a long development...
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Allianz Global Wealth Report
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Allianz Global Wealth Report

1,513

Published on

A new Allianz assessment of the assets and debts of private households in over 50 countries reports just 0.6 percent global growth in 2011.

Published in: Economy & Finance, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,513
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
29
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Allianz Global Wealth Report "

  1. 1. Economic Research &Corporate DevelopmentAllianzGlobal WealthReport 2012
  2. 2. AllianzGlobal WealthReport 2012Kathrin BrandmeirDr. Michaela GrimmDr. Michael HeiseDr. Arne HolzhausenGabriele Steck
  3. 3. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012Preface 5At first glance, global wealth development paints an impressive picture: last year, the finan-cial assets of private households worldwide topped the 100 trillion mark. This is a staggeringamount, enough to allow savers to buy the outstanding government bonds of every countryin the world three times over.If we scratch beneath the surface, however, the development proves to be anything but spec-tacular. Since 2000, per capita financial assets have been growing at an average rate of 3% ayear – roughly on a par with the global rate of inflation during this period. In other words:over the past eleven years, savers have not, on average, managed to achieve any real valuegains. The reason behind this development is obvious: any attempts by households to savehave been scuppered by the recurring crises on the financial markets; wealth developmentin the US and Europe has been particularly disappointing of late. In 2011, western Europe wasactually the only region in the world in which assets contracted overall.The trend definitely provides food for thought. The longer it takes to restructure the financialmarkets and find a sustainable solution to the eurozone debt crisis, in particular, the greaterthe risk of “losing” a whole generation of savers because the idea of long-term investmentis eyed with deep mistrust. But given the major challenges that lie ahead, from the shiftsin the global economic and political weights, to climate change and demographic change,we cannot afford to take the short-sighted approach. Confidence in the financial markets,which serve to balance out risks and returns in the long term, is a must if we want to achievesustainable growth and prosperity.But there is another aspect of global wealth development that harbors risks. This time, it isthe other side of the coin; private household debt. Although debt growth has slowed consider-ably across the globe over the past few years – in the US, debt actually declined for the fourthyear running in 2011 – the pace of debt growth is still too fast, particularly on the emergingmarkets, which, even today, are still reporting annual growth rates of 20%.So the third issue of the “Allianz Global Wealth Report“, which takes another detailed lookat the global wealth and debt situation of private households based on international data,provides not only a cornucopia of information and comparisons, but also leaves readers withplenty to chew over in their minds. I am convinced that, in doing so, the report makes an im-portant contribution by looking at current problems from a different perspective, namely theperspective of savers, who are, unfortunately, all too often overlooked in the political debate,although they are essential to our long-term prosperity.Michael DiekmannChairman of the Board of Management of Allianz SE
  4. 4. Table of contents 9 Summary 13 Development of global financial assets: Personal assets in the shadow of the crisis 29 How global financial assets are distributed: How big is the world’s middle class in terms of wealth? 37 Regional differences: Financial assets in individual regions 91 Literature 92 Appendix A: Methodological comments 95 Appendix B: Financial assets by country
  5. 5. Summary
  6. 6. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012The development in global gross financial Global prosperity gap and different catch-upassets of private households in 2011 was processes 9largely disappointing. The growth rate In order to paint a more sophisticated pic-slowed to 1.6%, the lowest level seen since ture of global wealth distribution by country,the crisis-ridden year of 2008. Not least due the Allianz Global Wealth Report has splitto the weaker euro, financial assets in the 52 the countries evaluated into three wealthcountries included in our analysis neverthe- classes, similar to the income classes usedless surpassed the EUR 100 trillion mark for by the World Bank: high wealth countriesthe first time, coming in at EUR 103.3 trillion (HWC) with average net per capita finan-at the end of 2011. Global financial assets cial assets of more than EUR 26,800; mid-have been growing at an average rate of 4.0% dle wealth countries (MWC), net per capitaa year since 2000, slower than the growth in financial assets of between EUR 4,500 andnominal economic output. At a good 3%, per EUR 26,800; and low wealth countries (LWC),capita growth in financial assets has only net per capita financial assets of less thanbeen on a par with average global inflation EUR 4,500.during the same period. This means that sav-ers worldwide have not been able to achieve Wealth is distributed very unevenly through-any real asset growth over the past eleven out the world. Even today, around 85% of glo-years. bal net financial assets are still in the hands of private households in HWCs, although2011 also saw private household debt climb these countries are home to less than 20% ofto a new record high of EUR 31.8 trillion. The the global population. The global prosperitypace of debt growth has, however, slackened gap is immense from a per capita perspec-considerably since the financial crisis of tive, too: net per capita financial assets in the2007/08, coming in at “only” 2.2% last year. HWCs totaled EUR 70,590 at the end of 2011,This resulted in an improvement in the glo- several times higher than in the LWCs, wherebal debt ratio (liability of private households the same figure came in at only EUR 2,040as percent of global GDP) to 67.0%, a far cry per capita. People in MWCs had average netfrom the pre-crisis high of 2007 (71.4%). financial assets worth EUR 10,240.Global net financial assets (gross financial The considerable variance in the levels alsoassets less liabilities) reached EUR 71.5 tril- implies marked differences in growth. Netlion at the end of 2011. Over the past decade, per capita financial assets in the LWCs hasthe growth in net financial assets has lagged been growing by almost 16% a year sincesignificantly behind the growth in gross 2000, eight times faster than in the HWCs.financial assets at 3.4% a year, a side effect of At the beginning of the decade, per capitathe rapid debt growth prior to the outbreak of financial assets in the HWCs were still 141the financial crisis. At EUR 14,880 per capita, times as high as in the LWCs, a factor thatnet financial assets at the end of 2011 were has since been reduced to 35.also still slightly down on the historical highreached in 2007.
  7. 7. Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional differences . Literature . Appendix These marked differences in growth also Although eastern European households10 mirror the varying impact of the latest still have the lowest net per capita financial financial crises. The world’s poorer coun- assets as a region, they topped the growth tries have escaped these slumps virtually charts both last year and looking at the last unscathed: average per capita net financial decade as a whole: net per capita financial assets in the LWCs, for example, are already assets have increased by almost 12% a year almost 38% higher than they were in 2007, on average since 2000, with developments whereas in the HWCs, financial assets are in Latin America and the Asian emerging still lingering at a level that is 3.2% lower markets looking similarly dynamic. The than the pre-crisis level. financial crisis has, however, triggered a considerable reduction in the annual growth Compared with the LWCs, the MWCs have rate in all three regions. The crisis has dealt been much slower in playing catch-up since an even greater blow to the richer parts of 2000. The annual growth in net per capita fi- the world: in these regions (North America, nancial assets in this group of countries was western Europe and Oceania), net per capita “only” twice as high as in their richer coun- financial assets are still down on the level terparts. This can be explained by a combi- seen in 2007. Both over the entire decade nation of a relatively high debt level to begin starting in 2000 (+1.3% a year) and in 2011 with and considerable debt momentum in (-1.5%), western Europe reported the poorest these countries: as with gross financial as- growth performance. The euro crisis is tak- sets, debt also grew more than twice as fast ing its toll. as in the HWCs over the same period. World seeks refuge in security Households in eastern Europe remain the In addition to the level of assets and asset “growth champions” growth, there are also very marked differ- A regional analysis returns the expected ences in asset structures worldwide. In the result: on the one hand, we have the rich HWCs, financial assets are distributed more regions of North America, western Europe or less evenly among the three major asset and Oceania, with average net per capita fi- classes: bank deposits, insurance policies/ nancial assets of between almost EUR 32,000 pensions and securities, although the latter and EUR 87,400, and on the other, there are still dominate with a share of more than the poorer countries of Asia, Latin America 37%. In the LWCs, by far the majority of as- and eastern Europe, where the same figure sets (63%) are held in bank deposits – as was comes in at only somewhere between EUR already the case before the outbreak of the 2,430 and EUR 6,620; without the four HWCs financial crisis – and in MWCs, too, bank of Israel, Japan, Taiwan and Singapore, the deposits still account for more than 40% of corresponding value for Asia’s emerging all financial assets. markets actually comes in at only EUR 2,320.
  8. 8. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012Nevertheless, more security-focused than 723 million people fall into the wealth middlereturn-oriented investment strategies have class 11since become something of a global trend. The analysis of wealth distribution by coun-Bank deposits have upped their share of glo- try neglects to take account of differencesbal financial assets by almost five percent- within individual countries. Consequently,age points over the past decade and, in some the Allianz Global Wealth Report has alsocases, have been reaping above-average ben- calculated the average net per capita fi-efits in richer regions like Australia, western nancial assets per population decile withinEurope and North America. But as far as the the countries analyzed. According to thisneed for long-term wealth accumulation is calculation, 723 million people worldwideconcerned, the tendency to “flee” to low-risk belonged to the global wealth middle classinvestments appears counterproductive. in 2011 (net per capita financial assets of be-This is why a fast solution to the debt crises is tween EUR 4,500 and EUR 26,800). This figurean absolute must if investor confidence is to has more than doubled since 2000. The newmake a comeback. wealth middle class is being recruited al- most exclusively from the emerging markets,Debt reduction making slow but sure progress which now account for just under 55% of theAs with savings habits, the differences middle class (2000: a good 16%).in borrowing behavior are similarly pro-nounced. The lion’s share of personal debt 428 million people in the world can behas been accumulated in the HWCs: they ac- deemed to belong to the wealth upper class;count for just under 80% of global debt. This unlike the middle class, this figure hasis also, however, where debt growth is the dipped slightly since 2000. While the propor-lowest, especially since the financial crisis: tion of people who fall into the high-wealthover the past four years, the average growth category and do not live in the industrializedrate in the HWCs was only 0.6% a year, where- nations fell in both absolute (+15 million)as the MWCs and LWCs achieved rates of 3.9% and relative (+3.5 percentage points) terms,and 21.0% a year respectively. This means the number of “rich people” in the industrial-that the debt ratio has been reduced, at least ized nations has fallen by around 32 million.in the HWCs, compared with 2007. Follow- Financial crisis and debt excesses leave aing a further increase in the rate in 2008 and distinct mark.2009, it has finally fallen, also in the MWCs,by a total of around two percentage points Not least given the above, it proves revealingover the past two years. In the LWCs, on the to adopt an approach that allows country-other hand, the rate has continued to climb specific factors to be assessed and analyzedover the years, reaching 26.2% at the end of in a regional context. This is why, after pro-2011. This still, however, leaves it a long way viding an overview of the development andoff the global rate of 67.0%. distribution of financial assets in a global context, the second part of the Allianz Global Wealth Report addresses these issues at regional level.
  9. 9. Development ofglobal financial assetsPersonal assetsin the shadow ofthe crisis
  10. 10. Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional differences . Literature . Appendix14 Two years of strong growth, in which the asset ing and sustainable political solution to the euro losses inflicted by the financial crisis 2007/2008 crisis failed to emerge. This sort of situation can were compensated for, at least at global level, spur marked changes in savings behavior that were followed by a 2011 that came as a disap- is then reflected in corresponding investment pointment, especially for savers in the industri- portfolio shifts: a preference for liquidity and alized nations. the need for security tend to be higher up on The escalation of the euro crisis and the the list of priorities than returns and yields in stock market crash in the summer of last year left uncertain times. Given the emerging “pensions a real mark on the assets of private households. crisis” fueled by demographic change, this trend Especially in the south of Europe, households can only be viewed with mixed feelings. There is have been forced to digest sometimes substan- a risk that, in the long run, these savings efforts tial losses. In these countries, savers have been will prove insufficient to guarantee financial se- feeling the impact of the euro crisis in their wal- curity in old age. lets for some time now. But it is not only in the But for all of the shadows cast on as- crisis-ridden countries that the impact is being set development in the industrialized nations, clearly felt. In many countries, the historically 2011 shed light on the other side of the story: the low interest rates spelled negative real returns catch-up process in the emerging economies and made it increasingly difficult for savers to continued virtually unrelentingly. find investment opportunities that would at least guarantee the preservation of their assets in real terms. At the same time, volatility has remained high throughout all asset classes as a convinc- Global financial assets: Catch-up process loses momentum Net financial assets and liabilities, in EUR bn Net financial assets and liabilities per capita, in EUR 100,000 22,000 90,000 20,000 80,000 18,000 16,000 70,000 14,000 60,000 12,000 50,000 10,000 40,000 8,000 30,000 CAGR* 2001-2011: 6,000 CAGR* 2001-2011: 20,000 Net financial assets: +3.4% p.a. Net financial assets: +2.5% p.a. 4,000 Liabilities: +5.5% p.a. Liabilities: +4.6% p.a. 10,000 Gross financial assets: +4.0% p.a. 2,000 Gross financial assets: +3.1% p.a. 0 0 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 *CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate Liabilities Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UN, Allianz SE. Net financial assets
  11. 11. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012 This also, however, implies a different The disappointing development is all 15debt trend, as well. Whereas many of the world’s the more evident if we look at private financialindustrialized nations focused more on delev- assets in per capita terms. In 2011, just undereraging, personal debt levels on the emerging EUR 21,500 could be attributed to each globalmarkets continued on an upward trajectory. As citizen, a figure that was up by 0.8% on 2010. Thisa result, many of these countries have seen the means that the previous high reported in 2007debt ratio (liabilities as percent of GDP) climb (EUR 21,180 per capita) was actually outstrippedsteeply in recent years, sometimes to a point by 1.5%. All in all, however, gross per capita fi-that is verging on critical. nancial assets have been increasing by only 3.1% a year since the beginning of the new millen-Global asset growth moves down a gear nium, i.e. at exactly the same pace as averageGlobal gross financial assets grew by only 1.6% in global inflation. This means that, on average,2011, down considerably on the average growth savers worldwide have not been able to achieverates for the two previous years (7.3% per an- any real asset growth over the past eleven years.num). In absolute terms, the asset base reached Sobering news.a new high of EUR 103.3 trillion. All in all, global financial assets have Debt growth slowed in its tracksbeen growing at an average rate of 4.0% a year Gross financial assets tell only one side of thesince 2000, somewhat ahead of the global infla- wealth story; the other side is about debt. Debttion rate for the same period (3.1%) but slower also reached a new record high in 2011 at EURthan the growth in global economic output, 31.8 trillion, up by 2.2% on a year earlier and out-which has increased by around 5.1% a year in stripping growth in gross financial assets againnominal terms over the same period. So overall, for the first time in three years. Nevertheless,wealth development has been somewhat disap- the global debt trend also bears the hallmarkspointing over the past eleven years. Savers are of the crisis: whereas in the period from 2003having to pick up the bill – in the form of lost to 2007, debt grew at a rate of 8.1% a year, post-return opportunities – for the ever faster succes- crisis growth (2008 to 2011) has only averagedsion of financial crises – from the stock market 2.4%. This has resulted in an improvement in theslump at the start of the decade when the dot- global debt ratio (liability of private householdscom bubble burst to the Lehman shock and the as percent of global GDP) to 67.0% of late, aftercurrent euro crisis. In a sustainable world, assets touching a high of 71.8% in 2006. In this sense,should be achieving returns that are roughly in the deleveraging of private households is cer-line with nominal growth; then there would be tainly progressing, with the relative debt burdenannual wealth formation, i.e. savings, of around slowly but surely becoming lighter.2% of the global economic output. Based on theserather conservative assumptions, today’s globalfinancial assets would be around EUR 26 trillionor a good quarter higher.
  12. 12. Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional differences . Literature . Appendix16 If we subtract debt from the gross fi- Analyses based on wealth classes nancial assets, we are left with the net financial In order to paint a more sophisticated picture of assets. Net financial assets had climbed to EUR global wealth distribution by country, the Alli- 71.5 trillion by the end of 2011 (+1.4%). Given the anz Global Wealth Report has split the countries debt momentum in the past, it comes as little evaluated into three wealth classes, similar to surprise that the growth in net financial assets the income classes used by the World Bank: high has lagged behind the growth in gross financial wealth countries (HWC) with average net per assets (4.0%) at an average rate of 3.4% a year over capita financial assets of more than EUR 26,800; the entire period starting in 2000. In per capita middle wealth countries (MWC), net per capita terms, the annual growth rate drops back to financial assets of between EUR 4,500 and EUR 2.5%, far lower than the rate of inflation. At EUR 26,800; and low wealth countries (LWC), net per 14,880 per capita, net financial assets at the end capita financial assets of less than EUR 4,500 of 2011 were also still slightly down on the his- (for information on how the wealth classes are torical high reached in 2007. So despite the fact determined, see Appendix A). that debt growth has at least been contained in recent years, the efforts made in this respect still appear to be far from sufficient, given the weak development in gross financial assets, to achieve any sustainable asset growth. Power shift Share of global net financial assets by country groups, in % 100 90 80 70 60 LWC MWC 50 HWC ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UNU WIDER, World Bank, Allianz SE.
  13. 13. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012Huge global prosperity gap Different catch-up processes 17The result is anything but surprising. Wealth is Despite these vast differences, however, the lastdistributed very unevenly throughout the world. eleven years have not been a lost decade for theIt is still the case that around 85% of global net world’s poorer countries. Net per capita financialfinancial assets are in the hands of private assets in the LWCs has been growing by almosthouseholds in the HWCs – although these coun- 16% a year since 2000, a good eight times fastertries only account for 18% of the total population than in the HWCs. These sizeable differences inand around 60% of global economic output. The growth are closely linked to the varying impacttrend is, nevertheless, moving in the “right” di- of the financial crises. The assets of poorer coun-rection: the HWCs’ share of the global wealth tries managed to escape these crashes virtuallycake has shrunk by a good 8 percentage points unscathed. This becomes particularly clear ifsince 2000, meaning that poorer countries are we compare the development in financial assetsgaining ground. in the HWCs since the financial crisis directly The global prosperity gap is huge from with the development in the LWCs: while net pera per capita perspective, too. At EUR 70,590, net capita financial assets in the poorer countriesper capita financial assets in the HWCs at the have risen by almost 38% since the end of 2007,end of 2011 were several times greater than in average per capita financial assets in the HWCsthe LWCs, where they averaged only EUR 2,040. were still 3.2% lower than the pre-crisis level atPeople in MWCs had average financial assets the end of 2011.worth EUR 10,240.Big prosperity gapNet financial assets per capita, in EURHigh Wealth Countries Middle Wealth Countries Low Wealth Countries 80,000 11,000 2,200 10,000 2,000 70,000 9,000 1,800 60,000 8,000 1,600 50,000 7,000 1,400 6,000 1,200 40,000 5,000 1,000 30,000 4,000 800 20,000 3,000 600 2,000 400 10,000 1,000 200 0 0 0 ’00 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 ’00 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 ’00 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UNU WIDER, World Bank, Allianz SE.
  14. 14. Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional differences . Literature . Appendix18 This uneven development means that The catch-up process in the MWCs, on the “inequality factor” between the world’s rich- the other hand, is much slower. Growth in net per er and poorer countries, which was still hovering capita financial assets in this group of countries at 141 in 2000, has now been pushed down to 35, has been “only” twice as high as in their richer a development that is, without a doubt, impres- counterparts since 2000. This is due less to asset sive and highlights some degree of convergence growth itself – after all, gross per capita financial of financial assets, at least in relative terms. Af- assets have also grown at twice the rate – than ter all, if we look at the flip side of the coin, the to the higher rate of debt growth, which was 2.5 absolute gap in net per capita financial assets times faster than in the HWCs. A glance at the has widened from EUR 57,000 to EUR 68,550 – countries to which the relevant wealth groups in spite of the signs of narrowing that emerged belong sheds light on these differences. during some phases of the financial crisis. Even Most HWCs are located in North America if the difference in growth momentum seen over and western Europe. As far as the other regions the past ten years were to persist in the future – of the world are concerned, only Australia, Israel, uninterrupted catch-up trend on the one hand Japan, Singapore and Taiwan have made it into and financial crises at periodic intervals on the other – it would be the mid-2020s before the ab- solute differences would start to become less pronounced. Development of net financial assets per capita Index (2000=100) 500 2011, in EUR 70,590 450 400 350 10,243 2,036 300 250 200 150 LWC 100 MWC 50 HWC ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UNU WIDER, World Bank, Allianz SE.
  15. 15. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012the club of rich countries. The MWCs include not rael, Japan, Taiwan and Singapore, however, net 19only Chile and Mexico from Latin America, and financial assets in Asia’s emerging markets onlyMalaysia and South Korea from Asia, but also, in come in at EUR 2,320. On the other hand, easternparticular, eastern European countries and eu- Europe achieves a value of EUR 5,070, providedrozone crisis countries such as Greece, Ireland, that we include only the EU member states. ThePortugal and Spain. Some of these countries are average per capita assets of EUR 3,560 in Latincharacterized by high debt levels and high debt America reflect the progress that this region hasgrowth; so the subdued increase in net financial made in recent years (2000: EUR 1,130).assets over the past decade comes as no surprise. The relative wealth situation, i.e. theThe LWCs also witnessed rapid debt growth as a analysis of net financial assets in relation togroup during this period, but they started at a economic output, is slightly different. Althoughfar lower level. North America leads the field in this compari- On the whole, however, the global son, too, Asia is now ahead of western Europewealth map paints a predictable picture; on the and Oceania. Without Israel, Japan, Taiwan andone hand, we have the rich countries of North Singapore, however, Asia would drop back toAmerica, western Europe and Oceania, with av- well behind western Europe again, although iterage regional per capita wealth of between EUR would still be in front of Oceania. The develop-31,960 (Oceania) and EUR 87,400 (North Ameri- ment witnessed since 2000 is similarly striking:ca) in net terms, and on the other, there are the there is only one region that has managed topoorer countries of Asia, Latin America and improve this indicator over the last eleven years:eastern Europe, where the same figure comes inat only between EUR 2,430 (eastern Europe) andEUR 6,620 (Asia). Without the four HWCs of Is-Global imbalancesNet financial assets 2011, in EUR Eastern Europe Western Europe North America 100,000 87,401 2,434 41,241 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 50,000 Asia 0 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 6,615 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 Latin America Oceania 3,561 31,956 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UN, Allianz SE.
  16. 16. Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional differences . Literature . Appendix20 Latin America. All other regions, on the other under 10% (average annual growth in the period hand, have suffered partially drastic setbacks, from 2007 to 2011). The decline in Latin America most notably so in Oceania. All in all, this de- is even more pronounced: since 2007, the aver- velopment is an impressive affirmation of how age growth in net per capita financial assets has growth and prosperity gains have been based been 6.5 percentage points slower than before. primarily on debt in the past. This appears surprising at first glance, because one would have certainly imagined the impact Households in eastern Europe remain the “growth of the euro crisis on neighboring eastern Europe champions“ to have been more pronounced than on far-off Nonetheless, assets have, of course, grown over Latin America. Once again, it pays to look at the the past few years, in some cases markedly debt trend: in Latin America, the crisis has not so. Eastern European households (region as a put a damper on personal debt. On the contrary, whole) have witnessed the strongest growth in personal debt growth has continued to pick up net per capita financial assets since 2000, with speed over the past few years. This is not the case an average annual growth rate of almost 12%. in eastern Europe; debt momentum has tailed off Eastern Europe also fared well on average in the considerably, especially in the eastern European face of the financial crisis and by the end of 2011, EU countries: whereas in the years prior to the per capita assets were already up by around crisis, annual growth rates around the 30% mark 44% on the pre-crisis level. Nevertheless, the fi- were the norm, the growth rate has amounted to nancial crisis has left a visible scar. The annual a “mere” 5% of late. growth rate has fallen during this period from almost 13% before the crisis (average annual growth in the period from 2000 to 2007) to just Net financial assets trailing behind economic output Net financial assets, as % of GDP North America Asia Western Europe Asia ex HWC Oceania Latin America 2000 Eastern Europe 2011 0 50 100 150 200 250 Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, Allianz SE.
  17. 17. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012 Asia’s emerging markets (Asia excl. the financial crisis was also much heftier: at the 21HWCs) have not escaped entirely unscathed ei- end of 2011, all three regions were still lurkingther. At 7.9%, the average annual growth rates below the high achieved in 2007. And yet, despitein the period since 2007 are still well down on having things in common, all three regions tellthe pre-crisis level. If we look at developments an entirely different story. In Oceania, where thein the entire Asian region, this value is actually decline is the most substantial at around 15%,decisively lower, at 1.8% per annum on average. the trend has been caused primarily by highThe low value for Asia as a whole over the past debt growth that exceeds the global average. Infour years is solely attributable to the standstill North America, net per capita financial assetsin Japan, by far the richest country in the region, at the end of 2011 were still down by 6.4% on thewhere net per capita financial assets are actu- 2007 level. The main culprit here lies in gross fi-ally down by 0.6% on 2007. nancial assets: the slump of 2008 hit this region All in all, the regional analysis also like no other (-17.2%); the recovery witnessed inshows that it is precisely the poorer countries the years that followed was unable to make upthat have been witnessing a vast increase in for this shock, which is why North America is thewealth over the past decade. The situation in only region in which total gross financial assetsthe rich regions tells the very opposite story. Not are still lower than the high witnessed in 2007.only has the growth in per capita financial assetsbeen far slower over the past eleven years, par-ticularly in North America and western Europe,where growth comes in at 2.1% and 1.3% respec-tively, the setback inflicted on these regions byComparison of growth: Champion Eastern EuropeAverage annual growth of net financial assets per capita, in % Western Europe North America Oceania Asia Latin America since 2000 Eastern Europe since 2007 -4 0 4 8 12Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UN, Allianz SE.
  18. 18. Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional differences . Literature . Appendix22 The fact that North America is, at the same time, crisis once again brought western European the only region in which personal debt has been households to their knees: this region was the cut, year after year, since the crisis is not enough only region in the world that had to witness a to pull net financial assets back up to above the drop in its gross financial assets. Consequently, 2007 level. In western Europe, the situation is a at the end of 2011, net per capita financial assets combination of both factors. Debt continued to had only managed to exceed the 2007 record grow, albeit at a far slower pace than before the high in nine out of western Europe’s 16 countries; crisis, and gross financial assets also showed looking at the region as a whole, too, net per cap- weak development. Although the direct asset ita financial assets slipped back into negative shock of 2008 was less seismic than in North territory last year, down by 1.1% on 2007. America and Oceania, the recovery that followed was also far slower. Last year, the ongoing euro Conservative wealth structure in poorer countries The reasons why the impact on financial assets has been so varied lie, for one, in the nature of the crisis itself – the financial crisis is a crisis that affects developed markets, initially the US, and now Europe. For another, differences in sav- ings habits before the crisis also explain the radical differences in asset structures and debt dynamics. Conservative asset structure in poorer countries Asset classes as % of gross financial assets by country groups, 2011 100 14 22 30 32 75 19 34 50 35 37 63 25 Other 41 33 Insurance 28 Securities 0 Bank deposits World HWC MWC LWC Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UNU WIDER, World Bank, Allianz SE.
  19. 19. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012 It is relatively easy to see the link be- There are significant differences be- 23tween asset structures and susceptibility to cri- tween the country groups on the whole as far assis. The higher the proportion of volatile capital asset structures are concerned. In the HWCs, fi-market instruments in a portfolio, the greater nancial assets are distributed more or less even-the negative impact of losses in the value of these ly among the three major asset classes: banksecurities on overall performance. This is why deposits, insurance policies/pensions and secu-private households in the US and Greece, for ex- rities, although the latter dominate with a shareample, were hit so hard in 2008: before the crisis of 37%. In the LWCs, by far the majority of assets(late 2007), securities accounted for almost 60% (63%) are held in bank deposits – as was alreadyand more than 40% of financial assets in these the case before the outbreak of the financialtwo countries respectively. crisis – and in MWCs, too, bank deposits still ac- count for more than 40% of all financial assets. There is no doubt that this extremely risk-averse asset structure has helped the world’s poorer countries – even though it was not, of course, a conscious investment decision or a direct con- sequence of the financial crisis, but rather the result of the prevailing circumstances, i.e. the maturity of the individual financial systems, in the majority of cases.Increasing risk aversionAsset classes as % of global gross financial assets100 29 29 29 30 30 30 75 50 35 36 35 41 41 36 25 Other 33 32 33 Insurance 28 27 31 Securities 0 Bank deposits 2000 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, Allianz SE.
  20. 20. Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional differences . Literature . Appendix24 Increase in risk aversion across the globe Securities are the biggest victims of The financial and debt crisis has meant that the this trend: they are losing ground in almost all increased investor focus on security as opposed global regions, even in the poorer ones. It is only to on returns is by no means a characteristic that in Latin America that investors have remained describes only the world’s poorer countries. This faithful to this asset class, largely due to the im- trend is now being observed across the globe. proved performance on stock exchanges in the While securities have become much less popu- region. lar among investors, bank deposits have upped By contrast, insurance policies and pen- their share of global financial assets by almost sions have gained asset share, reaping the ben- 5 percentage points since the start of the new efits from the trend towards more secure invest- millennium. This reflects the increasing mood ment products. There is no region in which this is of risk aversion among investors globally. This more pronounced than in (western and eastern) does not, however, apply equally to all regions Europe, where this asset class has been given an and countries. In actual fact, the global figures additional boost by the sometimes far-reaching hide some very striking regional differences. pension reforms implemented in recent years. It Bank deposits, for example, have start- would appear that a large number of savers are ed to account for an increasing proportion of as- now aware of the possible impact of demograph- set portfolios in richer regions such as Oceania, ic change on prosperity in old age. The story in western Europe and North America, in particu- Latin America is a similar one, whereas in Asia lar. Here, where many households already have developments are being overshadowed mainly substantial assets, the fear of loss is acute; at the by the widespread stagnation in Japan. same time, these regions are (or were) in the fir- The fact that insurance and pension ing line during the recent crises. This has fueled products are only gaining relatively minimal considerable uncertainty surrounding what is market share in a global comparison is due pri- in store for the capital markets, luring investors marily to the climate on the world’s two biggest into assuming a wait-and-see stance and stick- markets for these products, Japan and the US. ing by a preference for liquidity. Although insurance and pension products have formed a key component of retirement provision for some time now, they have been unable to fur- ther expand their position in recent years. What is more, these products are not necessarily seen as a safe haven for turbulent times, because many, such as variable annuities, are explicitly tied to the capital market.
  21. 21. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012 Looking at the sovereign debt crisis and ly) low-risk investments, such as bank deposits, 25the dramatic changes in the age structure of witnessed in many countries is counterproduc-many European countries, however, it remains tive. The fact that savers are shying away fromto be seen whether the reforms and the reac- investments that offer the sort of returns theytions in terms of savings habits will prove suf- need means that they have to save even harderficient. Our calculations definitely suggest that in order to create a sufficiently comfortable fi-the “pension gap” is still very much present. If no nancial cushion. A responsible approach to pro-further changes are made to the overall (tax) en- vision ultimately involves a certain degree ofvironment, there is a real danger that many pri- risk-taking.vate households will fail to accumulate the level Winning back savers’ trust in the fi-of savings that they need for the future. As far as nancial markets and long-term investment isthe need for long-term wealth accumulation is crucial. After all, the longer it takes to restruc-concerned, the tendency to “flee” to (supposed- ture the financial markets and find a sustain- able solution to the euro crisis, in particular, the greater the risk of “losing” a whole generation of savers because the idea of long-term investment is eyed with deep mistrust.Asset classes benefit differentlyChange of asset classes’ share of gross financial assets between 2000 and 2011, in percentage pointsBank deposits Securities Insurance7 5 86 6 05 44 -5 22 -101 00 -15 -2 Latin America Asia Eastern Europe North America Western Europe Oceania World Oceania Western Europe Eastern Europe North America Asia Latin America World North America Asia Latin America Western Europe Eastern Europe Oceania WorldSource: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, Allianz SE.
  22. 22. Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional differences . Literature . Appendix26 Start of deleveraging in the rich countries around 73% if we compare the four years prior to The differences in borrowing behavior are simi- the financial crisis with the four years that fol- larly pronounced to those affecting asset struc- lowed. The ratio of liabilities to economic output tures. Not surprisingly, the lion’s share of per- had fallen to 67.3% at the end of last year, putting sonal debt has been accumulated in the HWCs: it 2.1 percentage points short of the record value they account for just under 80% of global debt. seen in 2009. In the LWCs, on the other hand, the An analysis of debt development, however, is debt ratio has continued to climb over the years, more interesting. Since 2000, personal debt in reaching 26.2% at the end of 2011. This still, how- the HWCs has been growing at an average rate ever, puts it well below the global figure: global of 4.3% a year, whereas in the MWCs and LWCs, private household debt came in at 67.0% of eco- the rate of growth comes in at 10.0% and 18.3% nomic output at the end of 2011. respectively. The differences over the past four Nowhere were the debt levels of private years are even more striking, however: the aver- households higher than in Australia and New age growth rate in the HWCs was only 0.6% a year, Zealand, where this sort of debt corresponded to whereas the MWCs and LWCs achieved rates of around 109% of GDP. Oceania is the only richer 3.9% and 21.0% respectively. Since nominal eco- region in the world where debt has been growing nomic output in HWCs grew twice as fast as the at double-digit rates on average since the turn of liabilities in the same period (+1.2% per year on the millennium. By far the biggest debt culprits, average), 2.1 percentage points could be sliced however, are eastern European households, with off the debt ratio. But private households in the MWCs also made progress as far as deleverag- ing is concerned: the pace of debt growth fell by Dynamic of indebtedness stopped in the HWC and MWC Development of global debt burden, Development of global debt burden, in EUR bn as % of GDP 35,000 100 90 30,000 80 25,000 70 60 20,000 World 50 LWC 15,000 40 MWC HWC 10,000 30 20 5,000 10 0 0 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UNU WIDER, World Bank, Allianz SE.
  23. 23. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012average debt growth to the tune of almost 27% a Eastern Europe is by no means an iso- 27year. This breathtaking growth is due to two fac- lated case when it comes to the slowdown in debttors: first, the debt level is still relatively low, while accumulation in the aftermath of the financialsecond, the opening of the banking markets as a crisis. This phenomenon is being observed inresult of accession to the EU and the low-interest almost all regions across the globe. In the US,loans in foreign currencies (Swiss francs or eu- which is still the world’s largest “debt market“,ros) has made it far easier for private households households have actually reduced their debt onto access loans. The financial crisis, however, the whole over the past four years – also thankshas changed this situation profoundly; after to payment defaults and write-downs on prop-virtual stagnation in 2009, debt grew by “only” erty loans: their debt levels are now sitting ataround 13% in total last year – with increasing 5.4% below the pre-crisis level. In addition to thedifferences emerging between individual coun- US, there are six other countries in which loanstries in the region: at present, only Russia, Tur- have been reduced in absolute terms duringkey and, to a lesser extent, Poland are witnessing this period: Japan, Ireland, Spain, Estonia, Latviarapid growth in personal debt, whereas in other and Kazakhstan. This means that, thanks to thecountries such as the Baltic states, Bulgaria or turnaround in debt momentum, the debt ratioHungary, debt is already headed south. was reduced in all regions last year – with one sole exception: at the end of 2011, Latin America had reached a record high in relative debt; every- where else, deleveraging would appear to be the order of the day.Development of liabilities by regionLiabilities, indexed (2000=100) Liabilities as % of GDP1,300 Per capita in EUR, 2011 120 110 40.0001,100 100 20.000 90 900 0 80 70 Eastern Europe 700 60 Latin America 50 Oceania 500 40 North America 30 Western Europe 300 20 Asia 10 Asia ex HWC 100 0 World ’ 00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UN, Allianz SE.
  24. 24. How global financialassets are distributedHow big is theworld’s middle classin terms of wealth?
  25. 25. Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional differences . Literature . Appendix30 Social classes are normally identified in terms Consequently, our definition of the of income, meaning that the middle class is de- global wealth middle class is based not on the fined by how much it earns. By contrast, there standard income classes, but on global average is no system that divides society into “wealth per capita wealth. This year, however, we will classes”. also be focusing on the net figures when we But there is certainly a link between dis- put the various wealth classes under the micro- posable income and wealth. Households have to scope. Average net per capita assets came in at exceed a certain income level before accumulat- EUR 14,880 in 2011. We have defined the middle ing wealth is even an option. wealth countries (MWCs) as those countries that As a general rule, people in lower in- own between 30% and 180% of average global per come groups and some of the (income) middle capita wealth. In terms of the average income class have either no, or only very few assets. This threshold for the MWCs, the lower threshold means that the terms “income middle class” for net per capita assets in 2011 stands at EUR and “wealth middle class” do not refer to the 4,500. The HWCs include countries with average same group of people; rather, the distribution per capita assets of EUR 26,800 or more. In gross of income and wealth vary considerably: while terms, the thresholds are EUR 6,400 and EUR around one third of the population earns half 38,700 (see Appendix A for information on how of the population’s total income, only 10% of the the wealth thresholds are determined). population owns half of its assets on average. Strong correlation between economic output and wealth Net financial assets of households and GDP per capita 2011, in EUR 100,000 USA Japan 80,000 Belgium Net financial assets per capita Netherlands 60,000 Singapore Canada Denmark France Italy Sweden 40,000 Germany Austria Mexico Ireland Malaysia 20,000 Portugal Finland Romania South Korea Spain Thailand Chile Greece Indonesia Czech Republic New Zealand Peru Hungary 0 Kazakhstan Brazil 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 GDP per capita Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UN, Allianz SE.
  26. 26. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012The new wealth middle class In gross terms, 20 out of the 52 countries 31Government debt levels in many industrialized in our analysis fall into the HWC category. Thenations are the hot topic on everyone’s minds at category consists almost exclusively of estab-the moment, but what sort of shape are private lished industrialized nations (plus Singaporehouseholds in? We want to delve further into and Taiwan). But it is precisely in those industri-this issue in our analysis of the global wealth alized nations with highly developed financialmiddle class. If we include liabilities in our systems that household debt is also at its high-analysis, which countries still make it into the est. Average per capita debt in these countrieshigh or middle wealth group? Have countries amounts to EUR 27,670, compared with onlybeen forced out of the group of HWCs or MWCs EUR 970 on the emerging markets. While it goesin recent years due to their liabilities and how without saying that this debt is often offset byhas the distribution of wealth in these countries real assets, capital and interest payments stillchanged since 2000? have to be made using current income. The cri- sis in particular – which sent house prices tum- bling in some places – has left no doubt as to one fact: debt is still debt, i.e. liabilities that have to be paid back no matter what.Uneven distributionShare of global net financial assets (52 countries, 4.8bn people), by population deciles in %Decile with lowest wealth Decile with highest wealth 55 17 10 7 5 2 3 0 0 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UNU WIDER, World Bank, Allianz SE.
  27. 27. Foreword . Summary . Development of global financial assets . How global financial assets are distributed . Regional differences . Literature . Appendix32 In Finland, Norway and Ireland, house- asset growth (11.7% a year) unable to keep step hold debt levels mean that these countries are with these rates. The crisis then put incomes still only classed as MWCs in net terms. Finn- under pressure, making the process involved ish households have debt averaging EUR 23,940 in reducing these liabilities a slower one. Since per capita, with Irish per capita debt coming in 2009, however, liabilities have been falling and at EUR 40,790 and the Norwegians sitting on as financial assets gradually rising again, mean- much as EUR 66,080 of debt each. This explains ing that in 2011, Ireland was only a whisker away why, at EUR 6,510 net, Norway’s households also from making it back into the HWC group, with have the lowest per capita assets in Europe. average net assets to the tune of EUR 25,460 per Whereas Finland (EUR 19,100 per capita) and capita. In the other European countries marred Norway have been members of the MWCs for by the crisis, on the other hand, there is no in- some time now in net terms, Ireland was not dication of a turnaround yet: net per capita as- relegated to this group until 2007. Private house- sets in Greece, Portugal and Spain continued on hold debt in Ireland swelled by more than 22% a downward trajectory last year. Nevertheless, a year between 2000 and 2007, with financial these three countries were not HWC members in terms of net assets even before the crisis hit; while Portugal and Spain could be counted as HWCs in gross terms, they lost this status in 2010 and 2011 respectively. Classification of countries by net financial assets per capita HWC MWC LWC Australia Chile Argentina Austria Croatia Brazil Belgium Czech Republic Bulgaria Canada Estonia China Denmark Finland Colombia France Greece India Germany Hungary Indonesia Israel Ireland Kazakhstan Italy Malaysia Latvia Japan Mexico Lithuania Netherlands Norway New Zealand Singapore Portugal Peru Sweden Romania Poland Switzerland Slovenia Russia Taiwan South Korea Slovakia UK Spain South Africa USA Thailand Turkey Ukraine Source: National Central Banks and Statistical Offices, UNU WIDER, World Bank, Allianz SE.
  28. 28. Allianz Global Wealth Report 2012 Personal debt is not, however, a “privi- Obviously, a long development process 33lege” of the European crisis states. Brazil had lies ahead before the average per capita assetsjust made it into the MWC club in gross terms, of a country’s entire population can surpass thebut remains a LWC with net per capita assets middle or even high wealth threshold. This isof EUR 2,980. Other countries that lost their net why we have opted to look at wealth distributionMWC status are Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland within a country in terms of deciles. In order toand Slovakia, where the credit boom had taken do so, we have to make assumptions as to howon huge proportions in recent years. wealth is distributed within a country. In their studies, Davies et al. (2009) showed that, despite the differences, there is a stable link between income and wealth distribution. We have used this link to draw conclusions as to wealth distri- bution in the countries we have analyzed based on income distribution levels in these countries. This involved “converting” income deciles into wealth deciles to calculate the average wealth per population decile.

×