PG #23-27 Slide 2 Franklin, John Hope, and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. From Slavery to Freedom. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010. Print.
PG #27-33 Slide 3Franklin, John Hope, and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. From Slavery to Freedom. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010. Print.
PG #33-35 Slide 4Franklin, John Hope, and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. From Slavery to Freedom. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010. Print.
PG #35-41 Slide 5Franklin, John Hope, and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. From Slavery to Freedom. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010. Print.
PG #41-44 Slide 6Franklin, John Hope, and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. From Slavery to Freedom. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010. Print.
PG # 45-46 Slide 7Franklin, John Hope, and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. From Slavery to Freedom. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010. Print.
Africans in the atlantic world
Finding New Lands &Labor Africans and the Conquistadors: Africans accompanied the conquistadors on theirexploration of the southwestern parts of the United States. The Africans helpedthem claim the land and lives of the native American peoples. Demand for Slave Labor: Europeans became interested in exploiting the naturalresources in this new world. European conquers enslaved Indians making themwork in mines and agriculture fields. Unfortunately disease carried by Europeanswiped out the entire native population. They needed Africans to make up for thedeficiency of Indian labor. Plus the Africans were already familiar with the cultivationof these crops because they had worked with those crops before . From Indenture to Slavery: England more then other nations attempted to use whiteindentured labor, but ultimately this proved unsatisfactory. “Indentured Servitude”meant that a laborer agreed to serve a master for a term of years after which he orshe would gain freedom and ideally a grant of land. Many of the white slaves wentso far to sue masters for illegal detention, also many ran away. Blacks presented sofew of the difficulties the white laborers caused them. Also Africans slaves cost less.In a period when economic consideration dominated colonial policy this calculationmade New World slavery a fixed institution.
Trading in Slaves Acquiring Slaves: Slaves were mostly obtained through negotiation although slaveraids by Europeans did occur. Europeans’ sales of guns cause new levels of havocand civil strife among Africans, ensuring that rising numbers of slaves were capturedfor the transatlantic market. Africans in the Slave trade: Africans were both perpetrators and victims of theAtlantic slave trade. Europeans followed strict rules of protocols for tradenegotiations. They consulted doctors when uncertain about age or physicalcondition. Slave Trade Challenges: Europeans ran into costly delays. They would bring goodsthat werent desired leaving them unable to find a sufficient number of slaves at asingle trading post. The ship might be compelled to call at four or five ports in orderto purchase as many as five hundred slaves. The Trauma of Capture : They could not understand the white people, theircomplexions differed so much from the Africans. They believed they were going tobe eaten by them. Enslaved Africans offered stiff resistance to their capture , saleand transport across the Atlantic. African Resistance: Would jump off the ships into the ocean and drown themselvesor into the mouths of sharks just to avoid enslavement of the new world. They alsoattacked the slave ships or attempted to rescue captives.
The Middle Passage A Profitable Trade: More slaves on the ship meantmore profits: hence few traders could resist thetemptation to wedge a few more in. The slave tradewas one of the most important sources of Europeanwealth in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.From African slave trade Europeans income had asteady increase throughout the centuries.Approximately 12.5 million slaves were transportedto the New World.
Slavery in the Caribbean The Spanish Monopoly: They had control over the Caribbean because of the prior claim done bythe popes actions in 1493.African slaves produced very desirable staple crops which caughtother countries eyes. Loss of Spanish Control: They lost all claim to Denmark, Dutch Republic, France, and Englandwhich all acquired their own respective lands. They gained control by their sneaky monopoly ofslave trade in the Caribbeans New World territory. Living Conditions: Deaths became extremely high due to improper food, disease, intolerableworking conditions, suicide, and far more males then females. The Caribbean did not become aplace of residence but merely a temporary source for wealth. Slave Codes Punishment: The African population quickly came to outnumber whites. TheCaribbean promoted the enactment of slave codes to regulate the African Americans on theBritish Plantations. This prohibited slaves from leaving plantation. If they revolted back they wereseverely whipped or branded. Punishment: Suspend Slave from tree by a rope and tie iron weights around his or her neck Slave Revolts : Cruel punishment towards the African slaves only made them revolt. theyterrorized the whites which made Britain sign treaties with the maroons during the 1700s.Conspiracies, uprising and revolts were happening everywhere. Seasoned Slaves: Time proved that slaves adjusted to climate, disease and food. Slaves wereregarded as seasoned within 3 or 4 years and were shipped out to other islands.
Slavery in Mainland LatinAmerica Mexico: Demand for slaves in mainland increased. More then 60,000 Africansentered Mexico during the first century conquest. The Mexican market was averitable paradise for slave traders. At one point there was about 120,000 slaves. Central America: The number of slaves was never larger then 10,000 but the slaveswere a considerable source of trouble for the Spanish. The Guatemala City found itimpossible to subdue them so slaves became free and developed into substantialcitizens. South America: The largest concentration of blacks were in the viceroyalty of NewGranada. New Granadas ports became the largest slave markets in the New Worldoff the Caribbean. The Viceroyalty of Peru: Served as a market from which Andean planters andherders purchased black workers, some arriving from Panama and others camedirectly from Africa and around Cape Horn. They also had two currents convergingon Peru. Uruguay & Argentina: Large plantations of blacks lived here. There was aboutseven African societies that lived there. Brazil: 44,000 Africans arrived annually here. Africans were largely responsible forthe increase in total population. Brazil had the largest percentage of slaves broughtto the new world.
Slave Societies in theAmericas The Catholic Church: Scholars argued for pivotal role ofCatholic Church in shaping the slaves experience in LatinAmerica. Priests insisted that slaves became baptized.Reading was open and optional for them. Owners werenot permitted to work slaves on Sundays. Intermarriage: Choices for white men in South Americancolonies were limited. Interracial marriage was frownedupon greatly. Most of the time slaves could not getmarried, it was not really an option. The consent by theirowner however, was the only way for a slave man andwomen to share the equivalent of a marital relationship.
Works CitedFranklin, John Hope, and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. From Slavery toFreedom. New York:McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010. Print.Jiménez, Michael. "What Is Atlantic History." CPAS Newletter, 2001.Web.<www.marcusrediker.com/Articles/what_is_atlantic_history.htm>.Smithsonian Institution Libraries. "Web of Connections.”http://www.amhistory.si.edu/.Smithsonian National Museum of American History, 2011. Web.