Stringent index: frequent wheezing during first 3 yr of life1 major risk factor or 2/3 of minor risk factor
Adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroids
Sasikarn Suesirisawad, MD
Dysphonia The most common complaint is of hoarse voice May occur > 50 % of pts using MDI. Thrush Mouth should be rinse discarded Cough and throat irritation accompanied by reflex bronchoconstriction, given via MDIs. rectified by switching to DPI. Unusual local complications: perioral dermatitis, tongue hypertrophy, increased thirst. Roland NJ et al. Chest. 2004;126(1)213
Growth decelerationStuart W. Stoloff et al. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2011, 11:000–000
Children with persistent asthma of at least moderate severity eventually attain adult height( predicted range). Lone Agertoft. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1064-9 These children might delay linear growth associated with ICS therapy. CAMP. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1054-63 Theresa W. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;128: -
P children with asthmaI 142 BUD treated children with asthmaC 18 Control asthma who never receive ICS 51 Healthy sibling of pt in BUD grO BUD gr attained adult ht after 9.2 y of BUD treatment Mean daily BUD dose 412 μg Mean cumulative dose BUD 1.35 g BDU gr: Mean difference target adult ht +0.3 cm (95%CI -0.6 to + 1.2) Control: Mean difference target adult ht -0.2 cm (95%CI -2.4 to + 2.1) Sibling: Mean difference target adult ht +0.9 cm (95%CI -0.4 to + 2.2)
Prospective, long term study Excluded Chronic disease GA<32 wk Prednisolone > 2 wk/yr All children visited clinic at 6 mo interval for 1-2 yr ( run-in period) 332 children controlled without continuous use of ICS asked to change to treatment with BUD. Lone Agertoft. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1064-9
Each mo visited, recorded number of hospital admission, age, ht,wt. LFT, dose and frequency of prescribed drug. Through study, pt seen by same 2 physician, all measurement of wt, ht and LFT performed by same 3 nurse. Data analyzed collected from Jan 1986- Aug1999 Lone Agertoft. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1064-9
P 1041 children age 5-12 y with mild to moderate asthma Treated participant 4-6 yI 311 children receive 400 μg of BUD 312 children receive 16 mg of necocromilC Placebo: 418 childrenO Mean increase in ht in BUD gr 1.1 cm less than placebo gr (22.7 vs. 23.8 cm, P=0.005) This difference was evident mostly within the first year. Ht increase was similar in nedocromil and placebo gr N Engl J Med2000;343: 1054-63
BUD less ht 1.1 cmP=0.005 CAMP. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1054-63
P 1041 children with mild to moderate asthma in CAMP study, 941 (90%)I 4.3 yr of 400 μg of BUD 16 mg nedocromilC placeboO Gr treated continuously during trial BUD or nedocromil did not differ from gr given placebo in LFT,control of asthma, psychologic status at the end of posttrial follow-up. Decrease ht in BUD gr relative to placebo at the end of trial(1.1cm;P=0.005). Remained significant ( 0.9cm; P=0.01) after additional 4.8 yr and more pronounced in girl (1.7 cm; P=0.001) than boy(0.3cm;P=0.49) J Pediatr 2009;154:682-7
P 285 participants age 2 0r 3 yr with positive APII FP 88 μg twice dailyC PlaceboO ICS gr greater proportion of episode-free day(P=0.006) and lower rate of exacerbation(P<0.001) and supplementary use of controller medication(P<0.001) ICS gr increase ht 1.1 cm less at 24 mo (P<0.001) The end of trial, ht increase 0.7 cm less (p=0.008) N Engl J Med 2006;354:1985-97
Toddler-aged children with recurrent wheeze at high risk for development of asthma based on positive modified API treated for 2 yr with FP(176 μg/d). 1.1 cm reduction in ht gained at the end of treatment compared with placebo.
1. Child must have history of ≥ 4 wheezing episodes with atleast one physician diagnosis.2. In addition, child must have history of ≥ 4 wheezingepisodes with at least 1 conﬁrmed by physician. Theresa W. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 114: 1282-7
PEAK is multicenter, DBRCT parallel group comparison trial of FP with placebo in children 2 yr and 3 yr. Treated for 2 yr by Aerochamber with mask with FP(176 μg/d) MDI-CFC. Primary safety analysis: linear growth
Height measured every 4 months during 36 mo of study and at 48 mo. Medical history symptom evaluation, family and environmental history and eo count.
Original cohort 285 children, remained 102 children in both gr. 2 treatment groups were similar except higher eo in ICS gr. No significant different in number of complete clinic visit, dropouts, treatment failures, serious adverse event between gr.
No significant differences in linear growth during treatment or 2 yr after treatment discontinuation for baseline characteristics.
2 yr of FP treatment is associated with less linear growth that dissipates over time after treatment discontinuation. ICS gr catch-up growth during 2 yr after treatment discontinuation. Subgroup of younger with lesser wt ( age 1 yr and 17 kg at enrollment) : not catch-up growth.
Murray: ICS compared with placebo had greater effect on linear growth in younger (2y) versus older (3y) children. PEAK study, school aged children with persistent asthma treated with BUD(400μg/d) for 4.3 y in CAMP study had gained 1.1 cm less in ht at the end of period compared with placebo gr and remained significant(0.9cm, P=0.01) additional 4.8 y after study medication stopped.
Gr of younger with lesser wt whom growth suppressive effect pronounced, this effect did not diminish with time after ICS discontinued.
Younger children of lesser wt likely received higher relative exposure(μg/kg) of FP than older children. Not appear to solely wt effect because older children of lesser wt ( 3y and <17 kg at enrollment) not show same growth effect and significant catch-up growth once ICS discontinued.
This study younger children of lesser wt not catch-up growth over time. Unlike CAMP study in older children with persistent asthma, not find that girl in PEAK study more likely less linear growth.
FP CFC estimated 10 μg/kg/d is upper limit dose to avoid potential effect of long term daily ICS use on growth in children 2-3 y of age. Average ht percentage of younger children of lesser wt at enrollment was 43.2%. Not perfectly mirror growth of reference population(children with recurrent wheezing might not same growth of reference population).
33% of children were > 75 th percentile for wt compared with reference population, reflect increase obesity rate in older children with asthma. Potential for reduced linear growth among children receiving ICS who are 2 yr of age and weigh < 17 kg should be balanced with level of asthma control to maximize benefit/risk ratio of treatment.
Intraocular pressure Increase risk of glucoma Cataracts Risk factor for posterior subcapsular cataract Gonzalez AV et al.Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Pelkonen A et al. JACI.2008;122(4):832.
Skin change and bruising dose dependent at high daily doses Adverse airway effects No evidence for atrophy of airway epithelium Infection High dose ICS increase risk activation of TB No increase risk pneumonia Psychiatric effect Psychiatric disturbance Pierre Ernst et al. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2012, 18:85–89 Stuart W. Stoloff et al. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2011, 11:000–000