GEOGRAPHY It was settled in a valley within the mountains of Greece. It had the river, Evrotas, flowing near the city-state. The farmers of Sparta benefited from rich, fertile soil, which allowed them to have plenty of extra crops. 25 miles from the sea. Sparta was settled in the perfect spot to grow a glorious and powerful empire. There were 16,000 Spartan males They had hot, dry summers and damp, cold winters. The mountains were Taygetos, Kyllini, and Aroania.
RELIGION Created along with myths to explain how the world works, there are dozens of them like: Hestia, the Hestia, the goddess of hearth. goddess of Asklepios, the god of medicine. hearth most significant are the twelve Olympian Gods. live on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain of Greece, Asklepios, the god of medicine.
RELIGION Those twelve gods are blessed with powers and cursed with human emotions like love and anger. Zeus is famous for his love affairs with semi- goddesses and mortals, which always caused the envy of his wife Hera. The twelve gods apart from human feelings, have human needs. For their conservation nutrition was required. Believed gods only consumed nectar and ambrosia. polytheistic religion.
RELIGION The gods also had immortality. Each one of them has the ability to appear in front of mortals and provide them with advice and help. Many examples of that can be found in the Iliad and Odyssey, works of the poet Homer. Athena appears in various forms to Odysseys, as she has been his protector. Some of the ancient Greek gods to get angry with the mortals and try to harm or punish them.
RELIGION Built temples and sacrificed animals or even humans for them. They also constructed temple which were dedicated to them. Very famous is considered the Parthenon, in Athens Acropolis, which was constructed for the goddess Athena, Another very famous temple is the one of Apollo in Delphi. This temple has been the famous Delphic oracle, from where the priestess Pythia gave her orations. Numerous festivals. Though they differed a lot, the goal of all of them has been to maintain a goods relationship with the gods. The festivals of Athens are the best known.
RELIGION Each festival has been dedicated to a god: Eleusinia – festival of games held at Eleusis near Athens Panathenaea Anthesteria – festival of Dionysus and the new wine Thesmophoria – festival of Demeter celebrated by women, and many others In these festivals everyone, whether reach or poor, could participate – though usually there have been limitations for women.
RELIGION In these festivals everyone, whether reach or poor, could participate – though usually there have been limitations for women. The ancient Greek religion as been the basis for the religion of the Roman Empire later on. The influence has been that great that Romans kept the characteristics of the deities and transformed their names. For example, Jupiter has actually been the same deity with Zeus.
THE OLYMPIANS 1. Aphrodite ,the goddess of love 2. Apollo , the god of the sun and of music 3. Ares , the god of war 4. Artemis , the goddess of the hunt 5. Demeter , the goddess of the harvest 6. Athena ,the goddess of wisdom 7. Dionysos , the god of high spirits and of wine 8. Hephaestus , the god of fire and of the forge 9. Hera ,the queen of gods 10. Hermes ,the god of travel and the messenger of the gods 11. Poseidon ,the god of the sea12. Zeus ,the lord of the gods, most powerful and ruler of Mount Olympus and the sky The gods
ART Was a large part of Ancient Greece. Many forms such as: Sculpting many statues Pottery made of clay Poetry Drama and theater Music Literature Architecture
SCULPTURE Different types of materials including stone, marble and limestone and clay. Very important as the vast majority of them tell us a story about Gods, Heroes, Events, Mythical Creatures. Statue of Kouros Discobolos Archaic Age Hellenistc AgeClassical Age
ARCHAIC AGE ca. 700 – 450 B.C.E Artists created statues of people that seemed unreal. showed a more naturalistic style reflecting significant influence. Artists began to get ideas from their Eastern counterparts. Started to use palmette and lotus compositions. Animal hunts and such composite beasts as griffins (part bird, part lion), sphinxes (part woman, part winged lion), and sirens (part woman, part bird).
CLASSICAL AGE 480 - 323 B.C.E Created during a "golden age", From the time Athens rose to prominence and Greek expansion, right up until the death of Alexander the Great. Seen as a turning point in art Produced some of the most exquisite sculptures known today. Sculptors had mastered marble Created statues that showed joyous freedom of movement and expression, while celebrating mankind as an independent entity.
HELLENISTIC AGE 323- 31 B.C.E Began around the death of Alexander the Great and ended with the battle of Actium. Saw dramatic changes compared to previous logic. The artists did not stick to classical conventions and rules Turned to a more experimental movement and a sense of freedom that allowed the artist to explore his subjects from different unique points of view.
Red figure pottery POTTERY Protogeometric styles which were Protogeometric circles, triangles, wavy lines, and arcs. pottery Geometric styles which included triangles and other geometrical decoration such as animals or human figures. Orientalizing styles included sphinx and lions that were arranged in patterns across the middle of the pottery. Black figure method, artists began carving figures with detail. Red figure method where the details are painted on.
DRAMA First came when a solo actor performed using different masks to different characters. Started by Thespis Second was started by Aeschylus and a second actor was added so that their could be a dialogue between characters on stage. Third was when dramatic performances started because a third actor was brought into theatre by Sophocles Tragedy, comedy, and satyr plays were the theatrical forms.
DRAMAPanoramic view of the Greek theatre at Epidaurus. •These masks symbols for theater • The smiling one stands for comedy •The sad one stands for tragedy
MUSIC Important part of ancient greek life. Famous throughout the ancient world. Musicians and dancers attended weddings, festivals, religious events, and other events. Spartans spent little time learning music. Some instruments were called: The Pandouris and the Phorminx
ARCHITECTURE Three architectural systems, called orders. Own distinctive proportions and detailing. The orders are: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. Doric Ionic Corinthian•Simple, and sturdy •Thinner and more •Seldom used•Top is plain. elegant. •Often seen on Roman•Was used in mainland •The top has a scroll- temples.Greece and the colonies like design. •The top is very elaboratein southern Italy and Sicily. •Was found in eastern and decorated with Greece and the acanthus leaves. islands.
GOVERNMENT Spartan government was an Oligarchy which means it was controlled by a small group of people. One of the most stable governments in ancient Greece. Very unique and included parts of a monarchy, Oligarchy and some democracy. Main concern was to make sure Sparta had a powerful army. The government did not allow its citizens to travel out of the country and usually did not allow visitors.
KINGS King Leonidas was king of Sparta between 488- 480 B.C.E Known as the commander of the Spartan army at the battle of Thermopylae. Lykurgos was the first significant king of Sparta. He set up the constitution that defined the council and two kings. Lykurgos King Leonidas
LAWS Spartans held the law to show the people proper behavior in all matters. The law created the center for their societal structure and institutions. Sparta law was brought by the laws of crete.
MILITARY The military force for Sparta was the Spartan army. The army was the center of the Spartan state. The first priority of Spartan citizens was to be good soldiers. Spartans were the most disciplined, well-trained, and feared military forces in world history. A common belief was that one Spartan was worth several men of any other state. Spartan Spartan helmet weapons
SOCIETY Spartans lived by the belief of discipline, self- denial, and simplicity. Did not have a lot of luxuries, expensive foods, or breaks for leisure. Spartans lived and died for Sparta. Were required to have a perfect body. Education was not academic, it was physical. Babies were left to die or become a slave if they didn’t seem healthy and strong. Spartan society had three main classes.
SOCIAL CLASSES Highest social class, the aristocratic Spartiates. Were a class of military professionals who lived most of their lives in communal barracks. Rarely seeing their wives and children, Lands were farmed by slaves, leaving them free to pursue to the arts of war. Aristocratic Spartiate
SOCIAL CLASSES Middle class, called the Perioeci. Made up of a farmers and artisans who were the descendants of those peoples whom the Spartans had first conquered, The Perioeci paid taxes and could serve in the army, but had no real political rights.
SOCIAL CLASSES At the bottom were the helots A slave class descended from those peoples who had resisted suppression by Sparta. Because the helots were constantly rebelling, the Spartans attempted to control them by forming a secret society that annually murdered any helot suspected of encouraging subversion.
ROLE OF MEN Role of a Spartan male was to be in the military. To go to military school at age 7 until age 18 to learn toughness, discipline, continued pain, and survival. At age 18 became military cadet. They had to pass fitness, military, and leadership tests or they become a Perioeci. Adult men married or not Did not live at home, they lived in military barracks at least until they were 30 Still had to eat at barracks until military service was over. Served in military until age 60.
ROLE OF WOMEN Role of women was to be healthy and strong to ensure they could give birth to healthy future warriors. Girls were taught at an early age that they must be dedicated to Sparta. Went to school at age 7 to learn gymnastics and other physical things. At age 18, if a girl passed her physical test she was assigned to a husband. Adult women were free to move around and had a lot of freedom because their husbands did not live at home.
CLOTHING Spartans wore the simplest and scantiest clothing. Men wore a tunic (toga) which was squares of cloth Male Tunic pinned at the shoulders and had a belt around the (toga) waist. Women’s tunics always went to the ankles. Clothing was made of linen in the summer, and wool in the winter. Most Greeks went barefoot or wore leather sandals or boots. Women’s Tunic Greek Sandals
Barley Olives FOOD Spartan food was simple and often plain and unflavorable like broth or porridge. Men had to give a certain amount of barley, wine, cheese, and figs each month to the barracks. Food also consisted of grains, wheat, barley, fruit, vegetables, and bread. They grew grapes, figs, olives, and wheat. They owned goats to get their milk and cheese. They made wine from the grapes they grew. Goat Cheese Figs
LEISURE ACTIVITIES Spartans did not spend a lot of time on leisure. They enjoyed religious festivals that included feasting, dancing, and practice battles for endurance. They also attended the Olympic games which were athletic competitions between city-states. Three famous athletes of Sparta were Acanthus, Chionis, and Cynisca. Ruins of training ground of the Olympic games
GREEK WRITING There are several theories about its origin One suggests that it originated with migration of proto- Greek speakers. Migration into Greece occurred at a pre proto-Greek stage. The characteristic Greek sound changes came later. Spartans did not create any literary works that are known. Spartans didn’t spend much time trying to become writers. Most examples of Spartan writing are from inscriptions, not literature. Linear B was the first known script for writing Greek. They got the writing originally from the Phoenicians.
GREEK ALPHABETModern Greek Writing Ancient Greek Writing (Linear B Style)