Topic #6: Business Level Strategies (ppt)


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Topic #6: Business Level Strategies (ppt)

  1. 1. Business Level Strategies Business-level strategy : an integrated and coordinated set of commitments and actions the firm uses to gain a competitive advantage by exploiting core competencies in specific product markets.
  2. 2. Business Level Strategies <ul><li>Business-level strategies are intended to create </li></ul><ul><li>differences between the firm’s position relative to </li></ul><ul><li>those of its rivals. </li></ul><ul><li>To position itself, the firm must decide whether it </li></ul><ul><li>intends to perform activities differently or to perform </li></ul><ul><li>different activities as compared to its rivals. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Business Level Strategies The resources and capabilities that have been determined to be a source of competitive advantage for a firm over its rivals Core Competencies and Strategy An integrated and coordinated set of actions taken to exploit core competencies and gain a competitive advantage Actions taken to provide value to customers and gain a competitive advantage by exploiting core competencies in specific, individual product markets Core competencies Strategy Business-level strategy
  4. 4. Business Level Strategies Competitive Advantage Low-cost Differentiation Competitive Scope Broad Target Narrow Target Cost leadership Differentiation Cost Focus Differentiation Focus
  5. 5. Business Level Strategies Combination of the above policies directed at the particular strategic target Combination of the above policies directed at the particular strategic target Focus Strong coordination among functions in R&D, product development, and marketing Subjective measurement and incentives instead of quantitative measures Amenities to attract highly skilled labor, scientists, or creative people Strong marketing abilities Product engineering Creative flair Strong capability in basic research Reputation for quality or technological leadership Long tradition in the industry or unique combination of skills drawn from other businesses Strong cooperation from channels Differentiation Tight cost control Frequent detailed control reports Structured Firm and responsibilities Incentives based on meeting strict quantitative targets Sustained capital investment & access to capital Process engineering skills Intense supervision of labor Products designed for ease in manufacturing Low cost distribution system Overall Cost Leadership Common Organizational Requirements Commonly Required Skills & Resources Generic Strategy
  6. 6. Business Level Strategies <ul><li>Firms must offer relatively standardized products with </li></ul><ul><li>features or characteristics that are acceptable to customers at the </li></ul><ul><li>lowest competitive price. </li></ul><ul><li>Firms must consider their value chain of primary and secondary </li></ul><ul><li>activities and link those activities to implement a cost leadership </li></ul><ul><li>strategy. </li></ul>Cost Leadership Strategies :
  7. 7. Business Level Strategies Cost Leadership Strategies : <ul><li>Alternative cost reduction strategies include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building efficient scale facilities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost reductions through experience. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish tight cost and overhead controls. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of marginal customer accounts. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost minimization in R&D, service, and sales forces. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for usage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High relative market share (economies of purchasing). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Favorable access to raw materials. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design of products towards ease of manufacturing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High margins are reinvested to maintain cost leadership. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Emerson Electronics, Texas Instruments, and Black & Decker. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Business Level Strategies Cost Leadership Strategies : <ul><li>Defense against 5 competitive forces: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competitors - Low cost position allows return after competitors have </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>competed away their profits. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers - Allows more flexibility to cope with input cost increases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buyers - Buyers can at best force your prices down to that of the next </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lowest competitor (if they exit leaves firm as primary supplier). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New-entrants - Scale economies or cost advantages usually provide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>substantial barriers to entry. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substitutes - Low cost position allows reduction in prices to maintain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>price/value relationship. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Business Level Strategies Cost Leadership Strategies : <ul><li>Competitive risks: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myopic viewpoint toward cost reduction (overlook buyer wants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and needs). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rivals may successfully imitate the low-cost strategy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology changes can result in cost or process breakthroughs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>that nullify gains. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy investment into a low-cost approach can lock a firm into </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this strategy (vulnerability toward change). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When to use: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When firm is the market or cost leader (good strategy during a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>price war). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If widespread competition exists, using low-cost strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows winning the war of attrition. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Business Level Strategies <ul><li>Differentiation Strategies : </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to provide value to customers through unique features and </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics of a firm’s products. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiators focus or concentrate on product innovation and </li></ul><ul><li>developing product features that customers value. Products </li></ul><ul><li>generally cost more (offset cost of differentiation). </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t completely ignore costs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Business Level Strategies Differentiation Strategies : <ul><li>Can differentiate based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superior quality (John Deere, Mercedes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer service (IBM or Caterpillar) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering design (Hewlett-Packard) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Image of prestige or exclusivity (L’Oreal Cosmetics, Mercedes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Package design (Arizona Iced Tea) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for usage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use may require a high market share initially. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implies a trade-off with low-cost (i.e., costs to differentiate). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally leads to a lower market share than in the low-cost approach. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Business Level Strategies Differentiation Strategies : <ul><li>Defense against 5 competitive forces: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competitors - Decreases rivalry due to brand loyalty and resulting lower </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sensitivity to price. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers - Allows an increase in price margins (customers willing to pay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more, can withstand supplier price changes). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buyers - Removes buyer power due to a lack of comparative alternatives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New-entrants & Substitutes - Requires others to overcome customer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loyalty and product uniqueness. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Business Level Strategies Differentiation Strategies : <ul><li>Competitive risks: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If selling price is too high buyers may become price sensitive despite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>customer loyalty or uniqueness (price differential between standardized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and differentiated product is too high). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buyers may decide they don’t need the special features (means of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>differentiation no longer provides value). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rival firms may imitate the product thereby decreasing product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>uniqueness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When to use: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When ways exist to differentiate the product which buyers perceive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to have value. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When uses of the item are diverse. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When not many rivals are using the same strategy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Business Level Strategies <ul><li>Focus Strategies : </li></ul><ul><li>Firms can also use core competencies to serve a narrow segment of </li></ul><ul><li>the market or a particular customer group. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary goals of a focused strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on a particular buyer group, segment of the market, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To serve a narrow target or market segment more effectively than </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>broad-based competitors can due to core competencies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select target segments which are the least vulnerable to substitutes or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>where competitors are the weakest. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Business Level Strategies Focus Strategies : <ul><li>Two primary focused strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focused differentiation: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for usage similar to differentiation strategies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defense against the five forces similar to differentiation strategies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Rolls Royce, Fort Howard Paper. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>- Rolls Royce (prestige, quality, engineering design). </li></ul><ul><li>- Fort Howard Paper (specialty lens paper). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Business Level Strategies Focus Strategies : <ul><ul><ul><li>Focused low-cost strategies: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for usage similar to low-cost strategies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defense against the five forces similar to differentiation strategies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Rally’s, Martin Brower, White Castle. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Rally’s (no frills service, limited menu, no dine-in). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Martin Brower- 3rd largest food supplier, serves fast food </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chains by: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Gearing to their purchasing cycles. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Locating warehouse locations based on their locations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Stocking products only for these 8 firms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Meeting their specialized needs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Business Level Strategies Focus Strategies : <ul><li>Competitive risks: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broad range competitors may find ways to match focused firms services. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts in buyer preferences and needs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A competitor may find a smaller segment within the target segment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(out-focus the focuser). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When to use: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When no rivals are in the same segment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resources don’t permit operation in wide segments. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When their are different groups of buyers who use the product in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different ways. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When industry segments differ widely in size, growth, or profitability . </li></ul></ul></ul>
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