Fairytales are made up of many components we may call these characters characters
Characters in fairytales are archetypal in nature(potential energy centres)we may also call them symbols Characters As symbols Archetype As character
Archetypes are potential energycentres accessed through therelease of energies held withinthe symbols infairytales…………………………………………………………... Symbol/Archetype
Archetypes are potential energies gathered andmainly stored in our emotional memory during ourlife experience. So the older we are the more lifeexperience and the more potential energy centresthere can be. The younger we are the more we areconnected to the collective unconscious. Archetypesthat are universal in the consciousness ofman………………………………………………..
Symbols within fairytales carry energy and energy is releasedby activating characters. Thought processes are thenexpanded because parallels are drawn with reality duringprocessing. Archetype as potential Energy Centre Character As Symbol Energy released Archetype released Through symbol and From the unconscious into the Through symbols conscious Mind.
Processing is the part of the therapeuticprocess in which the characters are looked at as a group after the action of the Fairytale has been played. by the group or individual.
The German for symbol is - Sinnbild,and as such can be defined further by de-construction. "Sinn" is defined as the meaning or semantic element and is the masculine or yang element of a symbol. "Bild" is defined as the image or the physical raw material of a symbol and is the feminine or yin element. The symbol is the "transcendent function"
Yolande Jacobi (1959) states:The Union of Opposites the Symbol astranscendent Function, this functioncreates a transitionfrom one attitude to another"It is a synthesis of consciousand unconscious material". (100) Jacobi, J. (1959) Complex; Archetype; Symbol: in the Psychology of C. G. Jung. Bollingen: London ISBN-10: 0691017743
Another way of referring toThe combination of the unconscious and the conscious combined processes is the "self"
Archetype as potential The Self As a ConsciousCombination of mind all processes The self Collective Unconscious unconscious mind
Deeply rooted in the CollectiveUnconscious are Archetypes thatare universalconcepts…………………………….
Because we are working with fantastical material allour characters whether animate or inanimate can havea voice they all have the ability tospeak………………………………………………….
By giving characters a voice,this in turn gives a client a voicethrough the medium of the characters withinthe story and cancreate a parallel with reality…..
Lets look at the parallel ……… Story RealityAspects ofa character Resemblein a story qualities carried in ones own life event history
Drawing parallels with energyrelease through stories can enableus to examine processes that mayotherwise remain hidden.Stories allow us a direct route tothe unconscious thereby releasingenergy formations that we mightrefer to as archetypes.
When playing characters we sometimes maysay poignant things that we may not sayunless we were in character or distancedfrom our ownprocess………………………………………………………
Characters may also be able to doremarkablethings………………………………………………………………….. Create Magic
Allowing characters to be magicalmeans that they have the abilityand can expand themselves.Playing magical characters allowsus and enables us to use ourimagination ……………..
symbols/archetypes as Intra-psychic roles :This is what takes place between energies in thebrain that may begin to relate to each otherinternally after being activated or released throughplay…………………….……………….
Symbols/Archetypes asInterpersonal Roles….Clients playing roles orcharacters with each other,experience the interpersonalnature of the process and canbegin to see differences inpeople and behaviour…………..
Jung (1996) 2nd.Ed, states:"Hence the "explanation" should always be such thatthe functional significance ofthe archetype remains un-impaired, so that anadequate and meaningful connection betweenthe conscious mind and the archetypes is assured.For the archetype is an element ofour psychic structure and thus a vital componentin our psychic economy."(160) Jung.C.G. 2nd Ed. (1969) The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Routledge & Kegan Paul: London ISBN 0710062958
Essential role-types within fairytales wouldbe classified as distancing tools externalisingor projecting the process of thought intoan object, the "object of reference", the Fairytale,before re-integrating with it as subject (Fairytale)to object (the mind) and subject (the mind)to subject (the Fairytale).Again this is drawing parallels as we have seenbefore. By creating this parallel we are distancingone line from another. Creating a space in-between. Creating space to think.The Fairytale as The self assubject object
"Moreover, the self is felt empiricallynot as subject but as objectand this by reason of itsunconscious component,which can only come to consciousness indirectly,by way of projection. Because of itsunconscious componentthe self is so far removed from the conscious mind thatit can only be partially expressed by human figures;the other part of it has to be expressed by objective,abstract symbols"(187)Jung 1996 2nd ed Jung.C.G. 2nd Ed. (1969) The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Routledge & Kegan Paul: London ISBN 0710062958
If we take the character from a fairy tale‘the valiant little tailor’,he has a basic "archetypal form"that of the Pauper/trickster.
Surrounding that form is a complex,which is based on an individual’s perceptionof what that little tailor is.There is also a complex that the individual hasof the experience of that characterwithin his or her own life story. 1 3 4 2
"From the functional point of view we may say that the resolution of a complex and its emotional assimilation, i.e. the process of raising it to consciousness,always result in a new distribution of psychic energy". Jacobi (1959:11) Jacobi, J. (1959) Complex; Archetype; Symbol: in the Psychology of C. G. Jung. Bollingen: London ISBN-10: 0691017743
"To define it from a functional point of view we might say that the archetype as such is concentrated psychic energy, but that the symbol provides the mode of manifestation by which the archetype becomes discernible". (74) Yolande Jacobi (1959)Jacobi, J. (1959) Complex; Archetype;Symbol: in the Psychology of C. G. Jung.Bollingen: London ISBN-10: 0691017743
The four suggested developmental stagesof Dramatherapy charting the progressionthrough dramatic play. Embodiment Projection Role Role Theory
Dr Sue Emmy Jennings suggests the EPRmodel.AndDr Robert Landy suggests the Role Model.
When we experience the energy ofcharacters in fairytales we embodythe energy in our body and mind.
During the processing of ourembodiment of characters infairytales we Project ourpersonal and interpersonalexperience onto thosecharacters.
When we play characters in fairytaleswe are playing Roles.
When we play roles weembody and projectRole-types.
A behavioural method of Dramatherapyincorporates all of the suggesteddevelopmental stages as a whole package .
Marie Louise Von Franz a colleague of Jung hasresearched fairytales and says that:-“Most fairytales do indeed contain a kind ofnatural morality, which is elucidated in thecourse of the action-an ethic of “appropriate”behaviour, which leads to a happy end, incontrast to inappropriate behaviour, which leadsto disaster”. P76Archetypal Dimensions of the Psyche (1999) Von Franz, M. (1999) Archetypal Dimensions of the Psyche. Shambala: Boston and London. ISBN 1570624267
So the model offers the opportunity to look intothe behaviours of the characters within the storiesand assimilate their actions and interactions on aphysical and a metaphysical level.Therefore we may reflect that characters and othersymbols in fairytales are representative and areintra-psychic as well as interpersonal rolesymbols; these may be evolved into "role-types" or"parts" and can be representations of our inter-personal "role-system" and relationships.
We are hypothesizing a bridging effect sothat we recognize behavioural patternswithin the fantasy of our fairytales andwithin the reality of a group experience, ourbehaviour and interactions within thegroup.
The importance of reference groups as ananchoring point for attitudes is implicitlyrecognized by those who wish to change radicallythe beliefs and attitudes of people.p.147 Social Psychology (1983) Raven and Rubin et.al. 2nd Ed (1983) Social Psychology. John Wiley and Sons: New York. ISBN 0471062251
It is reasonable to say therefore that in order torecognize oneself and ones behaviour it ispreferable to identify with a reference group.Within this group we try out different behavioursthat others and we respond to. Adopt certain thingsthat we like from others and them from us. In thisway we begin to form our personality or persona.The parallelThe environment of the fairy-tale provides thedramatic medium of the group. The group ofcharacters who move through the journey of thestory. Duplicating the Reference Group.Relating back to the journey of the groupexperience perceived by the group.
Dramatherapy group as reference groupCharacters within stories as reference groupsSocial perspective-taking within DramatherapygroupSocial perspective taking between characters instoriesMoral development of characters through eventhistory of storyMoral development within the actuality of thegroup process
We are establishing the behaviour of the psyche asan entity within itself and the way that thedistinctions therein relate and behave to externalstimulus and the behaviour that is exhibited throughthose distinctions.Thus moving towards a behavioural model that looksat how subjects respond to stimulus. The object ofthe fairy-tale to the subject the minds of peoplewithin groups.By working within these extremities, we areautomatically stretching thought processes becauseof the dynamics of the opposing forces.