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U02 Planetearth

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  • 1. Essential Natural Science 1 Planet Earth HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES CONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS LINKS
  • 2. Contents Planet Earth Special characteristics Movements The seasons Characteristics The Sun’s rays The Earth and Moon How does the Moon move? The phases of the Moon Eclipses Tides Spheres The geosphere The atmosphere The hydrosphere The biosphere HOME CLOSE BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 3. Resources HOME CLOSE BACK What is the Earth like? How does the Moon move? The geosphere Phases of the Moon How does the Earth move? The Sun’s rays Eclipses Tides The atmosphere The hydrosphere The biosphere Characteristics of the seasons Links Animation: The Earth’s movements Animation: The phases of the Moon and eclipses HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 4. What is the Earth like? CLOSE BACK An atmosphere containing oxygen Intense magnetic field A water cycle A large, natural satellite, the Moon Geological activity Conditions for life exist. HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS Moderate average temperature (15 ºC)
  • 5. What is the Earth like? A magnetic field protects living beings from dangerous solar radiation. 1 Radiation CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 6. What is the Earth like?
      • The atmosphere consists of a mixture of gases.
    • Main components:
    • nitrogen (4/5)
    • oxygen (1/5)
    2 CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 7. What is the Earth like? Moderate average temperature (15 ºC) This is possible because of: • the distance from the Sun • the composition of the atmosphere 3 CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 8. What is the Earth like?
    • A water cycle
    • Water exists in three states
    • due to temperature variations:
        • ice
        • liquid
        • water vapour
    4 CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 9. What is the Earth like?
      • A relatively large, natural satellite , the Moon.
    • The gravitational attraction of
    • the Moon causes ocean tides.
    5 CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 10. What is the Earth like?
    • Geological activity :
      • earthquakes,
      • volcanoes,
      • mountain building,
      • erosion, etc.
    6 CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 11. What is the Earth like?
      • Conditions for life exist.
    7 CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 12. How does the Earth move? Rotation Revolution CLOSE BACK ENLARGE IMAGE ENLARGE IMAGE HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 13. How does the Earth move? DAY NIGHT Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere equatorial plane rotational axis Rotation The Earth takes 24 hours (one day) to rotate once on its axis. CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 14. How does the Earth move? Revolution ecliptic plane The Earth takes 365¼ days (one year) to orbit the Sun once. 150,000,000 km terrestrial orbit CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 15. Animation: The phases of the Moon and eclipses CLOSE BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 16. Animation: The Earth’s movements CLOSE BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 17. Characteristics of the seasons Summer Winter Summer Winter Winter Autumn Summer Autumn Spring Spring January February March April May June July August September October November December January February Southern Hemisphere Winter solstice Summer solstice Autumn equinox Autumn equinox Spring equinox Winter solstice Spring equinox Summer solstice Northern Hemisphere CLOSE BACK Spring Summer Autumn Winter Days Days get longer until 21 st June. Days get shorter after 21 st June. Days get shorter until 22 nd December. Days get longer after 22 nd December. Nights Nights get shorter. Nights get longer. Nights get longer. Nights get shorter. HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 18. Characteristics of the seasons Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere 22 nd September Autumn equinox 21 st March Spring equinox 21 st December Winter solstice 21 st June Summer solstice Summer Spring Autumn Winter CLOSE BACK Southern Hemisphere HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 19. Summer Characteristics of the seasons Seasons in the Southern Hemisphere Spring 22 nd September Spring equinox 21 st March Autumn equinox 21 st December Summer solstice Autumn Winter 21 st June Winter solstice CLOSE BACK Northern Hemisphere HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 20. Summer solstice Winter solstice The Sun’s rays Summer simulation Winter simulation Indirect rays produce less heat. Direct rays produce more heat. CLOSE BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 21. How does the Moon move? The Moon takes 28 days to rotate once on its axis (anticlockwise). Rotation Rotational axis The Moon takes 27 days and 8 hours to orbit the Earth once (anticlockwise). Revolution CLOSE BACK The red dot indicates the dark or hidden side. HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 22. Phases of the Moon NEW MOON FIRST QUARTER LAST QUARTER FULL MOON CLOSE BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 23. Eclipses Nodes CLOSE BACK Solar eclipse Lunar eclipse HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 24. Eclipses Nodes Lunar eclipse The Earth is between the Moon and the Sun. CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 25. Eclipses Nodes Solar eclipse The Moon is between the Sun and the Earth . CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 26. Tides 2 1 1 2 90 degree turn CLOSE BACK Low tide in Spain High tide in Mexico 1 2 High tide in Spain Low tide in Mexico 1 2 HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 27. The geosphere inner core outer core 70 km 10 km mantle crust continental crust oceanic crust MAIN FEATURES CLOSE BACK 70 km 2 900 km 5 150 km 6 370 km 0 km HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 28. The geosphere Main relief features continental shelf great plains mountain range mid-oceanic ridge oceanic trench abyssal plains submarine volcano CLOSE BACK GO BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 29. The atmosphere The layer of air which surrounds the Earth 78 % nitrogen 21 % oxygen 1 % carbon dioxide and other gases MAIN COMPONENTS CLOSE BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 30. The hydrosphere All the water on, under and above the Earth salt water The water cycle water vapour and clouds fresh water heat from the Sun + the force of gravity CLOSE BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 31. The biosphere all the living things on Earth The Earth’s crust The atmosphere The hydrosphere Aquatic environments Terrestrial environments influence are distributed in CLOSE BACK HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS
  • 32. Links HOME CLOSE BACK GO TO WEBSITE The Earth and beyond: phases of the Moon GO TO WEBSITE Observing the sky HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS