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Strategy, Architecture & Tomorrow’s Web

Peter Morville
President, Semantic Studios

March 21, 2003
Information Architecture
We define information architecture as:
• The structural design of shared information environments...
Business Strategy
Defining how an organization will use its scarce resources to
achieve sustainable competitive advantage....
“The prime responsibility of
                                                         mutual funds must always
           ...
Vanguard’s Activity System Map. Adapted from On Competition
Featured in Information Architecture for the World Wide Web
ht...
10%
       Strategic Planning        Plans Executed        Realized Strategy



                                90%       ...
Strategy Defined as 5 P’s
Plan.              A direction, guide, course of action.

Pattern.           Consistency in beha...
Apophenia
                                              The spontaneous
                                      perception o...
Life expectancy for
Americans has reached
an all-time high of 77.2
years, mostly due to a
decrease in deaths due
to major ...
Business 2.0   Bionics
A wealth of information
 creates a poverty of
      attention.

  Herbert Simon, Nobel Laureate Economist
“Among very experienced users, the Internet now ranks
higher than books, television, radio, newspapers, and
magazines as a...
1. Design Look 46.1%
                                      2. Information Design/Structure 28.5%
                         ...
“Executives routinely rely on their intuitions to
solve complex problems when logical methods
(such as a cost-benefit anal...
David Rose
ambientdevices.com
Convergent Architecture
                          Swisshouse
                          A new type of
                     ...
“The more I watch what’s happening with the
evolution of web sites, the more I believe that
search is essentially an exper...
Please indicate the importance of each factor to the practice of
information architecture over the next five years.
  (Bus...
In the next 5 years…
                                                                                   Dis-   Don't
     ...
The IA community should embrace a
        narrow definition of IA.



 The IA community should embrace a                  ...
Scenario Planning Exercise

• Scenarios are stories about the way the world
  might turn out tomorrow.
• Scenarios are not...
Scenario Planning Process
1.   What is the Focal Issue or Decision?
2.   What are the Key Factors (Local)?
3.   What are t...
The Practice of
 Information Architecture
Over the Next 5 to 10 Years
Tell A Story                                                    Paint A Picture
How Did We Get Here?         Web-Centric I...
Links

Peter Morville       morville@semanticstudios.com

Presentation         http://aifia.org/pg/tomorrow.ppt

Semantic ...
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web
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Transcript of "Strategy, Architecture and Tomorrow's Web"

  1. 1. Strategy, Architecture & Tomorrow’s Web Peter Morville President, Semantic Studios March 21, 2003
  2. 2. Information Architecture We define information architecture as: • The structural design of shared information environments. • The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability. • An emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. Are these definitions definitive? Absolutely not. Our craft is new and still taking shape. We’re clear on the center but fuzzy at the boundaries. This inherent ambiguity challenges us to think deeply and seek diverse perspectives.
  3. 3. Business Strategy Defining how an organization will use its scarce resources to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. “Strategy is the creation of a unique and valuable position, involving a different set of activities.” “The essence of strategy is in the activities – choosing to perform activities differently or to perform different activities than rivals.”
  4. 4. “The prime responsibility of mutual funds must always be to their shareholders.” Strategy at Vanguard John Bogle, Senior Thesis Princeton, 1949-1951 Early in its history, Vanguard established “a mutual structure without precedent in the industry – a structure in which the funds would be operated solely in the best interests of their shareholders.” Since “strategy follows structure,” it made sense to pursue “a high level of economy and efficiency; operating at bare- bones levels of cost…for the less we spend, the higher the returns – dollar for dollar – for our shareholders/owners.” John C. Bogle, Founder of The Vanguard Group http://www.vanguard.com/bogle_site/october192000.html
  5. 5. Vanguard’s Activity System Map. Adapted from On Competition Featured in Information Architecture for the World Wide Web http://webword.com/download/chapter18.pdf
  6. 6. 10% Strategic Planning Plans Executed Realized Strategy 90% 90% Unrealized Emergent Strategy Strategy Adapted from The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning by Henry Mintzberg (1993)
  7. 7. Strategy Defined as 5 P’s Plan. A direction, guide, course of action. Pattern. Consistency in behavior over time. Position. Locating specific products in specific markets. Perspective. Way of doing things (The HP Way). Ploy. Specific maneuver to outwit. From Strategy Safari by Mintzberg, Ahlstrand, Lampel (1998)
  8. 8. Apophenia The spontaneous perception of connections and meaningfulness in unrelated things. Futurism doesn’t mean predicting an awesome wonder; rather it means recognizing and describing a small apparent oddity that is destined to become a great commonplace.
  9. 9. Life expectancy for Americans has reached an all-time high of 77.2 years, mostly due to a decrease in deaths due to major diseases, including AIDS.
  10. 10. Business 2.0 Bionics
  11. 11. A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention. Herbert Simon, Nobel Laureate Economist
  12. 12. “Among very experienced users, the Internet now ranks higher than books, television, radio, newspapers, and magazines as an important source of information.” UCLA Internet Report, January 2003.
  13. 13. 1. Design Look 46.1% 2. Information Design/Structure 28.5% 3. Information Focus 25.1% 4. Company Motive 15.5% 5. Information Usefulness 14.8% 6. Information Accuracy 14.3% 7. Name Recognition & Reputation 14.1% 8. Advertising 13.8% 9. Information Bias 11.6% “While information structure is 10. Writing Tone 9.0% often associated with usability, 11. Identity of Site Operator 8.8% the comments here show how 12. Site Functionality 8.6% information structure has 13. Customer Service 6.4% implications for credibility. Sites 14. Past Experience with Site 4.6% that were easy to navigate were 15. Information Clarity 3.7% seen as being more credible.” 16. Performance on Test by User 3.6% 17. Readability 3.6% 18. Affiliations 3.4%
  14. 14. “Executives routinely rely on their intuitions to solve complex problems when logical methods (such as a cost-benefit analysis) simply won’t do.” “Your mind continuously processes information that you are not consciously aware of, not only when you’re asleep and dreaming but also when you’re awake. This helps explain the „aha‟ sensation you experience when you learn something you actually already knew.” “When to Trust Your Gut” by Alden M. Hayashi Harvard Business Review, February 2001
  15. 15. David Rose ambientdevices.com
  16. 16. Convergent Architecture Swisshouse A new type of consulate for knowledge exchange…a 3,200 sq.ft. wired loft located in Cambridge, Massachusetts Jeffrey Huang Harvard University
  17. 17. “The more I watch what’s happening with the evolution of web sites, the more I believe that search is essentially an experiment that has failed.” Jared Spool recent sigia discussion
  18. 18. Please indicate the importance of each factor to the practice of information architecture over the next five years. (Business) Executive-level understanding of UX. 100 (Business) Executive-level understanding of IA. 99 (Software) Content management systems. 88 (Economy) Overall health of global economy. 81 (Economy) Size of e-commerce market. 65 (Hardware) Mobile / Wireless 64 (Software) Personalization / recommendation systems. 62 (Hardware) Increased Bandwidth 48 (Software) Social software innovations. 47 (Business) Standardized Interfaces / Architectures 46 (Software) Search engine innovations. 42 (Business) Savvy Users / Customers 37 (Hardware) Large Flat-Panel Displays 12 Future of IA Survey, http://aifia.org/calendar/000053.php
  19. 19. In the next 5 years… Dis- Don't Agree Agree Know The number of people practicing IA will grow. 184 9 37 The Web will become more important to individuals and businesses. 177 15 48 More colleges will offer IA courses. 175 21 38 Organizations will increase spending on information technology. 149 28 20 The number of practicing "information architects" will grow. 136 39 33 Organizations will increase spending on information architecture. 133 32 17 IA processes and methodologies will evolve significantly. 124 56 40 More colleges will offer IA degrees. 118 55 38 Standards will emerge for measuring IA quality and ROI. 109 62 42 Software developers will have less influence on user experience design. 64 109 20 Future of IA Survey, http://aifia.org/calendar/000053.php
  20. 20. The IA community should embrace a narrow definition of IA. The IA community should embrace a Agree broad definition of IA. Disagree The IA community can affect the future of IA as a practice and profession. 0 50 100 150 200 250 Future of IA Survey, http://aifia.org/calendar/000053.php
  21. 21. Scenario Planning Exercise • Scenarios are stories about the way the world might turn out tomorrow. • Scenarios are not predictions. It is simply not possible to predict the future with certainty. • An old Arab proverb says that “he who predicts the future lies even if he tells the truth.” • Scenario planning is about making choices today with an understanding of how they might turn out.
  22. 22. Scenario Planning Process 1. What is the Focal Issue or Decision? 2. What are the Key Factors (Local)? 3. What are the Driving Forces (Macro)? 4. Rank by Importance and Uncertainty. 5. Select Scenario Logics. 6. Flesh out the Scenarios. 7. Consider Implications. 8. Identify Leading Indicators and Signposts.
  23. 23. The Practice of Information Architecture Over the Next 5 to 10 Years
  24. 24. Tell A Story Paint A Picture How Did We Get Here? Web-Centric IA What’s This Future Like? City Without ISIST Architects & Architectures IA = Luxury IA = Necessity IA as Coffee IATopia Table Book Consider Implications Cross-Media IA Name Your Scenario What Can We Do Today? Which Label Works Best?
  25. 25. Links Peter Morville morville@semanticstudios.com Presentation http://aifia.org/pg/tomorrow.ppt Semantic Studios http://semanticstudios.com/ Asilomar Institute http://aifia.org/
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